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The broom or "besom" is used for cleansing ritual areas, hence the term "making a clean sweep". In handfasting rituals, couples often jump over the broom if they want children. (If you don't want children, DON'T JUMP! The combination of the "brush" and the handle are a very powerful fertility symbol.) Many Witches have a broom-brushy side up-by their door to protect the home from unwanted outside energies.
Bells have been around for many years, they come in different shapes and sizes, as well as different tones and sounds. The most popular bell in the US is the liberty bell. Another popular bell is the Noter Dame bell found France. It is a wonder why we like these bell. It might just be the rhythmic sound and vibrations. People have been singing Songs and carols about this beautiful instruments for years, that might just be why there are associated with winter holidays. The bell also has magical associations. It has been believed for centuries to possess a magical and/or spiritual power. They are associated with the divine: their sound is symbolic of creative power, their shape a symbol of the female force and celestial vault. The bell is an uncommon tool. Yet, once you use it in a ritual, you might just feel the need to keep using it. There is no one way to use the bell, use your imagination! Here are a few ideas; you can use it to open and close the sacred circle, Invoke the Goddess, ring to ward off negative energies (as well as invite positive energies ), or use it to signal different sections of a ritual and/or sabbath. But most of all have fun, create your own rituals using the bell! (bell thoughts submitted by Rain')
One of the most common symbols of Witchcraft, the cauldron was once found sitting by the fireplace in almost all homes. The cauldron-traditionally with three legs- represents bounty and blessings. In some Celtic Traditions, it is associated with otherworldly figures such as Bran the Blessed and the Goddess Cerridwen. Based on these myths, the cauldron has also come to represent the concept of reincarnation and the cycles of birth, death and rebirth. Many Witches believe in some form of reincarnation or the transmigration of souls.
Cauldrons can be used to represent water and used for scrying. It is sometimes used in association with elemental fire as well and small "bonfires" can be lit in them to burn spells or incense. Jumping over the cauldron has replaced the "bonfire" leap in modern times and urban spaces. It can, depending on intent and use, be placed in the Female West or Male South. Cauldrons range in size from the small altar models to the antique "floor" type. Many Witches have cauldrons in various sizes for different workings and purposes. Cats like to store their toys in them, too!
The chalice or cup is used on the altar to represent the Female principle of Water. Another chalice or cauldron is sometimes placed in the West as well.
The chalice along with the athame, sword or wand are the modern tools which are used in the enactment of the "Great Rite"-the union of the male and female principle from which Life will spring.
Chalices may be of any material. Many use silver or pewter (be careful with untreated metals when serving wine), but ceramic ones are now quite popular and readily obtainable. Some Witches have many different kinds for different types of rituals. Many a practitioner will avoid real "lead" crystal because of the Saturn energy influence.
The chalice is sometimes passed around the circle so each participant may take a sip from the cup. This is a bonding experience and often the words "May you never thirst!" are passed throughout the circle with the chalice.
Libations of wine or water are often then poured outside to honor the Old Ones and "sabbath" cakes are also offered back to the Source in a similar manner.
THE CLOTHING MAGICKAL:
Clothing is "optional" for many Witches. If you are dedicated into a Tradition, you may practice "skyclad".
The clothing-robes, capes, jewelry and other items-used in ritual work is usually dedicated to only these uses. Having "special" garments lends an "otherworldly" feel and sets ritual work apart from mundane life.
Many traditions or paths have a "standard" wardrobe which reflects the ethnic background of that path. Scots may wear kilts and Druids may wear hooded robes. Many embroider magickal symbols on their ritual clothing or "hide" small magickal items in the seams and hems to act as talismans for protection.
For more information on robes, see below.
The PATON OR ALTAR PENTACLE:
The Altar pentacle is usually a disk or plate of metal or wood inscribed with the five pointed star in a circle. (See our pentacle section for more details on the pentagram and its meanings.) This is set upon the altar and used to consecrate various other tools and as a focal point of concentration for magickal workings. It is associated with the Female North and the element of Earth. Some Witches use a paton when calling in the elements as well.
Patons (sometimes "peytons" or "patens") can now be found made of ceramic and glass. You can even make your own from clay or simply draw and color one on stiff paper. In some references, it is stated that patons in the 'old days" were only made from disposable materials so that evidence of your beliefs could be quickly burned should the authorities come knocking at your door!
The staff is a very important tool in some traditions. It is used to mark quarter points or as a "stang" to hold banners representing elements or other unique symbolic flags.
The staff may be used in much the same manner as the wand. It is usually matched "to your measure"- which means it reaches to your shoulder- making it easy and comfortable for you to handle without either knocking yourself upside the head or having it trip you up from behind. Any such incident will amuse your friends, but do little to enhance your image in the magickal community!
With the coming of the modern "Celtic Revival", the sword has become a very popular-and quite showy- magickal tool. It can used in place of, or in addition to, the athame. Most groups who hold rituals indoors usually limit the use of the sword to just one for the Priest/Priestess. Ten five- foot swords in a small room could get a bit messy, I would think! However at festivals and outdoor rituals, Witches often bring their own swords to mark the boundaries or quarter points of the circle. There is now a growing interest in actual "sword play" and entire festivals have sprung up which feature events based on swordsman- or woman!-ship.
THE THURIBLE OR INCENSE BURNER:
A container used to contain a hot coal for burning incense. This is best made from a fire resistant or fire proof material. The most common are the "mini-cauldrons' of iron and the various brass types which come in wonderful shapes and sizes. Some even hang on a chain. The incense itself represents the element of Air while the fire (charcoal) represents Fire. The combination of these two elements are used to purify ritual areas, other tools or the circle itself.
The wand represents the element of Air and the Male East. You can purchase a ready made one or collect one from your friendly neighborhood tree. (Ask first, if you want to harvest one from a living tree- and leave a small token of thanks.) Even dowels, such as those sold in hardware stores, can be painted and decorated quite beautifully.
The wand can be used to cast the circle or direct energy in other magickal ways, such as in spells and incantations. There are wands of glass, copper, silver and other metals, but the "classic" material is still wood. Various woods have different magickal associations and uses. It is very common for a "Wand Witch" to have many wands of various types in his/her magickal closet. Witches who do not use athames often use a wand instead.
Many covens - and certainly the vast majority of Solitary Witches - work naked... referred to, in the Craft, as skyclad - "clad only by the sky". This certainly seems a preferred and recommended practice. But there are times when, perhaps due to temperature, you may wish to be robed. It may even be that you just prefer to be robed most of the time anyway...that's all right.
Robes can be as simple or as elaborate as you like. Here are instructions for making a simple one.
Any type of material will do, the choice is up to you - polyester (if you must!), silk, cotton, wool. Consider, though, its weight: will it he too heavy and hot, or too light and cool? Also consider how easily it creases and wrinkles. Will it stretch too much? Is it washable? Will it itch? Since Witches wear nothing under their robes, this last is a serious consideration!
Measure yourself from wrist to wrist, with arms outstretched, then from the nape of the neck to the ground. You will need to buy material of A width by twice B length. Take the material and fold it in half. If th material has an "outside" and an "inside", fold it inside out. Now cut out a piece from each side. You will be left with a more-or-less T shape.
The exact dimensions of the cuts will depend on you. Leave enough for a full sleeve at "X" but don't take it up to make it too tight under the arm at "Y". At "Z" cut an opening for your head. Sew where indicated : along the bottom of the sleeves and down the sides. All that remains is to turn it right side out again, try it on and hem it at a convenient length (e.g. an inch or so above the ground). It you wish to add a cowl -hood there will he plenty of material available from that initially cut off. Either a pointed or a rounded hood is appropriate.
Think carefully about the color of your robe. It used to be that most Witches wore white robes, but more colors are appearing at festivals. In Saxon Witchcraft, the priestess wears either white, purple or deep green and the others wear greens, browns, yellows and blues. Though this is not a hard and fast rule. Combination s of colors can be attractive, of course, as can a basic trimmed with silver or gold, or with a second color. Some few Witches do wear black but, while acknowledging it to be a very "powerful" color (in fact noncolor). Buckland personally thinks that it plays up to the misconception of equating Witchcraft with Satanisn and, if only for that reason, should be avoided. We are a reliqion of Nature, so let's use the colors of Nature.. the bright and the somber earth colors (there is actually very little black to be found in nature). But again, in the last instance it is your choice.
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