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Herbal Crafts In Wicca


Culpeper

CHAPTER I
Of Leaves of Herbs, or Trees

1. Of leaves, choose only such as are green, and full of juice; pick them carefully, and cast away such as are any way declining, for they will putrify the rest. So shall one handful be worth ten of those you buy at the physic herb shops.
2. Note what places they most delight to grow in, and gather them there; for Betony that grows in the shade, is far better than that which grows in the Sun, because it delights in the shade; so also such herbs as delight to grow near the water, shall be gathered near it, though happily you may find some of them upon dry ground. The Treatise will inform you where every herb delights to grow.
3. The leaves of such herbs as run up to seed, are not so good when they are in flower as before (some few excepted, the leaves of which are seldom or never used). In such cases, if through ignorance they were not known, or through negligence forgotten, you had better take the top and the flowers, then the leaf.
4. Dry them well in the Sun, and not in the shade, as the saying of physicians is; for if the sun draw away the virtues of the herb, it must need do the like by hay, by the same rule, which the experience of every country farmer will explode for a notable piece of nonsense.
5. Such as are artists in astrology, (and indeed none else are fit to make physicians) such I advise: Let the planet that governs the herb be angular, and the stronger the better; if they can, in herbs of Saturn, let Saturn be in the ascendant; in the herbs of Mars, let Mars be in the mid heaven, for in those houses they delight; let the Moon apply to them by good aspect, and let her not be in the houses of her enemies; if you cannot well stay till she apply to them, let her apply to a planet of the same triplicity; if you cannot wait that time neither, let her be with a fixed star of their nature.
6. Having well dried them, put them up in brown paper, sewing the paper up like a sack, and press them not too hard together, and keep them in a dry place near the fire.
7. As for the duration of dried herbs, a just time cannot be given, let authors prate their pleasure; for,
1st. Such as grow upon dry grounds will keep better than such as grow on moist.
2dly. Such herbs as are full of juice, will not keep so long as such as are drier.
3dly. Such herbs as are well dried, will keep longer than such as are slack dried. Yet you may know when they are corrupted, by their loss of color, or smell, or both; and if they be corrupted, reason will tell you that they must needs corrupt the bodies of those people that take them.
4. Gather all leaves in the hour of that planet that governs them.

CHAPTER II
Of Flowers

1. The flower, which is the beauty of the plant, and of none of the least use in physick, grows yearly, and is to be gathered when it is in its prime.
2. As for the time of gathering them, let the planetary hour, and the planet they come of, be observed, as we shewed you in the foregoing chapter: as for the time of the day, let it be when the sun shine upon them, that so they may be dry; for, if you gather either flowers or herbs when they are wet or dewy, they will not keep.
3. Dry them well in the sun, and keep them in papers near the fire, as I shewed you in the foregoing chapter.
4. So long as they retain the color and smell, they are good; either of them being gone, so is the virtue also.

CHAPTER III
Of Seeds

1. The seed is that part of the plant which is endowed with a vital faculty to bring forth its like, and it contains potentially the whole plant in it.
2. As for place, let them be gathered from the place where they delight to grow.
3. Let them be full ripe when they are gathered; and forget not the celestial harmony before mentioned, for I have found by experience that their virtues are twice as great at such times as others: ``There is an appointed time for every thing under the sun.''
4. When you have gathered them, dry them a little, and but a little in the sun, before you lay them up.
5. You need not be so careful of keeping them so near the fire, as the other beforementioned, because they are fuller of spirit, and therefore not so subject to corrupt.
6. As for the time of their duration, it is palpable they will keep a good many years; yet, they are best the first year, and this I make appear by a good argument. They will grow sooner the first year they be set, therefore then they are in their prime; and it is an easy matter to renew them yearly.

CHAPTER IV
Of Roots

1. Of roots, chuse such as are neither rotten nor worm-eaten, but proper in their taste, color, and smell; such as exceed neither in softness nor hardness.
2. Give me leave to be a little critical against the vulgar received opinion, which is, That the sap falls down into the roots in the Autumn, and rises again in the Spring, as men go to bed at night, and rise in the morning; and this idle talk of untruth is so grounded in the heads, not only of the vulgar, but also of the learned, that a man cannot drive it out by reason. I pray let such sapmongers answer me this argument: If the sap falls into the roots in the fall of the leaf, and lies there all the Winter, then must the root grow only in the Winter. But the root grows not at all in the Winter, as experience teaches, but only in the Summer. Therefore, if you set an apple-kernel in the Spring, you shall find the root to grow to a pretty bigness in the Summer, and be not a whit bigger next Spring. What doth the sap do in the root all that while? Pick straws? 'Tis as rotten as a rotten post.The truth is, when the sun declines from the tropic of Cancer, the sap begins to congeal both in root and branch; when he touches the tropic of Capricorn, and ascends to us-ward, it begins to wax thin again, and by degrees, as it congealed. But to proceed.
3. The drier time you gather the roots in, the better they are; for they have the less excrementitious moisture in them.
4. Such roots as are soft, your best way is to dry in the sun, or else hang them in the chimney corner upon a string; as for such as are hard, you may dry them any where.
5. Such roots as are great, will keep longer than such as are small; yet most of them will keep a year.
6. Such roots as are soft, it is your best way to keep them always near the fire, and to take this general rule for it: If in Winter-time you find any of your roots, herbs or flowers begin to be moist, as many times you shall (for it is your best way to look to them once a month) dry them by a very gentle fire; or, if you can with convenience keep them near the fire, you may save yourself the labour.
7. It is in vain to dry roots that may commonly be had, as Parsley, Fennel, Plantain, &c. but gather them only for present need.

CHAPTER V
Of Barks

1. Barks, which physicians use in medicine, are of these sorts: Of fruits, of roots, of boughs.
2. The barks of fruits are to be taken when the fruit is full ripe, as Oranges, Lemons, &c. but because I have nothing to do with exotics here, I pass them without any more words.
3. The barks of trees are best gathered in the Spring, if of oaks, or such great trees; because then they come easier off, and so you may dry them if you please; but indeed the best way is to gather all barks only for present use.
4. As for the barks of roots, 'tis thus to be gotten. Take the roots of such herbs as have a pith in them, as parsley, fennel, &c. slit them in the middle, and when you have taken out the pith (which you may easily do) that which remains is called (tho' improperly) the bark, and indeed is only to be used.

CHAPTER VI
Of Juices

1. Juices are to be pressed out of herbs when they are young and tender, out of some stalks and tender tops of herbs and plants, and also out of some flowers.
2. Having gathered the herb, would you preserve the juice of it, when it is very dry (for otherwise the juice will not be worth a button) bruise it very well in a stone mortar with a wooden pestle, then having put it into a canvas bag, the herb I mean, not the mortar, for that will give but little juice, press it hard in a press, then take the juice and clarify it.
3. The manner of clarifying it is this: Put it into a pipkin or skillet, or some such thing, and set it over the fire; and when the scum rises, take it off; let it stand over the fire till no more scum arise; when you have your juice clarified, cast away the scum as a thing of no use.
4. When you have thus clarified it, you have two ways to preserve it all the year.
(1) When it is cold, put it into a glass, and put so much oil on it as will cover it to the thickness of two fingers; the oil will swim at the top, and so keep the air from coming to putrify it. When you intend to use it, pour it into a porringer, and if any oil come out with it, you may easily scum it off with a spoon, and put the juice you use not into the glass again, it will quickly sink under the oil. This is the first way.
(2) The second way is a little more difficult, and the juice of fruits is usually preserved this way. When you have clarified it, boil it over the fire, till (being cold) it be of the thickness of honey. This is most commonly used for diseases of the mouth, and is called Roba and Saba. And thus much for the first section, the second follows.

SECTION II
The way of making and keeping all necessary Compounds
CHAPTER I
Of distilled Waters

Hitherto we have spoken of medicines which consist in their own nature, which authors vulgarly call Simples, though sometimes improperly; for in truth, nothing is simple but pure elements; all things else are compounded of them. We come now to treat of the artificial medicines, in the form of which (because we must begin somewhere) we shall place distilled waters; in which consider:
1. Waters are distilled of herbs, flowers, fruits, and roots.
2. We treat not of strong waters, but of cold, as being to act Galen's part, and not Paracelsus's.
3. The herbs ought to be distilled when they are in the greatest vigour, and so ought the flowers also.
4. The vulgar way of distillations which people use, because they know no better, is in a pewter still; and although distilled waters are the weakest of artificial medicines, and good for little but mixtures of other medicines, yet they are weaker by many degrees, than they would be were they distilled in sand. If I thought it not impossible, to teach you the way of distilling in sand, I would attempt it.
5. When you have distilled your water, put it into a glass, covered over with a paper pricked full of holes, so that the excrementitious and fiery vapours may exhale, which cause that settling in distilled waters called the Mother, which corrupt them, then cover it close, and keep it for your use.
6. Stopping distilled waters with a cork, makes them musty, and so does paper, if it but touch the water: it is best to stop them with a bladder, being first put in water, and bound over the top of the glass.
Such cold waters as are distilled in a pewter still (if well kept) will endure a year; such as are distilled in sand, as they are twice as strong, so they endure twice as long.

CHAPTER II
Of Syrups

1. A syrup is a medicine of a liquid form, composed of infusion, decoction and juice. And, I. For the more grateful taste. 2. For the better keeping of it: with a certain quantity of honey or sugar, hereafter mentioned, boiled to the thickness of new honey.
2. You see at the first view, that this aphorism divides itself into three branches, which deserve severally to be treated of, viz.
1. Syrups made by infusion.
2. Syrups made by decoction.
3. Syrups made by juice.
Of each of these, (for your instruction-sake, kind countrymen and women) I speak a word or two apart.
1st, Syrups made by infusion, are usually made of flowers, and of such flowers as soon lose their color and strength by boiling, as roses, violets, peach flowers, &c. They are thus made: Having picked your flowers clean, to every pound of them add three pounds or three pints, which you will (for it is all one) of spring water, made boiling hot; first put your flowers into a pewter-pot, with a cover, and pour the water on them; then shutting the pot, let it stand by the fire, to keep hot twelve hours, and strain it out: (in such syrups as purge) as damask roses, peach flowers, &c. the usual, and indeed the best way, is to repeat this infusion adding fresh flowers to the same liquor divers times, that so it may be the stronger) having strained it out, put the infusion into a pewter bason, or an earthen one well glazed, and to every pint of it add two pounds of sugar, which being only melted over the fire, without boiling, and scummed, will produce you the syrup you desire.
2dly, Syrups made by decoction are usually made of compounds, yet may any simple herb be thus converted into syrup: Take the herb, root, or flowers you would make into a syrup, and bruise it a little; then boil it in a convenient quantity of spring water; the more water you boil it in, the weaker it will be; a handful of the herb or root is a convenient quantity for a pint of water, boil it till half the water be consumed, then let it stand till it be almost cold, and strain it through a woollen cloth, letting it run out at leisure: without pressing. To every pint of this decoction add one pound of sugar, and boil it over the fire till it come to a syrup, which you may know, if you now and then cool a little of it with a spoon. Scum it all the while it boils, and when it is sufficiently boiled, whilst it is hot, strain it again through a woollen cloth, but press it not. Thus you have the syrup perfected.
3dly, Syrups made of juice, are usually made of such herbs as are full of juice, and indeed they are better made into a syrup this way than any other; the operation is thus: Having beaten the herb in a stone mortar, with a wooden pestle, press out the juice, and clarify it, as you are taught before in the juices; then let the juice boil away till about a quarter of it be consumed; to a pint of this add a pound of sugar, and when it is boiled, strain it through a woollen cloth, as we taught you before, and keep it for your use.
3. If you make a syrup of roots that are any thing hard, as parsley, fennel, and grass roots, &c. when you have bruised them, lay them in steep some time in that water which you intend to boil them in hot, so will the virtue the better come out.
4. Keep your syrups either in glasses or stone pots, and stop them not with cork nor bladder, unless you would have the glass break, and the syrup lost, only bind paper about the mouth.
5. All syrups, if well made, continue a year with some advantage; yet such as are made by infusion, keep shortest.

CHAPTER III
Of Juleps

1. Juleps were first invented, as I suppose, in Arabia; and my reason is, because the word Julep is an Arabic word.
2. It signifies only a pleasant potion, as is vulgarly used by such as are sick, and want help, or such as are in health, and want no money to quench thirst.
3. Now-a-day it is commonly used--
1. To prepare the body for purgation.
2. To open obstructions and the pores.
3. To digest tough humours.
4. To qualify hot distempers, &c.

4. Simple Juleps, (for I have nothing to say to compounds here) are thus made: Take a pint of such distilled water, as conduces to the cure of your distemper, which this treatise will plentifully furnish you with, to which add two ounces of syrup, conducing to the same effect; (I shall give you rules for it in the next chapter) mix them together, and drink a draught of it at your pleasure. If you love tart things, add ten drops of oil of vitriol to your pint, and shake it together, and it will have a fine grateful taste.
5. All juleps are made for present use; and therefore it is vain to speak of their duration.

CHAPTER IV
Of Decoctions

1. All the difference between decoctions, and syrups made by decoction, is this: Syrups are made to keep, decoctions only for present use; for you can hardly keep a decoction a week at any time; if the weather be hot, not half so long.
2. Decoctions are made of leaves, roots, flowers, seeds, fruits or barks, conducing to the cure of the disease you make them for; are made in the same manner as we shewed you in syrups.
3. Decoctions made with wine last longer than such as are made with water; and if you take your decoction to cleanse the passages of the urine, or open obstructions, your best way is to make it with white wine instead of water, because this is penetrating.
4. Decoctions are of most use in such diseases as lie in the passages of the body, as the stomach, bowels, kidneys, passages of urine and bladder, because decoctions pass quicker to those places than any other form of medicines.
5. If you will sweeten your decoction with sugar, or any syrup fit for the occasion you take it for, which is better, you may, and no harm.
6. If in a decoction, you boil both roots, herbs, flowers, and seed together, let the roots boil a good while first, because they retain their virtue longest; then the next in order by the same rule, viz. 1. Barks. 2. The herbs. 3. The seeds. 4. The flowers. 5. The spices, if you put any in, because their virtues come soonest out.
7. Such things as by boiling cause sliminess to a decoction, as figs, quince-seed, linseed, &c. your best way is, after you have bruised them, to tie them up in a linen rag, as you tie up calf's brains, and so boil them.
8. Keep all decoctions in a glass close stopped, and in the cooler place you keep them, the longer they will last ere they be sour.
Lastly, the usual dose to be given at one time, is usually two, three, four, or five ounces, according to the age and strength of the patient, the season of the year, the strength of the medicine, and the quality of the disease.

CHAPTER V
Of Oils

1. Oil Olive, which is commonly known by the name of Sallad Oil, I suppose because it is usually eaten with sallads by them that love it, if it be pressed out of ripe olives, according to Galen, is temperate, and exceeds in no one quality.
2. Of oils, some are simple, and some are compound.
3. Simple oils, are such as are made of fruits or seeds by expression, as oil of sweet and bitter almonds, linseed and rape-seed oil, &c. of which see in my Dispensatory.
4. Compound oils, are made of oil of olives, and other simples, imagine herbs, flowers, roots, &c.
5. The way of making them is this: Having bruised the herbs of flowers you would make your oil of, put them into an earthen pot, and to two or three handfuls of them pour a pint of oil, cover the pot with a paper, set it in the sun about a fortnight or so, according as the sun is in hotness; then having warmed it very well by the fire, press out the herb, &c. very hard in a press, and add as many more herbs to the same oil; bruise the herbs (I mean not the oil) in like manner, set them in the sun as before; the oftener you repeat this, the stronger your oil will be. At last when you conceive it strong enough, boil both herbs and oil together, till the juice be consumed, which you may know by its bubbling, and the herbs will be crisp; then strain it while it is hot, and keep it in a stone or glass vessel for your use.
6. As for chymical oils, I have nothing to say here.
7. The general use of these oils, is for pains in the limbs, roughness of the skin, the itch, &c. as also for ointments and plaisters.
8. If you have occasion to use it for wounds, or ulcers, in two ounces of oil, dissolve half an ounce of turpentine, the heat of the fire will quickly do it; for oil itself is offensive to wounds, and the turpentine qualifies it.

CHAPTER VI
Of Electuaries

Physicians make more a quoil than needs by half, about electuaries. I shall prescribe but one general way of making them up; as for ingredients, you may vary them as you please, and as you find occasion, by the last chapter.
1. That you may make electuaries when you need them, it is requisite that you keep always herbs, roots, flowers, seeds, &c. ready dried in your house, that so you may be in a readiness to beat them into powder when you need them.
2. It is better to keep them whole than beaten; for being beaten, they are more subject to lose their strength; because the air soon penetrates them.
3. If they be not dry enough to beat into powder when you need them, dry them by a gentle fire till they are so.
4. Having beaten them, sift them through a fine tiffany searce, that no great pieces may be found in your electuary.
5. To one ounce of your powder add three ounces of clarified honey; this quantity I hold to be sufficient. If you would make more or less electuary, vary your proportion accordingly.
6. Mix them well together in a mortar, and take this for a truth, you cannot mix them too much.
7. The way to clarify honey, is to set it over the fire in a convenient vessel, till the scum rise, and when the scum is taken off, it is clarified.
8. The usual dose of cordial electuaries, is from half a dram to two drams; of purging electuaries, from half an ounce to an ounce.
9. The manner of keeping them is in a pot.
10. The time of taking them, is either in a morning fasting, and fasting an hour after them; or at night going to bed, three or four hours after supper.

CHAPTER VII
Of Conserves

1. The way of making conserves is twofold, one of herbs and flowers, and the other of fruits.
2. Conserves of herbs and flowers, are thus made: if you make your conserves of herbs, as of scurvy-grass, wormwood, rue, and the like, take only the leaves and tender tops (for you may beat your heart out before you can beat the stalks small) and having beaten them, weigh them, and to every pound of them add three pounds of sugar, you cannot beat them too much.
3. Conserves of fruits, as of barberries, sloes and the like, is thus made: First, Scald the fruit, then rub the pulp through a thick hair sieve made for the purpose, called a pulping sieve; you may do it for a need with the back of a spoon: then take this pulp thus drawn, and add to it its weight of sugar, and no more; put it into a pewter vessel, and over a charcoal fire; stir it up and down till the sugar be melted, and your conserve is made.
4. Thus you have the way of making conserves; the way of keeping them is in earthen pots.
5. The dose is usually the quantity of a nutmeg at a time morning and evening, or (unless they are purging) when you please.
6. Of conserves, some keep many years, as conserves of roses: other but a year, as conserves of Borage, Bugloss, Cowslips and the like.
7. Have a care of the working of some conserves presently after they are made; look to them once a day, and stir them about, conserves of Borage, Bugloss, Wormwood, have got an excellent faculty at that sport.
8. You may know when your conserves are almost spoiled by this; you shall find a hard crust at top with little holes in it, as though worms had been eating there.

CHAPTER VIII
Of Preserves

Of Preserves are sundry sorts, and the operation of all being somewhat different, we will handle them all apart. These are preserved with sugar :
1. Flowers
2. Fruits
3. Roots
4. Barks

1. Flowers are very seldom preserved; I never saw any that I remember, save only cowslip flowers, and that was a great fashion in Sussex when I was a boy. It is thus done: Take a flat glass, we call them jat glasses; strew on a laying of fine sugar, on that a laying of flowers, and on that another laying of sugar, on that another laying of flowers, so do till your glass be full; then tie it over with a paper, and in a little time, you shall have very excellent and pleasant preserves.
There is another way of preserving flowers; namely, with vinegar and salt, as they pickle capers and broom-buds; but as I have little skill in it myself, I cannot teach you.
2. Fruits, as quinces, and the like, are preserved two ways:
(1) Boil them well in water, and then pulp them through a sieve, as we shewed you before; then with the like quantity of sugar, boil the water they were boiled in into a syrup, viz. a pound of sugar to a pint of liquor; to every pound of this syrup, add four ounces of the pulp; then boil it with a very gentle fire to their right consistence, which you may easily know if you drop a drop of it upon a trencher; if it be enough, it will not stick to your fingers when it is cold.
(2) Another way to preserve fruits is this: First, pare off the rind; then cut them in halves, and take out the core: then boil them in water till they are soft; if you know when beef is boiled enough, you may easily know when they are. Then boil the water with its like weight of sugar into a syrup; put the syrup into a pot, and put the boiled fruit as whole as you left it when you cut it into it, and let it remain until you have occasion to use it.
3. Roots are thus preserved. First, scrape them very clean, and cleanse them from the pith, if they have any, for some roots have not, as Eringo and the like. Boil them in water till they be soft, as we shewed you before in the fruits; then boil the water you boiled the root in into a syrup, as we shewed you before; then keep the root whole in the syrup till you use them.
4. As for barks, we have but few come to our hands to be done, and of those the few that I can remember, are, oranges, lemons, citrons, and the outer bark of walnuts, which grow without side the shell, for the shells themselves would make but scurvy preserves; these be they I can remember, if there be any more put them into the number.
The way of preserving these, is not all one in authors, for some are bitter, some are hot; such as are bitter, say authors, must be soaked in warm water, oftentimes changing till their bitter taste be fled. But I like not this way and my reason is this: because I doubt when their bitterness is gone, so is their virtue also. I shall then prescribe one common way, namely, the same with the former, viz.: First, boil them whole till they be soft, then make a syrup with sugar and the liquor you boil them in, and keep the barks in the syrup.
5. They are kept in glasses or in glazed pots.
6. The preserved flowers will keep a year, if you can forbear eating of them; the roots and barks much longer.
7. This art was plainly and first invented for delicacy, yet came afterwards to be of excellent use in physic; For,
(1) Hereby medicines are made pleasant for sick and squeamish stomachs, which else would loathe them.
(2) Hereby they are preserved from decaying a long time.

CHAPTER IX
Of Lohocks

1. That which the Arabians call Lohocks, and the Greeks Eclegma, the Latins call Linctus, and in plain English signifies nothing else but a thing to be licked up.
2. They are in body thicker than a syrup, and not so thick as an electuary.
3. The manner of taking them is, often to take a little with a liquorice stick, and let it go down at leisure.
4. They are easily thus made; Make a decoction of pectoral herbs, and the treatise will furnish you with enough, and when you have strained it, with twice its weight of honey or sugar, boil it to a lohock; if you are molested with much phlegm, honey is better than sugar; and if you add a little vinegar to it, you will do well; if not, I hold sugar to be better than honey.
5. It is kept in pots, and may be kept a year and longer.
6. It is excellent for roughness of the wind-pipe, inflammations and ulcers of the lungs, difficulty of breathing, asthmas, coughs, and distillation of humours

CHAPTER X
Of Ointments

1. Various are the ways of making ointments, which authors have left to posterity, which I shall omit, and quote one which is easiest to be made, and therefore most beneficial to people that are ignorant in physic, for whose sake I write this. It is thus done.
Bruise those herbs, flowers, or roots, you will make an ointment of, and to two handfuls of your bruised herbs add a pound of hog's grease dried, or cleansed from the skins, beat them very well together in a stone mortar with a wooden pestle, then put it into a stone pot, (the herb and grease I mean, not the mortar,) cover it with a paper and set it either in the sun, or some other warm place; three, four, or five days, that it may melt; then take it out and boil it a little; then whilst it is hot, strain it out, pressing it out very hard in a press: to this grease add as many more herbs bruised as before;let them stand in like manner as long, then boil them as you did the former. If you think your ointment is not strong enough, you may do it the third and fourth time; yet this I will tell you, the fuller of juice the herbs are, the sooner will your ointment be strong; the last time you boil it, boil it so long till your herbs be crisp, and the juice consumed, then strain it pressing it hard in a press, and to every pound of ointment add two ounces of turpentine, and as much wax, because grease is offensive to wounds, as well as oil.
2. Ointments are vulgarly known to be kept in pots, and will last above a year, some above two years.

CHAPTER XI
Of Plaisters

1. The Greeks made their plaisters of divers simples, and put metals into the most of them, if not all; for having reduced their metals into powder, they mixed them with that fatty substance whereof the rest of the plaister consisted, whilst it was thus hot, continually stirring it up and down, lest it should sink to the bottom; so they continually stirred it till it was stiff; then they made it up in rolls, which when they needed for use, they could melt by the fire again.
2. The Arabians made up theirs with oil and fat, which needed not so long boiling.
3. The Greeks emplaisters consisted of these ingredients, metals, stones, divers sorts of earth, feces, juices, liquors, seeds, roots, herbs, excrements of creatures, wax, rosin, gums.

CHAPTER XII
Of Poultices

1. Poultices are those kind of things which the Latins call Cataplasmata, and our learned fellows, that if they can read English, that's all, call them Cataplasms, because 'tis a crabbed word few understand; it is indeed a very fine kind of medicine to ripen sores.
2. They are made of herbs and roots, fitted for the disease, and members afflicted, being chopped small, and boiled in water almost to a jelly; then by adding a little barleymeal, or meal of lupins, and a little oil, or rough sweet suet, which I hold to be better, spread upon a cloth and apply to the grieved places.
3. Their use is to ease pain, to break sores, to cool inflammations, to dissolve hardness, to ease the spleen, to concoct humours, and dissipate swellings.
4. I beseech you take this caution along with you: Use no poultices (if you can help it) that are of an healing nature, before you have first cleansed the body, because they are subject to draw the humours to them from every part of the body.

CHAPTER XIII
Of Troches

1. The Latins call them Placentula, or little cakes, and the Greeks Prochikois, Kukliscoi, and Artiscoi; they are usually little round flat cakes, or you may make them square if you will.
2. Their first invention was, that powders being so kept might resist the intermission of air, and so endure pure the longer.
3. Besides, they are easier carried in the pockets of such as travel; as many a man (for example) is forced to travel whose stomach is too cold, or at least not so hot as it should be, which is most proper, for the stomach is never cold till a man be dead; in such a case, it is better to carry troches of wormwood, or galangal, in a paper in his pocket, than to lay a gallipot along with him.
4. They are made thus: At night when you go to bed, take two drams of fine gum tragacanth; put it into a gallipot, and put half a quarter of a pint of any distilled water fitting for the purpose you would make your troches for to cover it, and the next morning you shall find it in such a jelly as the physicians call mucilage. With this you may (with a little pains taken) make a powder into a paste, and that paste into cakes called troches.
5. Having made them, dry them in the shade, and keep them in a pot for your use.

CHAPTER XIV
Of Pills

1. They are called Pilulæ, because they resemble little balls; the Greeks call them Catapotia.
2. It is the opinion of modern physicians, that this way of making medicines, was invented only to deceive the palate, that so by swallowing them down whole, the bitterness of the medicine might not be perceived, or at least it might not be unsufferable: and indeed most of their pills, though not all, are very bitter.
3. I am of a clean contrary opinion to this. I rather think they were done up in this hard form, that so they might be the longer in digesting; and my opinion is grounded upon reason too, not upon fancy, or hearsay. The first invention of pills was to purge the head, now, as I told you before, such infirmities as lie near the passages were best removed by decoctions, because they pass to the grieved part soonest; so here, if the infirmity lies in the head, or any other remote part, the best way is to use pills, because they are longer in digestion, and therefore the better able to call the offending humour to them.
4. If I should tell you here a long tale of medicine working by sympathy and antipathy, you would not understand a word of it. They that are set to make physicians may find it in the treatise. All modern physicians know not what belongs to a sympathetical cure, no more than a cuckow what belongs to flats and sharps in music, but follow the vulgar road, and call it a hidden quality, because 'tis hidden from the eyes of dunces, and indeed none but astrologers can give a reason for it; and physic without reason is like a pudding without fat.
5. The way to make pills is very easy, for with the help of a pestle and mortar, and a little diligence, you may make any powder into pills, either with syrup, or the jelly I told you before.

CHAPTER XV
The way of mixing Medicines according to the Cause of the
Disease, and Parts of the Body afflicted

This being indeed the key of the work, I shall be somewhat the more diligent in it. I shall deliver myself thus;
1. To the Vulgar.
2. To such as study Astrology; or such as study physic astrologically.
1st, To the Vulgar. Kind souls, I am sorry it hath been your hard mishap to have been so long trained in such Egyptian darkness which to your sorrow may be felt. The vulgar road of physic is not my practice, and I am therefore the more unfit to give you advice. I have now published a little book, (Galen's Art of Physic,) which will fully instruct you, not only in the knowledge of your own bodies, but also in fit medicines to remedy each part of it when afflicted; in the mean season take these few rules to stay your stomachs.
1. With the disease, regard the cause, and the part of the body afflicted; for example, suppose a woman be subject to miscarry, through wind, thus do;
(1) Look Abortion in the table of diseases, and you shall be directed by that, how many herbs prevent miscarriage.
(2) Look Wind in the same table, and you shall see how many of these herbs expel wind.
These are the herbs medicinal for your grief.
2. In all diseases strengthen the part of the body afflicted.
3. In mixed diseases there lies some difficulty, for sometimes two parts of the body are afflicted with contrary humours, as sometimes the liver is afflicted with choler and water, as when a man hath both the dropsy and the yellow-jaundice; and this is usually mortal.
In the former, suppose the brain be too cool and moist, and the liver be too hot and dry; thus do;
1. Keep your head outwardly warm.
2. Accustom yourself to the smell of hot herbs.
3. Take a pill that heats the head at night going to bed.
4. In the morning take a decoction that cools the liver, for that quickly passes the stomach, and is at the liver immediately.
You must not think, courteous people, that I can spend time to give you examples of all diseases. These are enough to let you see so much light as you without art are able to receive. If I should set you to look at the sun, I should dazzle your eyes, and make you blind.
2dly, To such as study Astrology, who are the only men I know that are fit to study physic, physic without astrology being like a lamp without oil: you are the men I exceedingly respect, and such documents as my brain can give you at present (being absent from my study) I shall give you.
1. Fortify the body with herbs of the nature of the Lord of the Ascendant, 'tis no matter whether he be a Fortune or Infortune in this case.
2. Let your medicine be something antipathetical to the Lord of the sixth.
3. Let your medicine be something of the nature of the sign ascending.
4. If the Lord of the Tenth be strong, make use of his medicines.
5. If this cannot well be, make use of the medicines of the Light of Time.
6. Be sure always to fortify the grieved part of the body by sympathetical remedies.
7. Regard the heart, keep that upon the wheels, because the Sun is the foundation of life, and therefore those universal remedies, Aurum Potabile, and the Philosopher's Stone, cure all diseases by fortifying the heart.

The English Physician and
Family Dispensatory
AN ASTROLOGO-PHYSICAL DISCOURSE OF THE
HUMAN VIRTUES IN THE BODY OF MAN; BOTH
PRINCIPAL AND ADMINISTERING

HUMAN virtues are either principal for procreation, and conservation: or administering, for Attraction, Digestion, Retention, or Expulsion.
Virtues conservative, are Vital, Natural, and Animal.
By the natural are bred Blood, Choler, Flegm, and Melancholy.
The animal virtue is Intellective, and Sensitive.
The Intellective is Imagination, Judgment, and Memory.
The sensitive is Common, and Particular.
The particular is Seeing, Hearing, Smelling, Tasting, and Feeling.
The scope of this discourse is, to preserve in soundness and vigour, the mind and understanding of man; to strengthen the brain, preserve the body in health, to teach a man to be an able co-artificer, or helper of nature, to withstand and expel Diseases.
I shall touch only the principal faculties both of body and mind; which being kept in a due decorum, preserve the body in health, and the mind in vigour.
I shall in this place speak of them only in the general, as they are laid down to your view in the Synopsis, in the former pages, and in the same order.
Virtue Procreative : The first in order, is the Virtue Procreative: for natural regards not only the conservation of itself, but to beget its like, and conserve in Species.
The seat of this is the Member of Generation, and is governed principally by the influence of Venus.
It is augmented and encreased by the strength of Venus, by her Herbs, Roots, Trees, Minerals, &c.
It is diminished and purged by those of Mars, and quite extinguished by those of Saturn.
Observe the hour and Medicines of Venus, to fortify; of Mars, to cleanse this virtue; of Saturn, to extinguish it.
Conservative : The conservative virtue is Vital, Natural, Animal.
Vital : The Vital spirit hath its residence in the heart, and is dispersed from it by the Arteries; and is governed by the influence of the Sun. And it is to the body, as the Sun is to the Creation; as the heart is in the Microcosm, so is the Sun in the Megacosm: for as the Sun gives life, light, and motion to the Creation, so doth the heart to the body; therefore it is called Sol Corporis, as the Sun is called Cor Cœli, because their operations are similar.
Inimical and destructive to this virtue, are Saturn and Mars.
The Herbs and Plants of Sol, wonderfully fortify it.
Natural : The natural faculty or virtue resides in the liver, and is generally governed by Jupiter, Quasi Juvans Pater; its office is to nourish the body, and is dispersed through the body by the veins.
From this are bred four particular humours, Blood, Choler, Flegm, and Melancholy.
Blood is made of meat perfectly concocted, in quality hot and moist, governed by Jupiter. It is by a third concoction transmuted into flesh, the superfluity of it into seed, and its receptacle is the veins, by which it is dispersed through the body.
Choler is made of meat more than perfectly concocted; and it is the spume or froth of blood: it clarifies all the humours, heats the body, nourishes the apprehension, as blood doth the judgment. It is in quality hot and dry; fortifies the attractive faculty, as blood doth the digestive; moves man to activity and valour: its receptacle is the gall, and it is under the influence of Mars.
Flegm is made of meat not perfectly digested; it fortifies the virtue expulsive, makes the body slippery, fit for ejection; it fortifies the brain by its consimilitude with it; yet it spoils apprehension by its antipathy to it. It qualifies choler, cools and moistens the heart, thereby sustaining it, and the whole body, from the fiery effects, which continual motion would produce. Its receptacle is the lungs, and is governed by Venus, some say by the Moon, perhaps it may be governed by them both, it is cold and moist in quality.
Melancholy is the sediment of blood, cold and dry in quality, fortifying the retentive faculty, and memory; makes men sober, solid, and staid, fit for study; stays the unbridled toys of lustful blood, stays the wandering thoughts, and reduces them home to the centre: its receptacle is in the spleen, and it is governed by Saturn.
Of all these humours blood is the chief, all the rest are superfluities of blood; yet are they necessary superfluities, for without any of them, man cannot live.
Namely; Choler is the fiery superfluities, Flegm, the Watery; Melancholy, the Earthly.
Animal : The third principal virtue remains, which is Animal; its residence is in the brain, and Mercury is the general significator of it. Ptolomy held the Moon signified the Animal virtue; and I am of opinion, both Mercury and the Moon dispose it; and my reason is, 1, Because both of them in nativities, either fortify, or impedite it. 2, Ill directions to either, or from either afflict it, as good ones help it. Indeed the Moon rules the bulk of it, as also the sensitive part of it: Mercury the rational part: and that's the reason, if in a nativity the Moon be stronger than Mercury, sense many times over-powers reason; but if Mercury be strong, and the Moon weak, reason will be master ordinarily in despite of sense.
It is divided into Intellective, and Sensitive.
1. Intellective : The Intellectual resides in the brain, within the Pia mater, is governed generally by Mercury.
It is divided into Imagination, Judgment, and Memory.
Imagination is seated in the forepart of the brain; it is hot and dry in quality, quick, active, always working; it receives vapours from the heart, and coins them into thoughts: it never sleeps, but always is working, both when the man is sleeping and waking; only when Judgment is awake it regulates the Imagination, which runs at random when Judgment is asleep, and forms any thought according to the nature of the vapour sent up to it. Mercury is out of question the disposer of it.
A man may easily perceive his Judgment asleep before himself many times, and then he shall perceive his thoughts run at random.
Judgment always sleeps when men do, Imagination never sleeps; Memory sometimes sleeps when men sleep, and sometimes it doth not: so then when memory is awake, and the man asleep, then memory remembers what apprehension coins, and that is a dream. The thoughts would have been the same, if memory had not been awake to remember it.
These thoughts are commonly (I mean in sleep, when they are purely natural,) framed according to the nature of the humour, called complexion, which is predominate in the body; and if the humour be peccant it is always so.
So that it is one of the surest rules to know a man's own complexion, by his dreams, I mean a man void of distractions, or deep studies: (this most assuredly shews Mercury to dispose of the Imagination, as also because it is mutable, applying itself to any object, as Mercury's nature is to do;) for then the imagination will follow its old bent; for if a man be bent upon a business, his apprehension will work as much when he is asleep, and find out as many truths by study, as when the man is awake; and perhaps more too, because then it is not hindered by ocular objects.
And thus much for imagination, which is governed by Mercury, and fortified by his influence; and is also strong or weak in man, according as Mercury is strong or weak in the nativity.
Judgment is seated in the midst of the brain, to shew that it ought to bear rule over all the other faculties: it is the judge of the little world, to approve of what is good, and reject what is bad; it is the seat of reason, and the guide of actions; so that all failings are committed through its infirmity, it not rightly judging between a real and an apparent good. It is hot and moist in quality, and under the influence of Jupiter.
Memory is seated in the hinder cell of the brain, it is the great register to the little world; and its office is to record things either done and past, or to be done.
It is in quality cold and dry, melancholic, and therefore generally melancholic men have best memories, and most tenacious every way. It is under the dominion of Saturn, and is fortified by his influence, but purged by the luminaries.
2. Sensitive : The second part of the animal virtue, is sensitive, and it is divided into two parts, common and particular.
Common sense is an imaginary term, and that which gives virtue to all the particular senses, and knits and unites them together within the Pia Mater. It is regulated by Mercury, (perhaps this is one reason why men are so fickle-headed) and its office is to preserve a harmony among the senses.
Particular senses are five, viz. seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and feeling.
These senses are united in one, in the brain, by the common sense, but are operatively distinguished into their several seats, and places of residence.
The sight resides in the eyes, and particularly in the christaline humour. It is in quality cold and moist, and governed by the luminaries. They who have them weak in their genesis, have always weak sights; if one of them be so, the weakness possesses but one eye.
The hearing resides in the ears; is in quality, cold and dry, melancholy, and under the dominion of Saturn.
The smelling resides in the nose, is in quality hot and dry, choleric, and that is the reason choleric creatures have so good smells, as dogs. It is under the influence of Mars.
The taste resides in the palate, which is placed at the root of the tongue on purpose to discern what food is congruous for the stomach, and what not; as the meseraik veins are placed to discern what nourishment is proper for the liver to convert into blood. In some very few men, and but a few, and in those few, but in few instances these two tasters agree not, and that is the reason some men covet meats that make them sick, viz. the taste craves them, and the meseraik veins reject them. In quality hot and moist, and is ruled by Jupiter.
The feeling is deputed to no particular organ, but is spread abroad, over the whole body; is of all qualities, hot, cold, dry, and moist, and is the index of all tangible things; for if it were only hot alone, it could not feel a quality contrary, viz. cold, and this might be spoken of other qualities. It is under the dominion of Venus, some say, Mercury. A thousand to one, but it is under Mercury.
The four administering virtues are, attractive, digestive, retentive, and expulsive.
The attractive virtue is hot and dry, hot by quality, active, or principal, and that appears because the fountain of all heat is attractive, viz. the sun. Dry by a quality passive, or an effect of its heat; its office is to remain in the body, and call for what nature wants.
It is under the influence of the Sun, say authors, and not under Mars, because he is of a corrupting nature, yet if we cast an impartial eye upon experience, we shall find, that martial men call for meat none of the least, and for drink the most of all other men, although many times they corrupt the body by it, and therefore I see no reason why Mars being of the same quality with the Sun, should not have a share in the dominion. It is in vain to object, that the influence of Mars is evil, and therefore he should have no dominion over this virtue; for then,
1. By the same rule, he should have no dominion at all in the body of man.
2. All the virtues in man are naturally evil, and corrupted by Adam's fall.
This attractive virtue ought to be fortified when the Moon is in fiery signs, viz. Aries and Sagitary, but not in Leo, for the sign is so violent, that no physic ought to be given when the Moon is there: (and why not Leo, seeing that is the most attractive sign of all; and that's the reason such as have it ascending in their genesis, are such greedy eaters.) If you cannot stay till the Moon be in one of them, let one of them ascend when you administer the medicine.
The digestive virtue is hot and moist, and is the principal of them all, the other like handmaids attend it.
The attractive virtue draws that which it should digest, and serves continually to feed and supply it.
The retentive virtue, retains the substance with it, till it be perfectly digested.
The expulsive virtue casteth out, expels what is superfluous by digestion. It is under the influence of Jupiter, and fortified by his herbs and plants, &c. In fortifying it, let your Moon be in Gemini, Aquary, or the first half of Libra, or if matters be come to that extremity, that you cannot stay till that time, let one of them ascend, but both of them together would do better, always provided that the Moon be not in the ascendent. I cannot believe the Moon afflicts the ascendent so much as they talk of, if she be well dignified, and in a sign she delights in.
The retentive virtue is in quality cold and dry; cold, because the nature of cold is to compress, witness the ice; dry, because the nature of dryness, is to keep and hold what is compressed. It is under the influence of Saturn, and that is the reason why usually Saturnine men are so covetous and tenacious. In fortifying of it, make use of the herbs and plants, &c. of Saturn, and let the Moon be in Taurus or Virgo, Capricorn is not so good, say authors, (I can give no reason for that neither;) let not Saturn nor his ill aspect molest the ascendent.
The expulsive faculty is cold and moist; cold because that compasses the superfluities; moist, because that makes the body slippery and fit for ejection, and disposes it to it. It is under the dominion of Luna, with whom you may join Yerus, because she is of the same nature.
Also in whatsoever is before written, of the nature of the planets, take notice, that fixed stars of the same nature, work the same effect.
In fortifying this, (which ought to be done in all purgations,) let the Moon be in Cancer, Scorpio, or Pisces, or let one of these signs ascend.
Although I did what I could throughout the whole book to express myself in such a language as might be understood by all, and therefore avoided terms of art as much as might be, Yet, 1. Some words of necessity fall in which need explanation. 2. It would be very tedious at the end of every receipt to repeat over and over again, the way of administration of the receipt, or ordering your bodies after it, or to instruct you in the mixture of medicines, and indeed would do nothing else but stuff the book full of tautology.
To answer to both these is my task at this time.
To the first: The words which need explaining, such as are obvious to my eye, are these that follow.
1. To distil in Balno Mariæ, is the usual way of distilling in water. It is no more than to place your glass body which holds the matter to be distilled in a convenient vessel of water, when the water is cold (for fear of breaking) put a wisp of straw, or the like under it, to keep it from the bottom, then make the water boil, that so the spirit may be distilled forth; take not the glass out till the water be cold again, for fear of breaking. It is impossible for a man to learn how to do it, unless he saw it done.
2. Manica Hippocrates. Hippocrates's sleeve, is a piece of woolen cloth, new and white, sewed together in form of a sugar-loaf. Its use is, to strain any syrup or decoction through, by pouring it into it, and suffering it to run through without pressing or crushing it.
3. Calcination, is a burning of a thing in a crucible or other such convenient vessel that will endure the fire. A crucible is such a thing as goldsmiths melt silver in, and founders metals; you may place it in the midst of the fire, with coals above, below, and on every side of it.
4. Filtration, is straining of a liquid body through a brown paper: make up the paper in form of a funnel, the which having placed in a funnel, and the funnel and the paper in it in an empty glass, pour in the liquor you would filter, and let it run through at its leisure.
5. Coagulation, is curdling or hardening: it is used in physic for reducing a liquid body to hardness by the heat of the fire.
6. Whereas you find vital, natural, and animal spirits often mentioned in the virtues or receipts, I shall explain what they be, and what their operation is in the body of man.
The actions or operations of the animal virtues, are, 1. sensitive, 2. motive.
The sensitive is, 1. external, 2. internal.
The external senses are, 1. seeing, 2. hearing, 3. tasting, 4. smelling, 5. feeling.
The internal senses are, 1. the Imagination, to apprehend a thing. 2. Judgment, to judge of it. 3. Memory, to remember it.
The seat of all these is in the brain.
The vital spirits proceed from the heart, and cause in man mirth, joy, hope, trust, humanity, mildness, courage, &c. and their opposite: viz. sadness, fear, care, sorrow, despair, envy, hatred, stubbornness, revenge, &c. by heat natural or not natural.
The natural spirit nourishes the body throughout (as the vital quickens it, and the animal gives it sense and motion) its office is to alter or concoct food into chile, chile into blood, blood into flesh, to form, engender, nourish, and increase the body.
7. Infusion, is to steep a gross body into one more liquid.
8. Decoction, is the liquor in which any thing is boiled.
As for the manner of using or ordering the body after any sweating, or purging medicines, or pills, or the like, they will be found in different parts of the work, as also in page 307.
The different forms of making up medicines, as some into syrups, others into electuaries, pills, troches, &c. was partly to please the different palates of people, that so medicines might be more delightful, or at least less burdensome. You may make the mixtures of them in what form you please, only for your better instruction at present accept of these few lines.
1. Consider, that all diseases are cured by their contraries, but all parts of the body maintained by their likes: then if heat be the cause of the disease, give the cold medicine appropriated to it; if wind, see how many medicines appropriated to that disease expel wind, and use them.
2. Have a care you use not such medicines to one part of your body which are appropriated to another, for if your brain be over heated, and you use such medicines as cool the heart or liver you may make bad work.
3. The distilled water of any herb you would take for a disease, is a fit mixture for the syrup of the same herb, or to make any electuary into a drink, if you affect such liquid medicines best; if you have not the distilled water, make use of the decoction.
4. Diseases that lie in the parts of the body remote from the stomach and bowels, it is in vain to think to carry away the cause at once, and therefore you had best do it by degrees; pills, and such like medicines which are hard in the body, are fittest for such a business, because they are longest before they digest.
5. Use no strong medicines, if weak will serve the turn, you had better take one too weak by half, than too strong in the least.
6. Consider the natural temper of the part of the body afflicted, and maintain it in that, else you extinguish nature, as the heart is hot, the brain cold, or at least the coldest part of the body.
7. Observe this general rule: That such medicines as are hot in the first degree are most habitual to our bodies, because they are just of the heat of our blood.
8. All opening medicines, and such as provoke urine or the menses, or break the stone, may most conveniently be given in white wine, because white wine of itself is of an opening nature, and cleanses the reins.
9. Let all such medicines as are taken to stop fluxes or looseness, be taken before meat, about an hour before, more or less, that so they may strengthen the digestion and retentive faculty, before the food come into the stomach, but such as are subject to vomit up their meat, let them take such medicines as stay vomiting presently after meat, at the conclusion of their meals, that so they may close up the mouth of the stomach; and that is the reason why usually men eat a bit of cheese after meat, because by its sourness and binding it closes the mouth of the stomach, thereby staying belching and vomiting.
10. In taking purges be very careful, and that you may be so, observe these rules.
(1) Consider what the humour offending is, and let the medicine be such as purges that humour, else you will weaken nature, not the disease.
(2) Take notice, if the humour you would purge out be thin, then gentle medicines will serve the turn, but if it be tough and viscous, then such medicines as are cutting and opening, the night before you would take the purge.
(3) In purging tough humours, forbear as much as may be such medicines as leave a binding quality behind them.
(4) Have a care of taking purges when your body is astringent; your best way, is first to open it by a clyster.
(5) In taking opening medicines, you may safely take them at night, eating but a little supper three or four hours before, and the next morning drinking a draught of warm posset-drink, and you need not fear to go about your business. In this manner you may take Lenitive Electuary, Diacatholicon, Pulp of Cassia, and the like gentle electuaries, as also all pills that have neither Diagrydium nor Colocynthus, in them. But all violent purges require a due ordering of the body; such ought to be taken in the morning after you are up, and not to sleep after them before they are done working, at least before night: two hours after you have taken them, drink a draught of warm posset-drink, or broth, and six hours after eat a bit of mutton, often walking about the chamber; let there be a good fire in the chamber, and stir not out of the chamber till the purge have done working, or not till next day.
Lastly, take sweating medicines when you are in bed, covered warm, and in the time of your sweating drink posset-drink as hot as you can. If you sweat for a fever, boil sorrel and red sage in your posset-drink, sweat an hour or longer if your strength will permit, then (the chamber being kept very warm) shift yourself all but your head, about which (the cap which you sweat in being still kept on) wrap a napkin very hot, to repel the vapours back.
I confess these, or many of these directions may be found in one place of the book or other, and I delight as little to write tautology as another, but considering it might make for the public good, I inserted them in this place: if, notwithstanding, any will be so mad as to do themselves a mischief, the fault is not mine.

ROOTS

Acanths, Brancœ Ursinœ. Of bearsbreech, or brankursine, it is meanly hot and dry, helps aches and numbness of the joints, and is of a binding quality, good for wounds and broken bones. Dioscorides saith, They are profitable for ruptures, or such as are bursten, or burnt with fire, a dram of the root in powder being taken in the morning fasting, in a decoction made with the same root and water.
Acori, Veri, Perigrini, vulgaris, &c. See Calamus Aromaticus. I shall not speak concerning the several sorts of it, one of which is Water-flag, or Flower-de-luce, which is hot and dry in the second degree, binds, strengthens, stops fluxes of the belly, and immoderate flowing of the menses, a dram being taken in red wine every morning.
Allium. Garlic. It is hot and dry in the fourth degree, breeds corrupt blood, yet is an enemy to all poisons, and such as are bitten by cold venomous beasts, viz. Adders, Toads, Spiders, &c. it provokes urine, and expels wind.
Alcannœ. Of privet. See the leaves.
Althœ. Of Marsh mallows, are meanly hot, of a digesting, softening nature, ease pains, help bloody fluxes, the stone, and gravel; being bruised and boiled in milk, and the milk drank, is a good remedy for gripings of the belly, and the bloody flux. If a fever accompany the disease, boil a handful of common mallow leaves with a handful of these roots.
Angelicœ. Of Angelica; is hot and dry in the third degree, strengthens the heart, and is good against pestilence and poison, half a dram taken in the morning fasting.
Anchusœ. Of Alkanet; cold and dry, binding, good for old ulcers.
Anthorœ. A foreign root, the counter-poison for Monkshood, it is an admirable remedy for the wind cholic, and resists poison.
Apii. Of smallage. See the barks.
Aristolochiœ. Of birthwort; of which are three sorts, long, round, and climing. All hot and dry in the third degree. The long, being drank in wine, brings away both birth and after-birth, and whatsoever a careless midwife hath left behind. Dioscorides, Galen. The round, being drank with wine, helps (besides the former) stuffings of the lungs, hardness of the spleen, ruptures, convulsions; both of them resist poison. I never read any use of the climing birthwort.
Artanitœ, Cyclaminis, &c. Of Sowbread, hot and dry in the third degree, a most violent purge, dangerous; outwardly applied to the place, it profits much in the bitings of venomous beasts, also being hung about women in labour, it causes speedy deliverance. See the Herb.
Arundinis, Vallanoriœ, and Saccharinœ. Of common reeds and sugar reeds. The roots of common reeds applied to the place draw out thorns, and ease sprains; the ashes of them mixed with vinegar, take scurf, or dandrif off from the head, and prevent the falling off of the hair, they are hot and dry in the second degree, according to Galen. I never read any virtue of the root of sugar cane.
Ari, &c. Of Cuckow-points, or Wake-Robin, hot and dry in the third degree, I know no great good they do inwardly taken, unless to play the rogue withal, or make sport: outwardly applied, they take off scurf, morphew, or freckles from the face, clear the skin, and ease the pains of the gout.
Asclepiadis, vincetoxici. Of Swallow-wort, hot and dry, good against poison, and gripings of the belly, as also against the bitings of mad dogs, taken inwardly.
Asari. Of Asarabacca: the roots are a safer purge than the leaves, and not so violent, they purge by vomit, stool, and urine; they are profitable for such as have agues, dropsies, stoppings of the liver, or spleen, green sickness.
Asparagi. Of Asparagus, or sperage: they are temperate in quality, opening, they provoke urine, and cleanse the reins and bladder, being boiled in white wine, and the wine drank.
Asphodeli, Hastœ Reigœ fœm. Of Kings Spear, or Female Asphodel. I know no physical use of the roots, probably there is, for I do not believe God created any thing of no use.
Asphodeli, Albuci, muris. Of male Asphodel. Hot and dry in the second degree, inwardly taken, they provoke vomit, urine, and the menses: outwardly used in ointments, they cause hair to grow, cleanse ulcers, and take away morphew and freckles from the face.
Bardanœ, &c. Of Bur, Clot-bur, or Burdock, temperately hot and dry. Helps such as spit blood and matter; bruised and mixed with salt and applied to the place, helps the bitings of mad dogs. It expels wind, eases pains of the teeth, strengthens the back, helps the running of the reins, and the whites, being taken inwardly. Dioscorides, Apuleius.
Behen.alb.rub. Of Valerian, white and red. Mesue, Serapio, and other Arabians, say they are hot and moist in the latter end of the first, or beginning of the second degree, and comfort the heart, stir up lust. The Grecians held them to be dry in the second degree, that they stop fluxes, and provoke urine.
Bellidis. Of Dasies. See the Leaves.
Betœ, nigrœ, albœ, rubrœ. Of Beets, black, white, and red; as for black Beets I have nothing to say, I doubt they are as rare as black swans. The red Beet root boiled and preserved in vinegar, makes a fine, cool, pleasing, cleansing, digesting sauce. See the leaves.
Bistortœ, &c. Of Bistort, or snakeweed, cold and dry in the third degree, binding: half a dram at a time taken inwardly, resists pestilence and poison, helps ruptures and bruises, stays fluxes, vomiting, and immoderate flowing of the menses, helps inflammations and soreness of the mouth, and fastens loose teeth, being bruised and boiled in white wine, and the mouth washed with it.
Borraginis. Of Borrage, hot and moist in the first degree, cheers the heart, helps drooping spirits. Dioscorides.
Broniœ, &c. Of Briony both white and black: they are both hot and dry, some say in the third degree, and some say but in the first; they purge flegm and watery humours, but they trouble the stomach much, they are very good for dropsies, the white is most in use, and is good for the fits of the mother: both of them externally used, take away freckles, sunburning, and morphew from the face, and cleanse filthy ulcers. It is but a churlish purge, but being let alone, can do no harm.
Buglossi. Of Bugloss. Its virtues are the same with Borrage, and the roots of either seldom used.
Bulbus Vomitorius. A Vomiting Root: I never read of it elsewhere by this general name.
Calami Aromatici. Of Aromatical Reed, or sweet garden flag: it provokes urine, strengthens the lungs, helps bruises, resists poison, &c. being taken inwardly in powder, the quantity of half a dram at a time. You may mix it with syrup of violets, if your body be feverish.
Capparum. Capper Roots. Are hot and dry in the second degree, cutting and cleansing: they provoke menses, help malignant ulcers, ease the toothache, assuage swelling, and help the rickets. See Oil of Cappers.
Cariophillatœ, &c. Of Avens, or Herb Bennet. The roots are dry, and something hot, of a cleansing quality, they keep garments from being moth-eaten. See the leaves.
Caulium. Of Colewort. I know nothing the roots are good for, but only to bear the herbs and flowers.
Centrurii majoris. Of Centaury the Greater. The roots help such as are bursten, such as spit blood, shrinking of sinews, shortness of wind, coughs, convulsions, cramps: half a dram in powder being taken inwardly, either in muskadel, or in a decoction of the same roots. They are either not at all, or very scarce in England, our centaury is the small centaury.
Cepœ. Of Onions. Are hot and dry (according to Galen) in the fourth degree: they cause dryness, and are extremely hurtful for choleric people, they breed but little nourishment, and that little is naught: they are bad meat, yet good physic for phlegmatic people, they are opening, and provoke urine and the menses, if cold be the cause obstructing: bruised and outwardly applied, they cure the bitings of mad dogs, roasted and applied, they help boils, and aposthumes: raw, they take the fire out of burnings, but ordinarily eaten, they cause headache, spoil the sight, dull the senses, and fill the body full of wind.
Chameleontis albi nigri, &c. Of Chameleon, white and black. Tragus calls the carline thistle by the name of white chameleon, the root whereof is hot in the second degree, and dry in the third, it provokes sweat, kills worms, resists pestilence and poison; it is given with success in pestilential fevers, helps the toothache by being chewed in the mouth, opens the stoppings of the liver and spleen, provokes urine, and the menses: give but little of it at a time, by reason of its heat. As for the black chameleon, all physicians hold it to have a kind of venomous quality, and unfit to be used inwardly, Galen, Clusius, Nicander, Dioscorides, and Ægineta. Outwardly in ointments, it is profitable for scabs, morphew, tetters, &c. and all things that need cleansing.
Chelidonij majoris, minoris. Of celandine, the greater and lesser. The greater is that which we usually call Celandine: the root is hot and dry, cleansing and scouring, proper for such as have the yellow jaundice, it opens obstructions of the liver, being boiled in white wine, and the decoctions drank; and if chewed in the mouth it helps the tooth-ache. Celandine the lesser is that which usually we call Pilewort, which with us is hot in the first degree; the juice of the root mixed with honey and snuffed up in the nose, purges the head, helps the hemorrhoids or piles being bathed with it, as also doth the root only carried about one: being made into an ointment, it helps the king's evil or Scrophula.
China, wonderfully extenuates and dries, provokes sweat, resists putrefaction; it strengthens the liver, helps the dropsy and malignant ulcers, leprosy, itch, and venereal, and is profitable in diseases coming of fasting. It is commonly used in diet drinks for the premises.
Cichorii. Of Succory; cool and dry in the second degree, strengthens the liver and veins, it opens obstructions, stoppings in the liver and spleen, being boiled in white wine and the decoction drank.
Colchici. Of Meadow Saffron. The roots are held to be hurtful to the stomach, therefore I let them alone.
Consolidœ, majoris, minoris. Consolida Major, is that which we ordinarily call Comfry, it is of a cold quality, yet pretty temperate, so glutinous, that, according to Dioscorides, they will join meat together that is cut in sunder, if they be boiled with it; it is excellent for all wounds, both internal and external, for spitting of blood, ruptures or burstness, pains in the back, it strengthens the reins, it stops the menses and helps hemorrhoids. The way to use them is to boil them in water and drink the decoction. Consolida minor, is that we call Self-heal, and the latins Prunella. See the herb.
Costi utriusque. Of Costus both sorts, being roots coming from beyond sea, hot and dry, break wind, being boiled in oil, it is held to help the gout by anointing the grieved place with it.
Cucumeris a grestis. Of wild Cucumber roots; they purge flegm, and that with such violence, that I would advise the country man that knows not how to correct them, to let them alone.
Cinarœ, &c. Of Artichokes. The roots purge by urine, whereby the rank savour of the body is much amended.
Cynoglossœ, &c. Of Hounds-tongue, Cold and dry: being roasted and laid to the fundament, helps the hemorrhoids, is also good for burnings and scaldings.
Curcumœ. Of Turmerick, hot in the third degree, opens obstructions, is profitable against the yellow jaundice, and cold distemper of the liver and spleen, half a dram being taken at night going to bed in the pulp of a roasted apple, and if you add a little saffron to it, it will be the better by far.
Cyperi utriusque, longi, rotundi. Of Cyprus Grass, or English Galanga, both sorts, long and round: is of a warm nature, provokes urine, breaks the stone, provokes the menses; the ashes of them (being burnt) are used for ulcers in the mouth, cankers, &c.
Dauci. Of Carrots. Are moderately hot and moist, breed but little nourishment, and are windy.
Dentaria majoris, &c. Of Toothwort, toothed violets, or corralwort: they are drying, binding, and strengthening; are good to ease pains in the sides and bowels; also being boiled, the decoction is said to be good to wash green wounds and ulcers with.
Dictiamni. Of Dittany: is hot and dry in the third degree, hastens travail in women, provokes the menses. (See the leaves.)
Doronici. Of Doronicum, a supposed kind of Wolf's bane. It is hot and dry in the third degree, strengthens the heart, is a sovereign cordial, and preservative against the pestilence: it helps the vertigo or swimming of the head, is admirable against the bitings of venomous beasts, and such as have taken too much opium, as also for lethargies, the juice helps hot rheums in the eyes; a scruple of the root in powder is enough to take at one time.
Dracontii, Dracunculi. Divers authors attribute divers herbs to this name. It is most probable that they mean dragons, the roots of which cleanse mightily, and take away proud, or dead flesh, the very smell of them is hurtful for pregnant women; outwardly in ointments, they take away scurf, morphew, and sun-burning; I would not wish any, unless very well read in physic, to take them inwardly. Matthiolus, Dioscorides.
Ebuli. Of Dwarf Elder, Walwort, or Danewort; hot and dry in the third degree, the roots are as excellent a purge for the dropsy
as any under the sun. You may take a dram or two drams (if the patient be strong) in white wine at a time.
Echij. Of Viper's Bugloss, or wild Bugloss. This root is cold and dry, good for such as are bitten by venemous beasts, either being boiled in wine and drank, or bruised and applied to the place: being boiled in wine and drank, it encreaseth milk in nurses.
Ellebori, Veratri, albi nigri. Of Hellebore white and black. The root of white Hellebore, or sneezewort, being grated and snuffed up the nose, causeth sneezing; kills rats and mice being mixed with their meat.
Black Hellebore, Bears-foot or Christmas flower: both this and the former are hot and dry in the third degree. This is neither so violent nor dangerous as the former.
Enulæ Campanæ Helenij. Of Elecampane. It is hot and dry in the third degree, wholesome for the stomach, resists poison, helps old coughs, and shortness of breath, helps ruptures, and provokes lust; in ointments, it is good against scabs and itch.
Endivæ, &c. Of Endive, Garden Endive, which is the root here specified, is held to be somewhat colder, though not so dry and cleansing as that which is wild; it cools hot stomachs, hot livers, amends the blood corrupted by heat, and therefore is good in fevers, it cools the reins, and therefore prevents the stone, it opens obstructions, and provokes urine: you may bruise the root, and boil it in white wine, 'tis very harmless.
Eringij. Of Eringo or Sea-holly: the roots are moderately hot, something drying and cleansing, bruised and applied to the place; they help the Scrophula, or disease in the throat called the King's Evil, they break the stone, encrease seed, stir up lust, provoke the terms, &c.
Esulæ, majoris, minoris. Of Spurge the greater and lesser, they are both (taken inwardly) too violent for common use; outwardly in ointments they cleanse the skin, take away sunburning.
Filicis, &c. Fearn, of which are two grand distinctions, viz. male and female. Both are hot and dry, and good for the rickets in children, and diseases of the spleen, but dangerous for pregnant women.
Filipendulæ. Of Dropwort. The roots are hot and dry in the third degree, opening, cleansing, yet somewhat binding; they provoke urine, ease pains in the bladder, and are a good preservative against the falling-sickness.
Fœniculi. Of Fennel. The root is hot and dry, some say in the third degree, opening; it provokes urine, and menses, strengthens the liver, and is good against the dropsy.
Fraxini. Of Ash-tree. I know no great virtues in physic of the roots.
Galangæ, majoris, minoris. Galanga, commonly called Galingal, the greater and lesser. They are hot and dry in the third degree, and the lesser are accounted the hotter, it strengthens the stomach exceedingly, and takes away the pains thereof coming of cold or wind; the smell of it
strengthens the brain, it relieves faint hearts, takes away windiness of the womb, heats the reins, and provokes amorous diseases. You may take half a dram at a time. Matthiolus.
Gentiana. Of Gentian; some call it Felwort, and Baldmoney. It is hot, cleansing, and scouring, a notable counterpoison, it opens obstructions, helps the biting of venemous beasts, and mad dogs, helps digestion, and cleanseth the body of raw humours; the root is profitable for ruptures, or such as are bursten.
Glycyrrhizæ. Of Liquorice; the best that is grows in England: it is hot and moist in temperature, helps the roughness of the windpipe, hoarsness, diseases in the kidneys and bladder, and ulcers in the bladder, it concocts raw humours in the stomach, helps difficulty of breathing, is profitable for all salt humours, the root dried and beaten into powder, and the powder put into the eye, is a special remedy for a pin and web.
Gramminis. Of Grass, such as in London they call couch grass, and Squitch-grass; in Sussex Dog-grass. It gallantly provokes urine, and easeth the kidneys oppressed with gravel, gripings of the belly, and difficulty of urine. Let such as are troubled with these diseases, drink a draught of white wine, wherein these roots (being bruised) have been boiled, for their morning's draught, bruised and applied to the place, they speedily help green wounds. Galen, Dioscorides.
Hermodactyli. Of Hermodactils. They are hot and dry, purge flegm, especially from the joints, therefore are good for gouts, and other diseases in the joints. Their vices are corrected with long pepper, ginger, cinnamon, or mastich. I would not have unskilful people too busy with purges.
Hyacinthi. Of Jacinths. The roots are dry in the first degree, and cold in the second, they stop looseness, bind the belly.
Iridis, vulgaris, and Florentine, &c. Orris, or Flower-de-luce, both that which grows with us, and that which comes from Florence. They are hot and dry in the third degree, resist poison, help shortness of the breath, provoke the menses; the Root being green and bruised, takes away blackness and blueness of a stroke, being applied thereto.
Imperitoriœ, &c. Of Master-wort. The root is hot and dry in the third degree; mitigates the rigour of agues, helps dropsies, provokes sweat, breaks carbuncles, and plague-sores, being applied to them; it is very profitable being given inwardly in bruises.
Isotidis, Glasti. Of Woad. I know no great physical virtue in the root. See the Herb.
Labri Veneris, Dipsaci. Fullers- Thistle, Teazle. The root being boiled in wine till it be thick (quoth Dioscorides) helps by unction the clefts of the fundament, as also takes away warts and wens. Galen saith, they are dry in the second degree: and I take it all
Authors hold them to be cold and dry. Unslacked lime beaten into powder, and mixed with black soap, takes away a wen being anointed with it.
Lactucœ. Of Lettice. I know no physical virtue residing in the roots.
Lauri. Of the Bay-tree. The Bark of the root drunk with wine, provokes urine, breaks the stone, opens obstructions of the liver and spleen. But according to Dioscorides is naught for pregnant women. Galen.
Lapathi acuti, Oxylapathi. Sorrel, according to Galen; but Sharp-pointed Dock, according to Dioscorides. The roots of Sorrel are held to be profitable against the jaundice. Of Sharp-pointed Dock; cleanse, and help scabs and itch.
Levistici. Of Lovage. They are hot and dry, and good for any diseases coming of wind.
Lillij albi. Of white Lillies. The root is something hot and dry, helps burnings, softens the womb, provokes the menses, if boiled in wine, is given with good success in rotten Fevers, Pestilences, and all diseases that require suppuration: outwardly applied, it helps ulcers in the head, and amends the ill color of the face.
Malvœ. Of Mallows. They are cool, and digesting, resist poison, and help corrosions, or gnawing of the bowels, or any other part; as also ulcers in the bladder. See Marsh-mallows.
Mandragorœ. Of Mandrakes. A root dangerous for its coldness, being cold in the fourth degree: the root is dangerous.
Mechoachanœ. Of Mechoacah. It is corrected with Cinnamon, is temperate yet drying, purges flegm chiefly from the head and joints, it is good for old diseases in the head, and may safely be given even to feverish bodies, because of its temperature: it is also profitable against coughs and pains in the reins; as also against venereal complaints; the strong may take a dram at a time.
Mei, &c. Spignel. The roots are hot and dry in the second or third degree, and send up unwholesome vapours to the head.
Mezerei, &c. Of Spurge, Olive, or Widow-wail. See the Herb, if you think it worth the seeing.
Merorum Celci. Of Mulberry Tree. The bark of the root is bitter, hot and dry, opens stoppings of the liver and spleen, purges the belly, and kills worms, boiled in vinegar, helps the tooth-ache.
Morsus Diaboli, Succisœ, &c. Devil's-bit. See the herb.
Norpi Spicœ, Indicœ, Celticœ, &c. Of Spikenard, Indian, and Cheltic. Cheltic Nard wonderfully provokes urine. They are both hot and dry. The Indian, also provokes urine, and stops fluxes, helps windiness of the stomach, resists the pestilence, helps gnawing pains of the stomach, and dries up rheums that molest the head.
The Celtic Spikenard performs the same offices, though in a weaker measure.
Nenupharis, Nymphœ. Of Water-lilies. They are cold and dry, and stop lust: I never dived so deep to find what virtue the roots have.
Ononidis, Arrestœ Bovis, &c. Of Cammock, or Rest-harrow, so called because it makes oxen stand still when they are ploughing. The roots are hot and dry in the third degree; it breaks the stone (viz. the bark of it). The root itself, according to Pliny, helps the falling-sickness; according to Matthiolus, helps ruptures: you may take half a dram at a time.
Ostrutij. Masterwort, given once before under the name of Imperitoria. But I have something else to do than to write one thing twice as they did.
Pastinatœ, Sativœ, and silvestris. Garden and Wild Parsnips. They are of a temperate quality, inclining something to heat. The Garden Parsnips provoke lust, and nourish as much and more too, than any root ordinarily eaten: the wild are more physical, being cutting, cleansing, and opening: they resist the bitings of venomous beasts, ease pains and stitches in the sides, and are a sovereign remedy against the wind cholic.
Pentafylli. Of Cinqfyl, commonly called Five-leaved, or Five-finger'd grass: the root is very drying, but moderately hot. It is admirable against all fluxes, and stops blood flowing from any part of the body: it helps infirmities of the liver and lungs, helps putrified ulcers of the mouth, the root boiled in vinegar is good against the shingles, and appeases the rage of any fretting sores. You may safely take half a dram at a time in any convenient liquor.
Petacitœ. Of Butter-bur. The roots are hot and dry in the second degree, they are exceeding good in violent and pestilential fevers, they provoke the menses, expel poison, and kill worms.
Peucedani, Fœniculi porcini. Of Sulphurwort, Hogs-fennel, or Hore-strange. It is very good applied to the navels of children that stick out, and ruptures: held in the mouth, it is a present remedy for the fits of the mother: being taken inwardly, it gives speedy deliverance to women in travail, and brings away the placenta.
Pœoniœ, maris, fœmellæ. Of Peony male and female. They are meanly hot, but more drying. The root helps women not sufficiently purged after travail, it provokes the menses, and helps pains in the belly, as also in the reins and bladder, falling sickness, and convulsions in children, being either taken inwardly, or hung about their necks. You may take half a dram at a time, and less for children.
Phu, Valerinæ, majoris, minoris. Valerian, or Setwal, greater and lesser. They are temperately hot, the greater provokes urine and the menses, helps the stranguary, stays rheums in the head, and takes away
the pricking pains thereof. The lesser resist poison, assuages the swelling of the testicles, coming either through wind or cold, helps cold taken after sweating or labour, wind cholic: outwardly it draws out thorns, and cures both wounds and ulcers.
Pimpinellæ, &c. Of Burnet. It doth this good, to bring forth a gallant physical herb.
Plantaginis. Of Plantane. The root is something dryer than the leaf, but not so cold, it opens stoppages of the liver, helps the jaundice, and ulcers of the reins and bladder. A little bit of the root being eaten, instantly stays pains in the head, even to admiration.
Polypodij. Of Polypodium, or Fern of the Oak. It is a gallant though gentle purger of melancholy. Also in the opinion of Mesue (as famous a physician as ever I read for a Galenist), it dries up superfluous humours, takes away swellings from the hands, feet, knees, and joints, stitches and pains in the sides, infirmities of the spleen, rickets; correct it with a few Annis seeds, or Fennel seeds, or a little ginger, and then the stomach will not loath it. Your best way of taking it, is to bruise it well, and boil it in white wine till half be consumed, you may put in much, or little, according to the strength of the diseased, it works very safely.
Poligonati, sigilli Solomonis, &c. Of Solomon's Seal. Stamped and boiled in wine it speedily helps (being drank) all broken bones, and is of incredible virtue that way; as also being stamped and applied to the place, it soon heals all wounds, and quickly takes away the black and blue marks of blows, being bruised and applied to the place, and for these, I am persuaded there is not a better medicine under the sun.
Porri. Of Leeks. They say they are hot and dry in the fourth degree; they breed ill-favoured nourishment at the best, they spoil the eyes, heat the body, cause troublesome sleep, and are noisome to the stomach: yet are they good for something else, for the juice of them dropped into the ears takes away the noise of them, mixed with a little vinegar and snuffed up the nose, it stays the bleeding of it, they are better of the two boiled than raw, but both ways exceedingly hurtful for ulcers in the bladder: and so are onions and garlic.
Prunellorum Silvestrium. Of Sloe-bush, or Sloe-tree. I think the college set this amongst the roots only for fashion sake, and I did it because they did.
Pyrethri Salivaris, &c. Pelitory of Spain. It is hot and dry in the fourth degree, chewed in the mouth, it draws away rheum in the tooth-ache; bruised and boiled in oil, it provokes sweat by unction; inwardly taken, they say it helps palsies and other cold effects in the brain and nerves.
Rhapontici. Rhupontick, or Rhubarb of Pontus. It takes away windiness and weakness of the stomach, sighings, sobbings, spittings of blood, diseases of the liver and spleen, rickets, &c. if you take a dram at a time it will purge a little but bind much, and therefore fit for foul bodies that have fluxes.
Rhabarbari. Of Rhubarb. It gently purges choler from the stomach and liver, opens stoppings, withstands the dropsy, Hypocondriac Melancholly; a little boiling takes away the virtue of it, and therefore it is best given by infusion only; If your body be any thing strong, you may take two drams of it at a time being sliced thin and steeped all night in white wine, in the morning strain it out and drink the white wine; it purges but gently, it leaves a binding quality behind it, therefore dried a little by the fire and beaten into powder, it is usually given in fluxes.
Rhaphani, Domesticœ and Sylvestris. Of Raddishes, garden and wild. Garden Raddishes provoke urine, break the stone, and purge by urine exceedingly, yet breed very bad blood, are offensive to the stomach, and hard of digestion, hot and dry in quality. Wild, or Horse Raddishes, such as grow in ditches, are hotter and drier than the former, and more effectual.
Rhodie Rad. Rose Root. Stamped and applied to the head it mitigates the pains thereof, being somewhat cool in quality.
Rhabarbari Monachorum. Monks Rhubarb, or Bastard-Rhubarb, it also purges, and cleanses the blood, and opens obstructions of the liver.
Rubiæ tinctorum. Of Madder. It is both drying and binding, yet not without some opening quality, for it helps the yellow jaundice, and therefore opens obstructions of the liver and gall; it is given with good success, to such as have had bruises by falls, stops looseness, the hemorrhoids, and the menses.
Rusci. Of Knee-holly or Butchers-broom, or Bruscus. They are meanly hot and dry, provoke urine, break the stone, and help such as cannot evacuate urine freely. Use them like grass roots.
Sambuci. Of Elder. I know no wonders the root will do.
Sarsœ-Parigliœ. Of Sarsa-Parilla, or Bind-weed; somewhat hot and dry, helpful against pains in the head, and joints; they provoke sweat, and are used familiarly in drying diet drinks.
Satyrij utriusque. Of Satyrion, each sort. They are hot and moist in temper, provoke venery, and increase seed; each branch bears two roots, both spongy, yet the one more solid than the other, which is of most virtue, and indeed only to be used, for some say the most spongy root is quite contrary in operation to the other, as the one increaseth, the other decreaseth.
Saxifragiœ albœ. Of white Saxifrage, in Sussex we call them
Lady-smocks. The roots powerfully break the stone, expel wind, provoke urine, and cleanse the reins.
Sanguisorbœ. A kind of Burnet.
Scabiosa. Of Scabious. The roots either boiled, or beaten into powder, and so taken, help such as are extremely troubled with scabs and itch, are medicinal in the french disease, hard swellings, inward wounds, being of a drying, cleansing, and healing faculty.
Scordij. Of Scordium, or Water-Germander. See the herb.
Scillœ. Of Squills. See vinegar, and wine of Squills, in the compound.
Scropulariœ, &c. Of Figwort. The roots being of the same virtue with the herb, I refer you thither.
Scorzonerœ. Of Vipers grass. The root cheers the heart, and strengthens the vital spirits, resists poison, helps passions and tremblings of the heart, faintness, sadness, and melancholy, opens stoppings of the liver and spleen, provokes the menses, ease women of the fits of the mother, and helps swimmings in the head.
Seseleos. Of Seseli, or Hartwort. The roots provoke urine, and help the falling-sickness.
Sisari, secacul. Of Scirrets. They are hot and moist, of good nourishment, something windy, as all roots are; by reason of which, they provoke venery, they stir up appetite, and provoke urine.
Sconchi. Of Sow-thistles. See the herb.
Spinœ albœ, Bedeguar. The Arabians called our Ladies-thistles by that name; the roots of which are drying and binding, stop fluxes, bleeding, take away cold swellings, and ease the pains of the teeth.
Spatulœ fœtidœ. Stinking Gladon, a kind of Flower-de-luce, called so for its unsavory smell. It is hot and dry in the third degree; outwardly they help the king's evil, soften hard swellings, draw out broken bones: inwardly taken, they help convulsions, ruptures, bruises, infirmities of the lungs.
Tamarisci. Of Tamaris. See the herbs, and barks.
Tanaceti. Of Tansie. The root eaten, is a singular remedy for the gout: the rich may bestow the cost to preserve it.
Thapsi, &c. A venomous foreign root: therefore no more of it.
Tormentillœ. Of Tormentil. A kind of Sinqfoil; dry in the third degree, but moderately hot; good in pestilences, provokes sweat, stays vomiting, cheers the heart, expels poison.
Trifolij. Of Trefoil. See the herb.
Tribuli Aquatici. Of Water Caltrops. The roots lie too far under water for me to reach to.
Trachellij. Of Throat-wort: by some called Canterbury Bells: by some Coventry Bells. They help diseases and ulcers in the throat.
Trinitatis herbœ. Hearts-ease, or Pansies, I know no great virtue they have.
Tunicis. I shall tell you the virtue when I know what it is.
Tripolij. The root purges flegm, expels poison.
Turbith. The root purges flegm, (being hot in the third degree) chiefly from the exterior parts of the body: it is corrected with ginger, or Mastich. Let not the vulgar be too busy with it.
Tuburnum. Or Toad-stools. Whether these be roots or no, it matters not much; for my part I know but little need of them, either in food or physic.
Victorialis. A foreign kind of Garlick. They say, being hung about the neck of cattle that are blind suddenly, it helps them; and defends those that bear it, from evil spirits.
Swallow-wort, and teazles were handled before.
Ulmariœ, Reginœ, prati, &c. Mead-sweet. Cold and dry, binding, stops fluxes, and the immoderate flowing of the menses: you may take a dram at a time.
Urticœ. Of Nettles. See the leaves.
Zedoariœ. Of Zedoary, or Setwall. This and Zurumbet, according to Rhasis, and Mesue, and all one; Avicenna thinks them different: I hold with Mesue; indeed they differ in form, for the one is long, the other round; they are both hot and dry in the second degree, expel wind, resist poison, stop fluxes, and the menses, stay vomiting, help the cholic, and kill worms; you may take half a dram at a time.
Zingiberis. Of Ginger. Helps digestion, warms the stomach, clears the sight, and is profitable for old men: heats the joints, and therefore is profitable against the gout, expels wind; it is hot and dry in the second degree.

BARKS

A Pil Rad. Of the roots of Smallage. Take notice here, that the Barks both of this root, as also of Parsley, Fennel, &c. is all of the root which is in use, neither can it properly be called bark, for it is all the root, the hard pith in the middle excepted, which is always thrown away, when the roots are used. It is something hotter and drier than Parsley, and more medicinal; it opens stoppings, provokes urine, helps digestion, expels wind, and warms a cold stomach: use them like grass roots.
Avellanarum. Of Hazel. The rind of the tree provokes urine, breaks the stone; the husks and shells of the nuts, dried and given in powder, stay the immoderate flux of the menses.
Aurantiorum. Of Oranges. Both these, and also Lemons and Citrons, are of different qualities: the outward bark, viz. what looks
red, is hot and dry, the white is cold and moist, the juice colder than it, the seeds hot and dry; the outward bark is that which here I am to speak to, it is somewhat hotter than either that of Lemons or Citrons, therefore it warms a cold stomach more, and expels wind better, but strengthens not the heart so much.
Berber, &c. Barberries. The Rind of the tree according to Clœsius, being steeped in wine, and the wine drank, purges choler, and is a singular remedy for the yellow jaundice. Boil it in white wine and drink it. See the directions at the beginning.
Cassia Lignea, &c. It is something more oily than Cinnamon, yet the virtues being not much different, I refer you thither.
Capparis Rad. Of Caper roots. See the roots.
Castanearum. Of Chesnuts. The bark of the Chesnut tree is dry and binding, and stops fluxes.
Cinnamonum. Cinnamon, and Cassia Lignea, are hot and dry in the second degree, strengthens the stomach, help digestion, cause a sweet breath, resist poison, provoke urine, and the menses, cause speedy delivery to women in travail, help coughs and defluxions of humours upon the lungs, dropsy, and difficulty of urine. In ointments it takes away red pimples, and the like deformities from the face. There is scarce a better remedy for women in labour, than a dram of Cinnamon newly beaten into powder, and taken in white wine.
Citrij. Of Pome Citrons. The outward pill, which I suppose is that which is meant here: It strengthens the heart, resists poison, amends a stinking breath, helps digestion, comforts a cold stomach.
Ebuli Rad. Of the roots of Dwarf-Elder, or Walwort. See the herbs.
Enulœ. Of Elecampane. See the roots.
Esulœ Rad. See the roots.
Fabarum. Of Beans. Bean Cods (or Pods, as we in Sussex call them) being bruised, the ashes are a sovereign remedy for aches in the joints, old bruises, gouts, and sciaticas. &nbs
p; Fœniculi Rad. Of Fennel roots. See the roots, and remember the observation given in Smallage at the beginning of the barks.
Fraxini Rad. Of the bark of Ash-tree roots. The bark of the tree, helps the rickets, is moderately hot and dry, stays vomiting; being burnt, the ashes made into an ointment, helps leprosy and other deformity of the skin, eases pains of the spleen. You may lay the bark to steep in white wine for the rickets, and when it hath stood so for two or three days, let the diseased child drink now and then a spoonful of it.
Granatorum. Of Pomegranates. The rind cools, and forcibly binds, stays fluxes, and the menses, helps digestion, strengthens weak stomachs, fastens the teeth, and are good for such whose gums waste. You may take a dram of it at a time inwardly. Pomegranate flowers are of the same virtue.
Gatrujaci. See the wood.
Juglandium Virid. Of green Walnuts. As for the outward green bark of Walnuts, I suppose the best time to take them is before the Walnuts be shelled at all, and then you may take nuts and all (if they may properly be called nuts at such a time) you shall find them exceeding comfortable to the stomach, they resist poison, and are a most excellent preservative against the plague, inferior to none: they are admirable for such as are troubled with consumptions of the lungs.
Lauri. Of the Bay-tree. See the root.
Limonum. Of Lemons. The outward peel is of the nature of Citron, but helps not so effectually; however, let the poor country man that cannot get the other, use this.
Mandragora Rad. Be pleased to look back to the root.
Myrobalanorum. Of Myrobalans. See the fruits.
Macis. Of Mace. It is hot in the third degree, strengthens the stomach and heart exceedingly, and helps concoction.
Maceris, &c. It is held to be the inner bark of Nutmeg-tree, helps fluxes and spitting of blood.
Petroselini Rad. Of Parsley root: opens obstructions, provokes urine and the menses, warms a cold stomach, expels wind, and breaks the stone. Use them as grass roots, and take out the inner pith as you were taught in smallage roots.
Prunelli Silvestris. Of Sloe-tree. I know no use of it.
Pinearum putaminae. Pine shucks, or husks. I suppose they mean of the cones that hold the seeds; both those and also the bark of the tree, stop fluxes, and help the lungs.
Querci. Of Oak-tree. Both the bark of the oak, and Acorn Cups are drying and cold, binding, stop fluxes and the menses, as also the running of the reins; have a care how you use them before due purging.
Rhaphani. Of Radishes. I could never see any bark they had.
Suberis. Of Cork. It is good for something else besides to stop bottles: being dry and binding, stanches blood, helps fluxes, especially the ashes of it being burnt. Paulus.
Sambuci, &c. Of Elder roots and branches; purges water, helps the dropsy.
Cort. Medius Tamaricis. The middle Bark of Tameris, eases the spleen, helps the rickets. Use them as Ash-tree bark.
Tilliæ. Of Line-tree. Boiled, the water helps burnings.
Thuris. Of Frankinsenses. I must plead Ignoramus.
Ulmi. Of Elm. Moderately hot and cleansing good for wounds, burns, and broken bones, viz. boiled in water and the grieved place bathed with it.

WOODS AND THEIR CHIPS, OR RASPINGS

A Gallochus, Lignum Aloes. Wood of Aloes; is moderately hot and dry: a good cordial: a rich perfume, a great strengthener to the stomach.
Aspalathus. Rose-wood. It is moderately hot and dry, stops looseness, provokes urine, and is excellent to cleanse filthy ulcers.
Bresilium. Brasil. All the use I know of it is, to die cloth, and leather, and make red ink.
Buxus. Box. Many Physicians have written of it, but no physical virtue of it.
Cypressus. Cypress. The Wood laid amongst cloaths, secures them from moths. See the leaves.
Ebenum. Ebony. It is held to clear the sight, being either boiled in wine, or burnt to ashes.
Guajacum, Lignum vitæ. Dries, attenuates, causes sweat, resists putrefaction, is good for the French disease, as also for ulcers, scabs, and leprosy: it is used in diet drinks.
Juniperus. Juniper. The smoak of the wood, drives away serpents; the ashes of it made into lie, cures itch, and scabs.
Nephriticum. It is a light wood and comes from Hispaniola; being steeped in water, will soon turn it blue, it is hot and dry in the first degree, and so used as before, is an admirable remedy for the stone, and for obstructions of the liver and spleen.
Rhodium. Encreases milk in nurses.
Santalum, album, Rubrum, citrinum. White, red, and yellow Sanders. They are all cold and dry in the second or third degree: the red stops defluxions from any part, and helps inflammations: the white and yellow (of which the yellow is best) cool the heat of fevers, strengthen the heart, and cause cheerfulness.
Sassafras. Is hot and dry in the second degree, it opens obstructions or stoppings, it strengthens the breast exceedingly; if it be weakened through cold, it breaks the stone, stays vomiting, provokes urine, and is very profitable in the venereal, used in diet drinks.
Tamaris. Is profitable for the rickets, and burnings.
Xylobalsamum. Wood of the Balsam tree, it is hot and dry in the second degree, according to Galen. I never read any great virtues of it.

HERBS AND THEIR LEAVES

A Brotanum, mas, fœmina. Southernwood, male and female. It is hot and dry in the third degree, resists poison, kills worms; outwardly in plaisters, it dissolves cold swellings, and helps the bitings of venomous beasts, makes hair grow: take not above half a dram at a time in powder.
Absinthium, &c. Wormwood. Its several sorts, are all hot and dry in the second or third degrees, the common Wormwood is thought to be hottest, they all help weakness of the stomach, cleanse choler, kill worms, open stoppings, help surfeits, clear the sight, resist poison, cleanse the blood, and secure cloaths from moths.
Abugilissa, &c. Alkanet. The leaves are something drying and binding, but inferior in virtue to the roots, to which I refer you.
Acetosa. Sorrel. Is moderately cold, dry and binding, cuts tough humours, cools the brain, liver and stomach, cools the blood in fevers, and provokes appetite.
Acanthus. Bears-breech, or Branks ursine, is temperate, something moist. See the root.
Adiantum, Album, nigrum. Maiden hair, white and black. They are temperate, yet drying. White Maiden hair is that we usually call Wall-rue; they both open obstructions, cleanse the breast and lungs of gross slimy humours, provoke urine, help ruptures and shortness of wind.
Adiantum Aurcum Politrycum. Golden Maiden-hair. Its temperature and virtues are the same with the former; helps the spleen; burned, and lye made with the ashes, keeps the hair from falling off the head.
Agrimonia. Agrimony. Galen's Eupatorium. It is hot and dry in the first degree, binding, it amends the infirmities of the liver, helps such as evacuate blood instead of water, helps inward wounds, opens obstructions. Outwardly applied it helps old sores, ulcers, &c. Inwardly, it helps the jaundice and the spleen. Take a dram of this or that following, inwardly in white wine, or boil the herb in white wine, and drink the decoction. Galen, Pliny, Dioscorides, Serapio.
Ageretum. Hot and dry in the second degree, provokes urine and the menses, dries the brain, opens stoppings, helps the green sickness, and profits such as have a cold, weak liver; outwardly applied, it takes away the hardness of the matrix, and fills hollow ulcers with flesh.
Agnus Castus, &c. Chast-tree. The leaves are hot and dry in the third degree; expel wind, consume the seed, cause chastity being only borne about one; it dissolves swellings of the testicles, being applied to them, head-ache, and lethargy.
Allajula, Lujula, &c. Wood Sorrel. It is of the temperature of other Sorrel, and held to be more cordial, cools the blood, helps ulcers in the mouth; hot defluxions upon the lungs, wounds, ulcers, &c.
Alcea. Vervain Mallow. The root helps fluxes and burstness. Ætius, Dioscorides.
Allium. Garlick. Hot and dry in the fourth degree, troublesome to the stomach: it dulls the sight, spoils a clear skin, resists poison, eases the pains of the teeth, helps the bitings of mad dogs, and venomous beasts, helps ulcers, leprosies, provokes urine, is exceedingly opening, and profitable for dropsies.
Althæa, &c. Marsh-Mallows. Are moderately hot and drier than other Mallows; they help digestion, and mitigate pain, ease the pains of the stone, and in the sides. Use them as you were taught in the roots, whose virtues they have, and both together will do better.
Alsine. Chickweed. Is cold and moist without any binding, assuages swelling, and comforts the sinews much; therefore it is good for such as are shrunk up; it dissolves aposthumes, hard swellings, and helps mange in the hands and legs, outwardly applied in a pultis. Galen.
Alchymilla. Ladies-Mantle. Is hot and dry, some say in the second degree, some say in the third: outwardly it helps wounds, reduces women's breasts that hang down: inwardly, helps bruises, and ruptures, stays vomiting, and the Fluor Albus, and is very profitable for such women as are subject to miscarry through cold and moisture.
Alkanna. Privet hath a binding quality, helps ulcers in the mouth, is good against burnings and scaldings, cherishes the nerves and sinews; boil it in white wine to wash the mouth, and in hog's grease for burnings and scaldings.
Amaracus, Majorana. Marjoram. Some say 'tis hot and dry in the second degree, some advance it to the third. Sweet Marjoram, is an excellent remedy for cold diseases in the brain, being only smelled to helps such as are given to much sighing, easeth pains in the belly, provokes urine, being taken inwardly: you may take a dram of it at a time in powder. Outwardly in oils or salves, it helps sinews that are shrunk; limbs out of joint, all aches and swellings coming of a cold cause.
Angelica. Is hot and dry in the third degree; opens, digests, makes thin, strengthens the heart, helps fluxes, and loathsomeness of meat. It is an enemy to poison and pestilence, provokes menses, and brings away the placanta. You may take a dram of it at a time in powder.
Anagallis, mas, femina. Pimpernel, male and female. They are something hot and dry, and of such a drying quality that they draw thorns and splinters out of the flesh, amend the sight, cleanse ulcers, help infirmities of the liver and reins. Galen.
Anethum. Dill. Is hot and dry in the second degree. It stays vomiting, eases hiccoughs, assuages swellings, provokes urine, helps such as are troubled with fits of the mother, and digests raw humours.
Apium. Smallage. So it is commonly used; but indeed all Parsley is called by the name of Apium, of which this is one kind. It is something hotter and dryer than Parsley, and more efficacious; it opens stoppings of the liver, and spleen, cleanses the blood, provokes the menses, helps a cold stomach to digest its meat, and is good against the yellow jaundice. Both Smallage and Clevers, may be well used in pottage in the morning instead of herbs.
Aparine. Goose-grass, or Clevers. They are meanly hot and dry, cleansing, help the bitings of venomous beasts, keep men's bodies from growing too fat, help the yellow jaundice, stay bleeding, fluxes, and help green wounds. Dioscorides, Pliny, Galen, Tragus.
Aspergula odorata. Wood-roof. Cheers the heart, makes men merry, helps melancholy, and opens the stoppings of the liver.
Aquilegia. Columbines: help sore throats, are of a drying, binding quality.
Argentina. Silver-weed, or Wild Tansy, cold and dry almost in the third degree; stops lasks, fluxes, and the menses, good against ulcers, the stone, and inward wounds: easeth gripings in the belly, fastens loose teeth: outwardly it takes away freckles, morphew, and sunburning, it takes away inflammations, and bound to the wrists stops the violence of the fits of the ague.
Artanita. Sow-bread: hot and dry in the third degree, it is a dangerous purge: outwardly in ointments it takes away freckles, sunburning, and the marks which the small pox leaves behind them: dangerous for pregnant women.
Aristolochia, longa, rotunda. Birth-wort long and round. See the roots.
Artemisia. Mugwort: is hot and dry in the second degree: binding: an herb appropriated to the female sex; it brings down the menses, brings away both birth and placenta, eases pains in the matrix. You may take a dram at a time.
Asparagus. See the roots.
Asarum, &c. Asarabacca: hot and dry; provokes vomiting and urine, and are good for dropsies. They are corrected with mace or cinnamon.
Atriplex, &c. Orach, or Arrach. It is cold in the first degree, and moist in the second, saith Galen, and makes the belly soluble. It is an admirable remedy for the fits of the mother, and other infirmities of the matrix, and therefore the Latins called it Vulvaria.
Aricula muris, major. Mouse-ear: hot and dry, of a binding quality, it is admirable to heal wounds, inward or outward, as also ruptures or burstness. Edge-tools quenched in the juice of it, will cut iron without turning the edge, as easy as they will lead. And, lastly, it helps the swelling of the spleen, coughs and consumptions, of the lungs.
Attractivis hirsuta. Wild Bastard-saffron, Distaff-thistle, or Spindle-thistle. Is dry and moderately digesting, helps the biting of venomous beasts. Mesue saith, It is hot in the first degree, and dry in the second, and cleanseth the breast and lungs of tough flegm.
Balsamita, &c. Costmary, Alecost. See Maudlin.
Barbajovis, sedum majus. Houseleek or Sengreen: cold in the third degree, profitable against the Shingles, and other hot creeping ulcers, inflammations, St. Anthony's fire, frenzies; it cools and takes away corns from the toes, being bathed with the juice of it, and a skin of the leaf laid over the place; stops fluxes, helps scalding and burning.
Bardana. Clot-bur, or Bur-dock: temperately dry and wasting, something cooling; it is held to be good against the shrinking of the sinews; eases pains in the bladder, and provokes urine. Also Mizaldus saith, That a leaf applied to the top of the head of a woman draws the matrix upwards, but applied to the soles of the feet draws it downwards, and is therefore an admirable remedy for suffocations, precipitations, and dislocations of the matrix, if a wise man have but the using of it.
Beta, alba, nigra, rubra. Beets, white, black, and red; black Beets I have no knowledge of. The white are something colder and moister than the red, both of them loosen the belly, but have little or no nourishment. The white provoke to stool, and are more cleansing, open stoppings of the liver and spleen, help the vertigo or swimming in the head. The red stay fluxes, help the immoderate flowing of the menses, and are good in the yellow jaundice.
Benedicta Cariphyllara. Avens: hot and dry, help the cholic and rawness of the stomach, stitches in the sides, and take away clotted blood in any part of the body.
Betonica vulgaris. Common Wood Betony: hot and dry in the second degree, helps the falling sickness and all head-aches coming of cold, cleanses the breast and lungs, opens stoppings of the liver and spleen, as the rickets, &c. procures appetite, helps sour belchings, provokes urine, breaks the stone, mitigates the pains of the
reins and bladder, helps cramps, and convulsions, resists poison, helps the gout, such as evacuate blood, madness and head-ache, kills worms, helps bruises, and cleanseth women after labour. You may take a dram of it at a time in white wine, or any other convenient liquor proper against the disease you are afflicted with.
Betonica Pauli, &c. Paul's Betony, or Male Lluellin, to which add Elative, or Female Lluellin, which comes afterwards; they are pretty temperate, stop defluxions of humours that fall from the head into the eyes, are profitable in wounds, help filthy foul eating cankers.
Betonica Coronaria, &c. Is Clove Gilliflowers. See the flowers.
Bellis. Dasies: are cold and moist in the second degree, they ease all pains and swellings coming of heat, in clysters they loose the belly, are profitable in fevers and inflammations of the testicles, they take away bruises, and blackness and blueness; they are admirable in wounds and inflammations of the lungs or blood.
Blitum. Blites. Some say they are cold and moist, others cold and dry: none mention any great virtues of them.
Borrago. Borrage: hot and moist, comforts the heart, cheers the spirits, drives away sadness and melancholy, they are rather laxative than binding; help swooning and heart-qualms, breed good blood, help consumptions, madness, and such as are much weakened by sickness.
Bonus Henricus. Good Henry, or all good; hot and dry, cleansing and scouring, inwardly taken it loosens the belly; outwardly it cleanseth old sores and ulcers.
Botrys. Oak of Jerusalem: hot and dry in the second degree, helps such as are short-winded, cuts and wastes gross and tough flegm, laid among cloaths they preserve them from moths, and give them a sweet smell.
Branca ursina. Bears-breech.
Brionia, &c. Briony, white and black; both are hot and dry in the third degree, purge violently, yet are held to be wholesome physic for such as have dropsies, vertigo, or swimming in the head, falling-sickness, &c. Certainly it is a strong, troublesome purge, therefore not to be tampered with by the unskilful, outwardly in ointments it takes away freckles, wrinkles, morphew, scars, spots, &c. from the face.
Bursa pastoris. Shepherd's Purse, is manifestly cold and dry, though Lobel and Pena thought the contrary; it is binding and stops blood, the menses; and cools inflammations.
Buglossom. Buglosse. Its virtues are the same with Borrage.
Bugula. Bugle, or Middle Comfrey; is temperate for heat, but very drying, excellent for falls or inward bruises, for it dissolves congealed blood, profitable for inward wounds, helps the rickets and other stoppings of the liver; outwardly it is of wonderful force in curing wounds and ulcers, though festered, as also gangreens and fistulas, it helps broken bones, and dislocations. Inwardly you may take it in powder a dram at a time, or drink the decoction of it in white-wine: being made into an ointment with hog's grease, you shall find it admirable in green wounds.
Buphthalmum, &c. Ox eye. Matthiolus saith they are commonly used for black Hellebore, to the virtues of which I refer.
Buxus. Boxtree: the leaves are hot, dry, and binding, they are profitable against the biting of mad dogs; both taken inwardly boiled and applied to the place: besides they are good to cure horses of the bots.
Calamintha, Montana, Palustris. Mountain and Water Calamint. For the Water Calamint see mints, than which it is accounted stronger. Mountain Calamint is hot and dry in the third degree, provokes urine and the menses, hastens the birth in women, brings away the placenta, helps cramps, convulsions, difficulty of breathing, kills worms, helps the dropsy: outwardly used, it helps such as hold their necks on one side: half a dram is enough at one time. Galen, Dioscorides, Apuleius.
Calendula, &c. Marigolds. The leaves are hot in the second degree, and something moist, loosen the belly: the juice held in the mouth, helps the toothache, and takes away any inflammation or hot swelling being bathed with it, mixed with a little vinegar.
Callitricum. Maiden-hair. See Adianthum.
Caprisolium. Honey-suckles. The leaves are hot, and therefore naught for inflammations of the mouth and throat, for which the ignorant people oftentime give them: and Galen was true in this, let modern writers write their pleasure. If you chew but a leaf of it in your mouth, experience will tell you that it is likelier to cause, than to cure a sore throat, they provoke urine, and purge by urine, bring speedy delivery to women in travail, yet procure barrenness and hinder conception, outwardly they dry up foul ulcers, and cleanse the face from morphew, sun-burning and freckles.
Carduncellus, &c. Groundsell. Cold and moist according to Tragus, helps the cholic, and gripings in the belly, helps such as cannot make water, cleanses the reins, purges choler and sharp humours: the usual way of taking it is to boil it in water with currants, and so eat it. I hold it to be a wholesome and harmless purge. Outwardly it easeth women's breasts that are swollen and inflamed; as also inflammations of the joints, nerves, or sinews. Ægineta.
Carduus B. Mariæ. Our Ladies Thistles. They are far more temperate than Carduus Benedictus, open obstructions of the liver, help the jaundice and dropsy, provoke urine, break the stone.
Carduus Benedictus. Blessed Thistle, but better known by the Latin name: it is hot and dry in the second degree, cleansing and opening, helps swimming and giddiness in the head, deafness, strengthens the memory, helps griping pains in the belly, kills worms, provokes sweat, expels poison, helps inflammation of the liver, is very good in pestilence and venereal: outwardly applied, it ripens plague-sores, and helps hot swellings, the bitings of mad dogs and venomous beasts, and foul filthy ulcers. Every one that can but make a Carduus posset, knows how to use it. Camerarius, Arnuldus vel anovanus.
Chalina. See the roots, under the name of white Chameleon.
Corallina. A kind of Sea Moss: cold, binding, drying, good for hot gouts, inflammations: also they say it kills worms, and therefore by some is called Maw-wormseed.
Cussutha, cascuta, potagralini. Dodder. See Epithimum.
Caryophyllata. Avens, or Herb Bennet, hot and dry: they help the cholic, rawness of the stomach, stitches in the sides, stoppings of the liver, and bruises.
Cataputia minor. A kind of Spurge. See Tythymalus.
Cattaria, Nepeta. Nep, or Catmints. The virtues are the same with Calaminth.
Cauda Equina. Horse-tail; is of a binding drying quality, cures wounds, and is an admirable remedy for sinews that are shrunk: it is a sure remedy for bleeding at the nose, or by wound, stops the menses, fluxes, ulcers in the reins and bladder, coughs, ulcers in the lungs, difficulty of breathing.
Caulis, Brassica hortensis, silvestris. Colewort, or Cabbages, garden and wild. They are drying and binding, help dimness of the sight: help the spleen, preserve from drunkenness, and help the evil effects of it; provoke the menses.
Centaurium, majus, minus. Centaury the greater and less. They say the greater will do wonders in curing wounds: see the root. The less is a present remedy for the yellow jaundice, opens stoppings of the liver, gall, and spleen: purges choler, helps gout, clears the sight, purgeth the stomach, helps the dropsy and green sickness. It is only the tops and flowers which are useful, of which you may take a dram inwardly in powder, or half a handful boiled in posset-drink at a time.
Centinodium, &c. Knotgrass: cold in the second degree, helps spitting and other evacuations of blood, stops the menses and all other fluxes of blood, vomiting of blood, gonorrhæa, or running of the reins, weakness of the back and joints, inflammations of the privities, and such as make water by drops, and it is an excellent remedy for hogs that will not eat their meat. Your only way is to boil it, it is in its prime about the latter end of July or beginning of August: at which time being gathered it may be kept dry all the year. Brassavolus, Camerarius.
Caryfolium vulgare et Myrrhis. Common and great chervil. Take them both together, and they are temperately hot and dry, provoke urine, stir up venery, comfort the heart, and are good for old people; help pleurises and pricking in the sides.
Cæpea, Anagallis aquatica. Brooklime, hot and dry, but not so hot and dry as Water cresses; they help mangy horses; see Water cresses.
Ceterach, &c. Spleenwort: moderately hot, waste and consumes the spleen, insomuch that Vitruvius affirms he hath known hogs that have fed upon it, that have had (when they were killed) no spleens at all. It is excellently good for melancholy people, helps the stranguary, provokes urine, and breaks the stone in the bladder, boil it and drink the decoction; but because a little boiling will carry away the strength of it in vapours, let it boil but very little, and let it stand close stopped till it be cold before you strain it out; this is the general rule for all simples of this nature.
Chamapitys. Ground-pine; hot in the second degree, and dry in the third, helps the jaundice, sciatica, stopping of the liver, and spleen, provokes the menses, cleanses the entrails, dissolves congealed blood, resists poison, cures wounds and ulcers. Strong bodies may take a dram, and weak bodies half a dram of it in powder at a time.
Chamæmelum, sativum, sylvestre. Garden and Wild Chamomel. Garden Chamomel, is hot and dry in the first degree, and as gallant a medicine against the stone in the bladder as grows upon the earth, you may take it inwardly, I mean the decoction of it, being boiled in white wine, or inject the juice of it into the bladder with a syringe. It expels wind, helps belchings, and potently provokes the menses: used in baths, it helps pains in the sides, gripings and gnawings in the belly.
Chamædris, &c. Germander: hot and dry in the third degree; cuts and brings away tough humours, opens stoppings of the liver and spleen, helps coughs and shortness of breath, stranguary and stopping of urine, and provokes the menses; half a dram is enough to take at a time.
Chelidonium utrumque. Celandine both sorts. Small Celandine is usually called Pilewort; it is something hotter and dryer than the former, it helps the hemorrhoids or piles, bruised and applied to the grief. Celandine the greater is hot and dry (they say in the third degree) any way used; either the juice or made into an oil or ointment, it is a great preserver of the sight, and an excellent help for the eyes.
Cinara, &c. Artichokes. They provoke venery, and purge by urine.
Cichorium. Succory, to which add Endive which comes after. They are cold and dry in the second degree, cleansing and opening; they cool the heats of the liver, and are profitable in the yellow jaundice, and burning fevers; help excoriations in the privities, hot stomachs; and outwardly applied, help hot rheums in the eyes.
Cicuta. Hemlock: cold in the fourth degree, poisonous: outwardly applied, it helps Priapismus, the shingles, St. Anthony's fire, or any eating ulcers.
Clematis Daphnoides, Vinca provinca. Periwinkle. Hot in the second degree, something dry and binding; stops lasks, spitting of blood, and the menses.
Consolida major. Comfrey, I do not conceive the leaves to be so virtuous as the roots.
Consolida media. Bugles, of which before.
Consolida minima. Dasies.
Consolida rubra. Golden Rod: hot and dry in the second degree, cleanses the reins, provokes urine, brings away the gravel; an admirable herb for wounded people to take inwardly, stops blood, &c.
Consolida Regalis, Delphinium. Lark heels: resist poison, help the bitings of venomous beasts.
Saracenica Solidago. Saracens Confound. Helps inward wounds, sore mouths, sore throats, wasting of the lungs, and liver.
Coronepus. Buchorn Plantane, or Sea-plantain; cold and dry, helps the bitings of venomous beasts, either taken inwardly or applied to the wound: helps the cholic, breaks the stone. Ægineta.
Coronaria. Hath got many English names. Cottonweed, Cudweed, Chaffweed, and Petty Cotton. Of a drying and binding nature; boiled in lye, it keeps the head from nits and lice; being laid among clothes, it keeps them safe from moths, kills worms, helps the bitings of venomous beasts; taken in a tobacco-pipe, it helps coughs of the lungs, and vehement headaches.
Cruciata. Crosswort: (there is a kind of Gentian called also by this name, which I pass by) is drying and binding, exceeding good for inward or outward wounds, either inwardly taken, or outwardly applied: and an excellent remedy for such as are bursten.
Crassula. Orpine. Very good: outwardly used with vinegar, it clears the skin; inwardly taken, it helps gnawings of the stomach and bowels, ulcers in the lungs, bloody-flux, and quinsy in the throat, for which last disease it is inferior to none, take not too much of it at a time, because of its coolness.
Crithamus, &c. Sampire. Hot and dry, helps difficulty of urine, the yellow jaundice, provokes the menses, helps digestion, opens stoppings of the liver and spleen. Galen.
Cucumis Asininus. Wild Cucumbers. See Elaterium.
Cyanus major, minor. Blue bottle, great and small, a fine cooling herb, helps bruises, wounds, broken veins; the juice dropped into the eye, helps the inflammations thereof.
Cygnoglossam. Hound's-Tongue, cold and dry: applied to the fundament helps the hemorrhoids, heals wounds and ulcers, and is a present remedy against the bitings of dogs, burnings and scaldings.
Cypressus, Chamœ Cyparissus. Cypress-tree. The leaves are hot and binding, help ruptures, and Polypus or flesh growing on the nose.
Chamæ cyparissus. Is Lavender Cotton. Resists poison, and kills worms.
Disetamnus Cretensis. Dictamny, or Dittany of Creet, hot and dry, brings away dead children, hastens delivery, brings away the placenta, the very smell of it drives away venomous beasts, so deadly an enemy it is to poison; it is an admirable remedy against wounds and gunshot, wounds made with poisoned weapons, it draws out splinters, broken bones, &c. The dose from half a dram to a dram.
Dipsacus, sativ. sylv. Teazles, garden and wild, the leaves bruised and applied to the temples, allay the heat in fevers, qualify the rage in frenzies; the juice dropped into the ears, kills worms in them, dropped into the eyes, clears the sight, helps redness and pimples in the face, being anointed with it.
Ebulus. Dwarf Elder, or Walwort. Hot and dry in the third degree; waste hard swellings, being applied in form of a poultice; the hair of the head anointed with the juice of it turns it black; the leaves being applied to the place, help inflammations, burnings, scaldings, the bitings of mad dogs; mingled with bulls suet is a present remedy for the gout; inwardly taken, is a singular purge for the dropsy and gout.
Echium. Viper's-bugloss, Viper's-herb, Snake bugloss, Walbugloss, Wild-bugloss, several counties give it these several names. It is a singular remedy being eaten, for the biting of venomous beasts: continually eating of it makes the body invincible against the poison of serpents, toads, spiders, &c. however it be administered; it comforts the heart, expels sadness and melancholy. The rich may make the flowers into a conserve, and the herb into a syrup, the poor may keep it dry, both may keep it as a jewel.
Empetron, Calcifragra, Herniaria, &c. Rupture-wort, or Burst-wort. The English name tells you it is good against ruptures, and so such as are bursten shall find it, if they please to make trial of it,
either inwardly taken, or outwardly applied to the place, or both. Also the Latin names hold it forth to be good against the stone, which whoso tries shall find true.
Enula Campana. Elicampane. Provokes urine. See the root.
Epithimum. Dodder of Time, to which add common Dodder, which is usually that which grows upon flax: indeed every Dodder retains a virtue of that herb or plant it grows upon, as Dodder that grows upon Broom, provokes urine forcibly, and loosens the belly, and is moister than that which grows upon flax; that which grows upon time, is hotter and dryer than that which grows upon flax, even in the third degree, opens obstructions, helps infirmities of the spleen, purgeth melancholy, relieves drooping spirits, helps the rickets. That which grows on flax, is excellent for agues in young children, strengthens weak stomachs, purgeth choler, provokes urine, opens stoppings in the reins and bladder. That which grows upon nettles, provokes urine exceedingly. The way of using it is to boil it in white wine, or other convenient decoction, and boil it very little. &Aelig;tias, Mesue, Actuarius, Serapio, Avicenna.
Eruch. Rocket, hot and dry in the third degree, being eaten alone, causeth head-ache, by its heat procures urine. Galen.
Eupatorium. See Ageratum.
Euphragia. Eyebright is something hot and dry, the very sight of it refresheth the eyes; inwardly taken, it restores the sight, and makes old men's eyes young, a dram of it taken in the morning is worth a pair of spectacles, it comforts and strengthens the memory, outwardly applied to the place, it helps the eyes.
Filix fœmina.
Filicula, polypidium. See the roots.
Filipendula.
Malahathram. Indian leaf, hot and dry in the second degree, comforts the stomach exceedingly, helps digestion, provokes urine, helps inflammations of the eyes, secures cloaths from moths.
Fæniculum. Fennel, encreaseth milk in nurses, provokes urine, breaks the stone, easeth pains in the reins, opens stoppings, breaks wind, provokes the menses; you may boil it in white wine.
Fragaria. Strawberry leaves, are cold, dry, and binding, a singular remedy for inflammations and wounds, hot diseases in the throat; they stop fluxes and the terms, cool the heat of the stomach, and the inflammations of the liver. The best way is to boil them in barley water.
Fraxinus, &c. Ash-trees, the leaves are moderately hot and dry, cure the bitings of Adders, and Serpents; they stop looseness, and stay vomiting, help the rickets, open stoppages of the liver and spleen.
Fumaria. Fumitory: cold and dry, it opens and cleanses by urine, helps such as are itchy, and scabbed, clears the skin, opens stoppings of the liver and spleen, helps rickets, hypochondriac melancholy, madness, frenzies, quartan agues, loosens the belly, gently purgeth melancholy, and addust choler: boil it in white wine, and take this one general rule. All things of a cleansing or opening nature may be most commodiously boiled in white wine. Remember but this, and then I need not repeat it.
Galega. Goat's-rue. Temperate in quality, resists poison, kills worms, helps the falling-sickness, resists the pestilence. You may take a dram of it at a time in powder.
Galion. Ladies-bed straw: dry and binding, stanches blood, boiled in oil, the oil is good to anoint a weary traveller; inwardly it provokes venery.
Gentiana. See the root.
Genista. Brooms: hot and dry in the second degree, cleanse and open the stomach, break the stone in the reins and bladder, help the green sickness. Let such as are troubled with heart-qualms or faintings, forbear it, for it weakens the heart and spirit vital. See the flowers.
Geranium. Cranebill, the divers sorts of it, one of which is that which is called Muscata; it is thought to be cool and dry, helps hot swellings, and by its smell amends a hot brain.
Geranium Columbinum. Doves-foot; helps the wind cholic, pains in the belly, stone in the reins and bladder, and is good in ruptures, and inward wounds. I suppose these are the general virtues of them all.
Gramen. Grass. See the root.
Gratiola. Hedge-Hyssop, purges water and flegm, but works very churlishly. Gesner commends it in dropsies.
Asphodelus fœm. See the root.
Hepatica, Lichen. Liverwort, cold and dry, good for inflammations of the liver, or any other inflammations, yellow jaundice.
Hedera Arborea, Terrostris. Tree and Ground-Ivy. Tree-Ivy helps ulcers, burnings, scaldings, the bad effects of the spleen; the juice snuffed up the nose, purges the head, it is admirable for surfeits or headache, or any other ill effects coming of drunkenness. Ground-Ivy is that which usually is called Alehoof, hot and dry, the juice helps noise in the ears, fistulas, gouts, stoppings of the liver, it strengthens the reins and stops the menses, helps the yellow jaundice, and other diseases coming of stoppings of the liver, and is excellent for wounded people.
Herba Camphorata. Stinking Groundpine, is of a drying quality, and therefore stops defluxions either in the eyes or upon the lungs, the gout, cramps, palsies, aches: strengthens the nerves.
Herba Paralysis, Primula veris. Primroses, or Cowslips, which you will. The leaves help pains in the head and joints; see the flowers which are most in use.
Herba Paris. Herb True-love, or One-berry. It is good for wounds, falls, bruises, aposthumes, inflammations, ulcers in the privities. Herb True-love, is very cold in temperature. You may take half a dram of it at a time in powder.
Herba Roberti. A kind of Cranebill.
Herba venti, Anemone. Wind-flower. The juice snuffed up in the nose purgeth the head, it cleanses filthy ulcers, encreases milk in nurses, and outwardly by ointment, helps leprosies.
Herniaria. The same with Empetron.
Helxine. Pellitory of the wall. Cold, moist, cleansing, helps the stone and gravel in the kidnies, difficulty of urine, sore throats, pains in the ears, the juice being dropped in them; outwardly it helps the shingles and St. Anthony's fire.
Hyppoglossum. Horse-tongue, Tongue-blade or Double-Tongue. The roots help the stranguary, provoke urine, ease the hard labour of women, provoke the menses, the herb helps ruptures and the fits of the mother: it is hot in the second degree, dry in the first: boil it in white wine.
Hyppolapathum. Patience, or Monk's Rhubarb. See the Root.
Hypposclinum. Alexanders, or Alisanders: provoke urine, expel the placenta, help the stranguary, expel wind.
Sage either taken inwardly or beaten and applied plaister-wise to the matrix, draws forth both menses and placenta.
Horminum. Clary: hot and dry in the third degree; helps the weakness in the back, stops the running of the reins, and the Fluor Albus, provokes the menses, and helps women that are barren through coldness or moisture, or both: causes fruitfulness, but is hurtful for the memory. The usual way of taking it is to fry it with butter, or make a tansy with it.
Hydropiper. Arsmart. Hot and dry, consumes all cold swellings and blood congealed by bruises, and stripes; applied to the place, it helps that aposthume in the joints, commonly called a felon: strewed in a chamber, kills all the fleas there: this is hottest Arsmart, and is unfit to be given inwardly: there is a milder sort, called Persicaria, which is of a cooler and milder quality, drying, excellently good for putrified ulcers, kills worms. I had almost forgot that the former is an admirable remedy for the gout, being roasted between two tiles and applied to the grieved place, and yet I had it from Dr. Butler too.
Hysopus. Hysop. Helps coughs, shortness of breath, wheezing, distillations upon the lungs: it is of a cleansing quality: kills worms in the body, amends the whole color of the body, helps the dropsy and spleen, sore throats, and noise in the ears. See Syrup of Hysop.
Hyosciamus, &c. Henbane. The white Henbane is held to be cold in the third degree, the black or common Henbane and the yellow, in the fourth. They stupify the senses, and therefore not to be taken inwardly, outwardly applied, they help inflammations, hot gouts: applied to the temples they provoke sleep.
Hypericon. St. John's Wort. It is as gallant a wound-herb as any is, either given inwardly, or outwardly applied to the wound: it is hot and dry, opens stoppings, helps spitting and vomiting of blood, it cleanses the reins, provokes the menses, helps congealed blood in the stomach and meseraic veins, the falling-sickness, palsy, cramps and aches in the joints; you may give it in powder or any convenient decoction.
Hypoglottis, Laurus, Alexandrina. Laurel of Alexandria, provokes urine and the menses, and is held to be a singular help to women in travail.
Hypoglossum, the same with Hypoglossum before, only different names given by different authors, the one deriving his name from the tongue of a horse, of which form the leaf is; the other the form of the little leaf, because small leaves like small tongues grow upon the greater.
Iberis Cardamantice. Sciatica-cresses. I suppose so called because they help the Sciatica, or Huckle-bone Gout.
Ingunialis, Asther. Setwort or Shartwort: being bruised and applied, they help swellings, botches, and venerous swellings in the groin, whence they took their name, as also inflammation and falling out of the fundament.
Iris. See the roots.
Isatis, Glastum. Woad. Drying and binding; the side being bathed with it, it easeth pains in the spleen, cleanseth filthy corroding gnawing ulcers.
Iva Arthritica. The same with Camæpytis.
Iuncus oderatus. The same with Schœnanthus.
Labrum veneris. The same with Dipsacus.
Lactuca. Lettice. Cold and moist, cools the inflammation of the stomach, commonly called heart-burning: provokes sleep, resists drunkenness, and takes away the ill effects of it; cools the blood, quenches thirst, breeds milk, and is good for choleric bodies, and such as have a frenzy, or are frantic. It is more wholesome eaten boiled than raw.
Logabus, Herba Leporina. A kind of Trefoil growing in France and Spain. Let them that live there look after the virtues of it.
Lavendula. Lavender. Hot and dry in the third degree: the temples and forehead bathed with the juice of it; as also the smell of the herb helps swoonings, catalepsis, falling-sickness, provided it be not accompanied with a fever. See the flowers.
Laureola. Laurel. The leaves purge upward and downward: they are good for rheumatic people to chew in their mouths, for they draw forth much water.
Laurus. Bay-tree. The leaves are hot and dry, resist drunkenness, they gently bind and help diseases in the bladder, help the stinging of bees and wasps, mitigate the pain of the stomach, dry and heal, open obstructions of the liver and spleen, resist the pestilence.
Lappa Minor. The lesser Burdock.
Lentiscus. Mastich-tree. Both the leaves and bark of it stop fluxes (being hot and dry in the second degree) spitting and evacuations of blood, and the falling out of the fundament.
Lens palustris. Duckmeat. Cold and moist in the second degree, helps inflammations, hot swellings, and the falling out of the fundament, being warmed and applied to the place.
Lepidium Piperites. Dittander, Pepperwort, or Scar-wort. A hot fiery sharp herb, admirable for the gout being applied to the place: being only held in the hand, it helps the tooth-ache, and withall leaves a wan color in the hand that holds it.
Livisticum. Lovage. Clears the sight, takes away redness and freckles from the face.
Libanotis Coronaria. See Rosemary.
Linaria. Toad-flax, or Wild-flax: hot and dry, cleanses the reins and bladder, provokes urine, opens the stoppings of the liver and spleen, and helps diseases coming thereof: outwardly it takes away yellowness and deformity of the skin.
Lillium convallium. Lilly of the Valley. See the flowers.
Lingua Cervina. Hart's-tongue: drying and binding, stops blood, the menses and fluxes, opens stoppings of the liver and spleen, and diseases thence arising. The like quantity of Hart's-tongue, Knotgrass and Comfrey Roots, being boiled in water, and a draught of the decoction drunk every morning, and the materials which have boiled applied to the place, is a notable remedy for such as are bursten.
Limonium. Sea-bugloss, or Marsh-bugloss, or Sea-Lavender; the seeds being very drying and binding, stop fluxes and the menses, help the cholic and stranguary.
Lotus urbana. Authors make some flutter about this herb. I conceive the best take it to be Trisolium Odoratum, Sweet Trefoyl, which is of a temperate nature, cleanses the eyes gently of such things as hinder the sight, cures green wounds, ruptures, or burstness, helps such as urine blood or are bruised, and secures garments from moths.
Lupulus. Hops. Opening, cleansing, provoke urine, the young sprouts open stoppings of the liver and spleen, cleanse the blood, clear the skin, help scabs and itch, help agues, purge choler: they are usually boiled and taken as they eat asparagus, but if you would keep them, for they are excellent for these diseases, you may make them into a conserve, or into a syrup.
Lychnitis Coronaria: or as others write it, Lychnis. Rose Campion. I know no great physical virtue it hath.
Macis. See the barks.
Magistrantia, &c. Masterwort. Hot and dry in the third degree: it is good against poison, pestilence, corrupt and unwholesome air, helps windiness in the stomach, causeth an appetite to one's victuals, very profitable in falls and bruises, congealed and clotted blood, the bitings of mad-dogs; the leaves chewed in the mouth, cleanse the brain of superfluous humours, thereby preventing lethargies, and apoplexes.
Malva. Mallows. The best of Authors account wild Mallows to be best, and hold them to be cold and moist in the first degree, they are profitable in the bitings of venomous beasts, the stinging of bees and wasps, &c. Inwardly they resist poison, provoke to stool; outwardly they assuage hard swellings of the privities or other places; in clysters they help roughness and fretting of the entrails, bladder, or fundament; and so they do being boiled in water, and the decoction drank, as I have proved in the bloody flux.
Majorana. See Amaraeus.
Mandragora. Mandrakes. Fit for no vulgar use, but only to be used in cooling ointments.
Marrubium, album, nigrum, fœtidum.
Marrubium album, is common Horehound. Hot in the second degree, and dry in the third, opens the liver and spleen, cleanses the breast and lungs, helps old coughs, pains in the sides ptisicks, or ulceration of the lungs, it provokes the menses, eases hard labour in child-bearing, brings away the placenta. See the syrups.
Marrubium, nigrum, et fœtidum. Black and stinking Horehound, I take to be all one. Hot and dry in the third degree; cures the bitings of mad dogs, wastes and consumes hard knots in the fundament and matrix, cleanses filthy ulcers.
Marum. Herb Mastich. Hot and dry in the third degree, good against cramps and convulsions.
Matricaria. Feverfew. Hot in the third degree, dry in the second; opens, purges; a singular remedy for diseases incident to the matrix, and other diseases incident to women, eases their travail, and infirmities coming after it; it helps the vertigo or dissiness of the head, melancholy sad thoughts: you may boil it either alone, or with other herbs fit for the same purpose, with which this treatise will furnish you: applied to the wrists, it helps the ague.
Matrisylva. The same with Caprifolium.
Meliotus. Melilot. Inwardly taken, provokes urine, breaks the Stone, cleanses the reins and bladder, cutteth and cleanses the lungs of tough flegm, the juice dropped into the eyes, clears the sight, into the ears, mitigates pain and noise there; the head bathed with the juice mixed with vinegar, takes away the pains thereof: outwardly in pultisses, it assuages swellings in the privities and elsewhere.
Mellissa. Balm. Hot and dry: outwardly mixed with salt and applied to the neck, helps the King's-evil, bitings of mad dogs, venomous beasts, and such as cannot hold their neck as they should do; inwardly it is an excellent remedy for a cold and moist stomach, cheers the heart, refreshes the mind, takes away griefs, sorrow, and care, instead of which it produces joy and mirth. See the syrup. Galen, Avicenna.
Mentha sativa. Garden Mints, Spear Mints. Are hot and dry in the third degree, provoke hunger, are wholesome for the stomach, stay vomiting, stop the menses, help sore heads in children, strengthen the stomach, cause digestion; outwardly applied, they help the bitings of mad-dogs. Yet they hinder conception.
Mentha aquatica. Water Mints. Ease pains of the belly, headache, and vomiting, gravel in the kidnies and stone.
Methastrum. Horse-mint. I know no difference between them and water mints.
Mercurialis, mas, fœmina. Mercury male and female, they are both hot and dry in the second degree, cleansing, digesting, they purge watery humours, and further conception.
Mezereon. Spurge-Olive, or Widdow-wail. A dangerous purge, better let alone than meddled with.
Millefolium. Yarrow. Meanly cold and binding, an healing herb for wounds, stanches bleeding; and some say the juice snuffed up the nose, causeth it to bleed, whence it was called, Nose-bleed; it stops lasks, and the menses, helps the running of the reins, helps inflammations and excoriations of the priapus, as also inflammations of wounds. Galen.
Muscus. Mosse. Is something cold and binding, yet usually retains a smatch of the property of the tree it grows on; therefore that which grows upon oaks is very dry and binding. Serapio saith
that it being infused in wine, and the wine drank, it stays vomiting and fluxes, as also the Fluor Albus.
Myrtus. Myrtle-tree. The leaves are of a cold earthly quality, drying and binding, good for fluxes, spitting and vomiting of blood; stop the Fluor Albus and menses.
Nardus. See the root.
Nasturtium, Aquaticum, Hortense. Water-cresses, and Garden-cresses. Garden-cresses are hot and dry in the fourth degree, good for the scurvy, sciatica, hard swellings; yet do they trouble the belly, ease pains of the spleen, provoke lust. Dioscorides. Water-cresses are hot and dry, cleanse the blood, help the scurvy, provoke urine and the menses, break the stone, help the green-sickness, cause a fresh lively color.
Nasturtium Alhum, Thlaspie. Treacle-mustard. Hot and dry in the third degree, purges violently, dangerous for pregnant women. Outwardly it is applied with profit to the gout.
Nicorimi. Tobacco. It is hot and dry in the second degree, and of a cleansing nature: the leaves warmed and applied to the head, are excellently good in inveterate head-aches and megrims, if the diseases come through cold or wind, change them often till the diseases be gone, help such whose necks be stiff: it eases the faults of the breast: Asthmas or head-flegm in the lappets of the lungs: eases the pains of the stomach and windiness thereof: being heated by the fire, and applied hot to the side, they loosen the belly, and kill worms being applied unto it in like manner: they break the stone being applied in like manner to the region of the bladder: help the rickets, being applied to the belly and sides: applied to the navel, they give present ease to the fits of the mother: they take away cold aches in the joints applied to them: boiled, the liquor absolutely and speedily cures scabs and itch: neither is there any better salve in the world for wounds than may be made of it: for it cleanses, fetches out the filth though it lie in the bones, brings up the flesh from the bottom, and all this it doth speedily: it cures wounds made with poisoned weapons, and for this Clusius brings many experiences too tedious here to relate. It is an admirable thing for carbuncles and plague-sores, inferior to none: green wounds 'twill cure in a trice: ulcers and gangreens very speedily, not only in men, but also in beasts, therefore the Indians dedicated it to their god. Taken in a pipe, it hath almost as many virtues; it easeth weariness, takes away the sense of hunger and thirst, provokes to stool: he saith, the Indians will travel four days without either meat or drink, by only chewing a little of this in their mouths. It eases the body of superfluous humours, opens stoppings. See the ointment of Tobacco.
Nummularia. Money-wort, or Herb Two-pence; cold, dry, binding, helps fluxes, stops the menses, helps ulcers in the lungs; outwardly it is a special herb for wounds.
Nymphea. See the flowers.
Ocynum. Basil, hot and moist. The best use that I know of it, is, it gives speedy deliverance to women in travail. Let them not take above half a dram of it at a time in powder, and be sure also the birth be ripe, else it causes abortion.
Oleæ folia. Olive leaves: they are hard to come by here.
Ononis. Restharrow. See the roots.
Ophioglossum. Adder's-tongue. The leaves are very drying: being boiled in oil they make a dainty green balsam for green wounds: taken inwardly, they help inward wounds.
Origanum. Origany: a kind of wild Marjoram; hot and dry in the third degree, helps the bitings of venomous beasts, such as have taken Opium, Hemlock, or Poppy; provokes urine, brings down the menses, helps old coughs; in an ointment it helps scabs and itch.
Oxylapathum. Sorrel. See Acetosa.
Papaver, &c. Poppies, white, black, or erratick. I refer you to the syrups of each.
Parietaria. Given once before under the name of Helxine.
Pastinæa. Parsnips. See the roots.
Persicaria. See Hydropiper. This is the milder sort of Arsmart I described there. If ever you find it amongst the compounds, take it under that notion.
Pentaphyllium. Cinquefoil: very drying, yet but meanly hot, if at all; helps ulcers in the mouth, roughness of the wind-pipe (whence comes hoarseness and coughs, &c.), helps fluxes, creeping ulcers, and the yellow jaundice; they say one leaf cures a quotidian ague, three a tertain, and four a quartan. I know it will cure agues without this curiosity, if a wise man have the handling of it; otherwise a cart load will not do it.
Petroselinum. Parsley. See Smallage.
Per Columbinus. See Geranium.
Persicarium folia. Peach Leaves: they are a gentle, yet a complete purger of choler, and disease coming from thence; fit for children because of their gentleness. You may boil them in white wine: a handfull is enough at a time.
Pilosella. Mouse-ear: once before and this is often enough.
Pithyusa. A new name for Spurge of the last Edition.
Plantago. Plantain. Cold and dry; an herb, though common, yet let none despise it, for the decoction of it prevails mightily against tormenting pains and excoriations of the entrails, bloody fluxes, it stops the menses, and spitting of blood, phthisicks, or consumptions of the lungs, the running of the reins, and the Fluor Albus, pains in the head, and frenzies: outwardly it clears the sight, takes away inflammations, cabs, itch, the shingles, and all spreading sores, and is as wholesome an herb as can grow about any an house. Tragus, Dioscorides.
Poliam, &c. Polley, or Pellamountain. All the sorts are hot in the second degree, and dry in the third: helps dropsies, the yellow jaundice, infirmities of the spleen, and provokes urine. Dioscorides.
Polygonum. Knotgrass.
Polytricum. Maidenhair.
Portulaca. Purslain. Cold and moist in the second or third degree: cools hot stomachs, and it is admirable for one that hath his teeth on edge by eating sour apples, it cools the blood, liver, and is good for hot diseases, or inflammations in any of these places, stops fluxes, and the menses, and helps all inward inflammations whatsoever.
Porrum. Leeks. See the roots.
Primula Veris. See Cowslips, or the Flowers, which you will.
Prunella. Self-heal, Carpenter's-herb, and Sicklewort. Moderately hot and dry, binding. See Bugle, the virtues being the same.
Pulegium. Pennyroyal; hot and dry in the third degree; provokes urine, breaks the stone in the reins, strengthens women's backs, provokes the menses, easeth their labour in child-bed, brings away the placenta, stays vomiting, strengthens the brain, breaks wind, and helps the vertigo.
Pulmonaria, arborea, et Symphytum maculosum. Lung-wort. It helps infirmities of the lungs, as hoarseness, coughs, wheezing, shortness of breath, &c. You may boil it in Hyssop-water, or any other water that strengthens the lungs.
Pulicaria. Fleabane; hot and dry in the third degree, helps the biting of venomous beasts, wounds and swellings, the yellow jaundice, the falling sickness, and such as cannot make water; being burnt, the smoak of it kills all the gnats and fleas in the chamber; it is dangerous for pregnant women.
Pyrus sylvestris. Wild Pear-tree. I know no virtue in the leaves.
Pyrola. Winter-green. Cold and dry, and very binding, stops fluxes, and the menses, and is admirably good in green wounds.
Quercus folia. Oak Leaves. Are much of the nature of the former, stay the Fluor Albus. See the bark.
Ranunculus. Hath got a sort of English Names: Crowfoot, King-kob, Gold-cups, Gold-knobs, Butter-flowers, &c. they are of a notable hot quality, unfit to be taken inwardly. If you bruise the roots and apply them to a plague-sore, they are notable things to draw the venom to them.
Raparum folia. If they do mean Turnip leaves, when they are young and tender, they are held to provoke urine.
Rosmarirum. Rosemary, hot and dry in the second degree, binding, stops fluxes, helps stuffings in the head, the yellow jaundice, helps the memory, expels wind. See the flowers. Serapio, Dioscorides.
Rosa solis. See the water.
Rosa alba, rubra, Damascena. White, Red, and Damask Roses.
Rumex. Dock. All the ordinary sort of Docks are of a cool and drying substance, and therefore stop fluxes; and the leaves are seldom used in physic.
Rubus Idæus. Raspis, Raspberries, or Hind-berries. I know no great virtues in the leaves.
Ruta. Rue, or Herb of Grace; hot and dry in the third degree, consumes the seed, and is an enemy to generation, helps difficulty of breathing, and inflammations of the lungs, pains in the sides, inflammations of the priapus and matrix, naught for pregnant women: no herb resists poison more. It strengthens the heart exceedingly, and no herb better than this in pestilential times, take it what manner you will or can.
Ruta Muraria. See Adianthum.
Sabina. Savin: hot and dry in the third degree, potently provokes the menses, expels both birth and afterbirth, they (boiled in oil and used in ointments) stay creeping ulcers, scour away spots, freckles and sunburning from the face; the belly anointed with it kills worms in children.
Salvia. Sage: hot and dry in the second or third degree, binding, it stays abortion in such women as are subject to come before their times, it causes fruitfulness, it is singularly good for the brain, strengthens the senses and memory, helps spitting and vomiting of blood: outwardly, heat hot with a little vinegar and applied to the side, helps stitches and pains in the sides.
Salix. Willow leaves, are cold, dry, and binding, stop spitting of blood, and fluxes; the boughs stuck about a chamber, wonderfully cool the air, and refresh such as have fevers; the leaves applied to the head, help hot diseases there, and frenzies.
Sampsucum. Marjoram.
Sunicula. Sanicle; hot and dry in the second degree, cleanses wounds and ulcers.
Saponaria. Sope-wort, or Bruise-wort, vulgarly used in bruises and cut fingers, and is of notable use in the veneral disease.
Satureia. Savory. Summer savory is hot and dry in the third degree, Winter savory is not so hot, both of them expel wind.
Sazifragia alba. White Saxifrage, breaks wind, helps the cholic and stone.
Scabiosa. Scabious: hot and dry in the second degree, cleanses the breast and lungs, helps old rotten coughs, and difficulty of breathing, provokes urine, and cleanses the bladder of filthy stuff, breaks aposthumes, and cures scabs and itch. Boil it in white wine.
Scariola. An Italian name for Succory.
Schœnanthus. Schœnanth, Squinanth, or Chamel's hay; hot and binding. It digests and opens the passages of the veins: surely it is as great an expeller of wind as any is.
Scordium. Water-Germander, hot and dry, cleanses ulcers in the inward parts, it provokes urine and the menses, opens stopping of the liver, spleen, reins, bladder, and matrix, it is a great counter poison, and eases the breast oppressed with flegm. See Diascordium.
Scrophularia. Figwort, so called of Scrophula, the King's Evil, which it cures they say, by being only hung about the neck. If not, bruise it, and apply it to the place, it helps the piles or hemorrhoids.
Sedum. And all his sorts. See Barba Jovis.
Senna. It heats in the second degree and dries in the first, cleanses, purges and digests; it carries downward both choler, flegm, and melancholy, it cleanses the brain, heart, liver, spleen; it cheers the senses, opens obstructions, takes away dullness of sight, helps deafness, helps melancholy and madness, resists resolution of the nerves, pains of the head, scabs, itch, falling-sickness, the windiness of it is corrected with a little ginger. You may boil half an ounce of it at a time, in water or white wine, but boil it not too much; half an ounce is a moderate dose to be boiled for any reasonable body.
Serpillum. Mother-of-Time, with Time; it is hot and dry in the third degree, it provokes the menses, and helps the stranguary or stoppage of urine, gripings in the belly, ruptures, convulsions, inflammation of the liver, lethargy, and infirmities of the spleen, boil it in white wine. Ætius, Galen.
Sigillum Solomonis. Solomon's seal. See the root.
Smyrnium. Alexander of Crete.
Solanum. Night-shade: very cold and dry, binding; it is somewhat dangerous given inwardly, unless by a skilful hand; outwardly it helps the Shingles, St. Anthony's fire, and other hot inflammations.
Soldanella. Bindweed, hot and dry in the second degree, it opens obstructions of the liver, and purges watery humours, and is therefore very profitable in dropsies, it is very hurtful to the stomach, and therefore if taken inwardly it had need be well corrected with cinnamon, ginger, or annis-seed, &c.
Sonchus levis Asper. Sow-thistles smooth and rough, they are of
a cold, watery, yet binding quality, good for frenzies, they increase milk in nurses, and cause the children which they nurse to have a good color, help gnawings of the stomach coming of a hot cause; outwardly they help inflammations, and hot swellings, cool the heat of the fundament and privities.
Sophi Chirurgorum. Fluxweed: drying without any manifest heat or coldness; it is usually found about old ruinous buildings; it is so called because of its virtue in stopping fluxes.
Shinachia. Spinage. I never read any physical virtues of it.
Spina Alba. See the root.
Spica. See Nardus.
Stæbe. Silver Knapweed. The virtues be the same with Scabious, and some think the herbs too; though I am of another opinion.
Stœchas. French Lavender. Cassidony, is a great counterpoison, opens obstructions of the liver and spleen, cleanses the matrix and bladder, brings out corrupt humours, provokes urine.
Succisa, Marsus Diaboli. Devil's-bit. Hot and dry in the second degree: inwardly taken, it eases the fits of the mother, and breaks wind, takes away swellings in the mouth, and slimy flegm that stick to the jaws, neither is there a more present remedy in the world for those cold swellings in the neck which the vulgar call the almonds of the ears, than this herb bruised and applied to them.
Suchaha. An Egyptian Thorn. Very hard, if not impossible to come by here.
Tanacetum. Tansy: hot in the second degree and dry in the third; the very smell of it stays abortion, or miscarriages in women; so it doth being bruised and applied to their navels, provokes urine, and is a special help against the gout.
Taraxacon. Dandelion, or to write better French, Dent-de-lion, for in plain English, it is called lyon's tooth; it is a kind of Succory, and thither I refer you.
Tamariscus. Tamiris. It hath a dry cleansing quality, and hath a notable virtue against the rickets, and infirmities of the spleen, provokes the menses. Galen, Dioscorides.
Telephium. A kind of Opine.
Thlaspi. See Nasturtium.
Thymbra. A wild Savory.
Thymum. Thyme. Hot and dry in the third degree; helps coughs and shortness of breath, provokes the menses, brings away dead children and the after birth; purges flegm, cleanses the breast and lungs, reins and matrix; helps the sciatica, pains in the breast, expels wind in any part of the body, resists fearfulness and melancholy, continual pains in the head, and is profitable for such as have the falling-sickness to smell to.
Thymælea. The Greek name for Spurge-Olive: Mezereon being the Arabick name.
Tithymallus, Esula, &c. Spurge. Hot and dry in the fourth degree: a dogged purge, better let alone than taken inwardly: hair anointed with the juice of it will fall off: it kills fish, being mixed with any thing that they will eat: outwardly it cleanses ulcers, takes away freckles, sunburning and morphew from the face.
Tormentilla. See the root.
Trinitatis herba. Pansies, or Heart's-ease. They are cold and moist, both herbs and flowers, excellent against inflammations of the breast or lungs, convulsions or falling-sickness, also they are held to be good for venereal complaints.
Trifolium. Trefoil: dry in the third degree, and cold. The ordinary Meadow Trefoil, cleanses the bowels of slimy humours that stick to them, being used either in drinks or clysters; outwardly they take away inflammations.
Tussilago. Colt's-foot: something cold and dry, and therefore good for inflammations, they are admirably good for coughs, and consumptions of the lungs, shortness of breath, &c. It is often used and with good success taken in a tobacco-pipe, being cut and mixed with a little oil of annis seeds. See the Syrup of Colt's-foot.
Valeriana. Valerian, or Setwall. See the roots.
Verbascum, Thapsus Barbatus. Mullin, or Higtaper. It is something dry, and of a digesting, cleansing quality, stops fluxes and the hemorrhoids, it cures hoarseness, the cough, and such as are broken winded.
Verbena. Vervain: hot and dry, a great opener, cleanser, healer, it helps the yellow jaundice, defects in the reins and bladder, pains in the head; if it be but bruised and hung about the neck, all diseases in the privities; made into an ointment it is a sovereign remedy for old head-aches, as also frenzies, it clears the skin, and causes a lovely color.
Voronica. See Betonica Pauli.
Violaria. Violet Leaves: they are cool, ease pains in the head proceeding of heat and frenzies, either inwardly taken or outwardly applied; heat of the stomach, or inflammation of the lungs.
Vitis Viniseria. The manured Vine: the leaves are binding and cool withal; the burnt ashes of the sticks of a vine, scour the teeth and make them as white as snow; the leaves stop bleeding, fluxes, heart-burnings, vomitings; as also the longings of pregnant women. The coals of a burnt Vine, in powder, mixed with honey, doth make the teeth as white as ivory, which are rubbed with it.
Vincitoxicum. Swallow-wort. A pultis made with the leaves helps sore breasts, and also soreness of the matrix.
Virga Pastoris. A third name for Teazles. See Dipsatus.
Virga Aurea. See Consolida.
Ulmaria. See the root. Meadsweet.
Umbilicus Veneris. Navil-wort. Cold, dry, and binding, therefore helps all inflammations; they are very good for kibed heels, being bathed with it and a leaf laid over the sore.
Urtica. Nettles: an herb so well known, that you may find them by the feeling in the darkest night: they are something hot, not very hot; the juice stops bleeding; they provoke lust, help difficulty of breathing, pleurisies, inflammations of the lung; that troublesome cough that women call the Chincough; they exceedingly break the stone, provoke urine, and help such as cannot hold their necks upright. Boil them in white wine.
Usnea. Moss; once before.

FLOWERS

Borage, and Bugloss flowers strengthen the brain, and are profitable in fevers.
Chamomel flowers, heat and assuage swellings, inflammation of the bowels, dissolve wind, are profitably given in clysters or drink, to such as are troubled with the cholic, or stone.
Stæchea, opens stoppings in the bowels, and strengthens the whole body.
Saffron powerfully concocts, and sends out whatever humour offends the body, drives back inflammations; applied outwardly, encreases venery, and provokes urine.
Clove-Gilliflowers, resist the pestilence, strengthen the heart, liver, and stomach, and provoke venery.
Schœnanth (which I touched slightly amongst the herbs) provokes urine potently, provokes the menses, breaks wind, helps such as spit or vomit blood, eases pains of the stomach, reins, and spleen, helps dropsies, convulsions, and inflammations of the womb.
Lavender-flowers, resist all cold afflictions of the brain, convulsions, falling-sickness, they strengthen cold stomachs, and open obstructions of the liver, they provoke urine and the menses, bring forth the birth and placenta.
Hops, open stoppings of the bowels, and for that cause beer is better than ale.
Balm-flowers, cheer the heart and vital spirits, strengthen the stomach.
Rosemary-flowers, strengthen the brain exceedingly, and resist madness; clear the sight.
Winter-Gilliflowers, or Wall-flowers, help inflammation of the womb, provoke the menses, and help ulcers in the mouth.
Honey-suckles, provoke urine, ease the pains of the spleen, and such as can hardly fetch their breath.
Mallows, help coughs.
Red Roses, cool, bind, strengthen both vital and animal virtue, restore such as are in consumptions, strengthen. There are so many compositions of them which makes me more brief in the simples.
Violets, (to wit, the blue ones,) cool and moisten, provoke sleep, loosen the belly, resist fevers, help inflammations, correct the heat of choler, ease the pains in the head, help the roughness of the wind-pipe, diseases in the throat, inflammations in the breast and sides, plurisies, open stoppings of the liver, and help the yellow jaundice.
Chicory, (or Succory as the vulgar call it) cools and strengthens the liver, so doth Endive.
Water lilies ease pains of the head coming of choler and heat, provoke sleep, cool inflammations, and the heat in fevers.
Pomegranate-flowers, dry and bind, stop fluxes, and the menses.
Cowslips, strengthen the brain, senses, and memory, exceedingly, resist all diseases there, as convulsions, falling-sickness, palsies, &c.
Centaury, purges choler and gross humours, helps the yellow jaundice, opens obstructions of the liver, helps pains of the spleen, provokes the menses, brings away birth and afterbirth.
Elder flowers, help dropsies, cleanse the blood, clear the skin, open stoppings of the liver and spleen, and diseases arising therefrom.
Bean-flowers, clear the skin, stop humours flowing into the eyes.
Peach-tree flowers, purge choler gently.
Broom-flowers, purge water, and are good in dropsies.
The temperature of all these differ either very little or not at all from the herbs.
The way of using the flowers I did forbear, because most of them may, and are usually made into conserves, of which you may take the quantity of a nutmeg in the morning; all of them may be kept dry a year, and boiled with other herbs conducing to the cures they do.

FRUITS AND THEIR BUDS

Green Figs, are held to be of ill juice, but the best is, we are not much troubled with them in England; dry figs help coughs, cleanse the breast, and help infirmities of the lungs, shortness of wind, they loose the belly, purge the reins, help inflammations of the liver and spleen; outwardly they dissolve swellings.
Pine-nuts, restore such as are in consumptions, amend the failings of the lungs, concoct flegm, and yet are naught for such as are troubled with the head-ache.
Dates, are binding, stop eating ulcers being applied to them; they are very good for weak stomachs, for they soon digest, and breed good nourishment, they help infirmities of the reins, bladder, and womb.
Sebestens, cool choler, violent heat of the stomach, help roughness of the tongue and wind-pipe, cool the reins and bladder.
Raisins of the Sun, help infirmities of the breast and liver, restore consumptions, gently cleanse and move to stool.
Walnuts, kill worms, resist the pestilence, (I mean the green ones, not the dry).
Capers eaten before meals, provoke hunger.
Nutmegs, strengthen the brain, stomach, and liver, provoke urine, ease the pains of the spleen, stop looseness, ease pains of the head, and pains in the joints, strengthen the body, take away weakness coming of cold, and cause a sweet breath.
Cloves, help digestion, stop looseness, provoke lust, and quicken the sight.
Pepper, binds, expels wind, helps the cholic, quickens digestion oppressed with cold, heats the stomach.
Quinces. See the Compositions.
Pears are grateful to the stomach, drying, and therefore help fluxes.
All plums that are sharp or sour, are binding, the sweet are loosening.
Cucumbers, cool the stomach, and are good against ulcers in the bladder.
Galls, are exceeding binding, help ulcers in the mouth, wasting of the gums, ease the pains of the teeth, help the falling out of the womb and fundament, make the hair black.
Pompions are a cold and moist fruit, of small nourishment, they provoke urine, outwardly applied; the flesh of them helps inflammations and burnings; applied to the forehead they help inflammations of the eyes.
Melons, have few other virtues.
Apricots, are very grateful to the stomach, and dry up the humours thereof. Peaches are held to do the like.
Cubebs, are hot and dry in the third degree, they expel wind, and cleanse the stomach of tough and viscous humours, they ease the
pains of the spleen, and help cold diseases of the womb, they cleanse the head of flegm and strengthen the brain, they heat the stomach and provoke venery.
Bitter Almonds, are hot in the first degree and dry in the second, they cleanse and cut thick humours, cleanse the lungs, and eaten every morning, they are held to preserve from drunkenness.
Bay-berries, heat, expel wind, mitigate pain; are excellent for cold infirmities of the womb, and dropsies.
Cherries are of different qualities according to their different taste, the sweet are quickest of digestion, but the sour are more pleasing to a hot stomach, and procure appetite to one's meat.
Medlars, are strengthening to the stomach, binding, and the green are more binding than the rotten, and the dry than the green.
Olives, cool and bind.
English-currants, cool the stomach, and are profitable in acute fevers, they quench thirst, resist vomiting, cool the heat of choler, provoke appetite, and are good for hot complexions.
Services, or Chockers are of the nature of Medlars, but something weaker in operation.
Barberries, quench thirst, cool the heat of choler, resist the pestilence, stay vomiting and fluxes, stop the menses, kill worms, help spitting of blood, fasten the teeth, and strengthen the gums.
Strawberries, cool the stomach, liver, and blood, but are very hurtful for such as have agues.
Winter-Cherries, potently provoke urine, and break the stone.
Cassia-fistula, is temperate in quality, gently purgeth choler and flegm, clarifies the blood, resists fevers, cleanses the breast and lungs, it cools the reins, and thereby resists the breeding of the stone, it provokes urine, and therefore is exceeding good for the running of the reins in men, and the Fluor Albus in women.
All the sorts or Myrobalans, purge the stomach; the Indian Myrobalans, are held to purge melancholy most especially, the other flegm; yet take heed you use them not in stoppings of the bowels: they are cold and dry, they all strengthen the heart, brain, and sinews, strengthen the stomach, relieve the senses, take away tremblings and heart-qualms. They are seldom used alone.
Prunes, are cooling and loosening.
Tamarinds, are cold and dry in the second degree, they purge choler, cool the blood, stay vomiting, help the yellow jaundice, quench thirst, cool hot stomachs, and hot livers.
I omit the use of these also as resting confident a child of three years old, if you should give it Raisins of the sun or Cherries, would not ask how it should take them.

SEEDS OR GRAINS

Coriander seed, hot and dry, expels wind, but is hurtful to the head; sends up unwholesome vapours to the brain, dangerous for mad people.
Fenugreek seeds, are of a softening, discussing nature, they cease inflammations, be they internal or external: bruised and mixed with vinegar they ease the pains of the spleen: being applied to the sides, help hardness and swellings of the matrix, being boiled, the decoction helps scabby heads.
Lin-seed hath the same virtues with Fenugreek.
Gromwell seed, provokes urine, helps the cholic, breaks the stone, and expels wind. Boil them in white wine; but bruise them first.
Lupines, ease the pains of the spleen, kill worms and cast them out: outwardly, they cleanse filthy ulcers, and gangrenes, help scabs, itch, and inflammations.
Dill seed, encreases milk in nurses, expels wind, stays vomitings, provokes urine; yet it dulls the sight, and is an enemy to generation.
Smallage seed, provokes urine and the menses, expels wind, resists poison, and eases inward pains, it opens stoppings in any part of the body, yet it is hurtful for such as have the falling-sickness, and for pregnant women.
Rocket seed, provokes urine, stirs up lust, encreases seed, kills worms, eases pains of the spleen. Use all these in like manner.
Basil seed. If we may believe Dioscorides and Crescentius, cheers the heart, and strengthens a moist stomach, drives away melancholy, and provokes urine.
Nettle seed, provokes venery, opens stoppages of the womb, helps inflammations of the sides and lungs; purgeth the breast: boil them (being bruised) in white wine also.
The seeds of Ammi, or Bishop's-weed, heat and dry, help difficulty of urine, and the pains of the cholic, the bitings of venomous beasts; they provoke the menses, and purge the womb.
Annis seeds, heat and dry, ease pain, expel wind, cause a sweet breath, help the dropsy, resist poison, breed milk, and stop the Fluor Albus in women, provoke venery, and ease the head-ache.
Cardamoms, heat, kill worms, cleanse the reins, and provoke urine.
Fennel seed, breaks wind, provokes urine and the menses, encreases milk in nurses.
Cummin seed, heat, bind, and dry, stop blood, expel wind, ease pain, help the bitings of venomous beasts: outwardly applied (viz. in Plaisters) they are of a discussing nature.
Carrot seeds, are windy, provoke lust exceedingly, and encrease seed, provoke urine and the menses, cause speedy delivery to women in travail, and bring away the placenta. All these also may be boiled in white wine.
Nigella seeds, boiled in oil, and the forehead anointed with it, ease pains in the head, take away leprosy, itch, scurf, and help scaly heads. Inwardly taken they expel worms, they provoke urine, and the menses, help difficulty of breathing.
Stavesacre, kills lice in the head. I hold it not fitting to be given inwardly.
Olibanum mixed with as much Barrow's Grease (beat the Olibanum first in powder) and boiled together, make an ointment which will kill the lice in children's heads, and such as are subject to breed them, will never breed them. A Medicine cheap, safe, and sure, which breeds no annoyance to the brain.
The seeds of Water-cresses, heat, yet trouble the stomach and belly; ease the pains of the spleen, are very dangerous for pregnant women, yet they provoke lust; outwardly applied, they help leprosies, scaly heads, and the falling off of hair, as also carbuncles, and cold ulcers in the joints.
Mustard seed, heats, extenuates, and draws moisture from the brain: the head being shaved and anointed with Mustard, is a good remedy for the lethargy, it helps filthy ulcers, and hard swellings in the mouth, it helps old aches coming of cold.
French Barley, is cooling, nourishing, and breeds milk.
Sorrel seeds, potently resist poison, help fluxes, and such stomachs as loath their meat.
Succory seed, cools the heat of the blood, extinguishes lust, opens stoppings of the liver and bowels, it allays the heat of the body, and produces a good color, it strengthens the stomach, liver, and reins.
Poppy seeds, ease pain, provoke sleep. Your best way is to make an emulsion of them with barley water.
Mallow seeds, ease pains in the bladder.
Chich-pease, are windy, provoke lust, encrease milk in nurses, provoke the menses, outwardly, they help scabs, itch, and inflammations of the testicles, ulcers, &c.
White Saxifrage seeds, provoke urine, expel wind, and break the stone. Boil them in white wine.
Rue seeds, helps such as cannot hold their water.
Lettice seed, cools the blood, restrains venery.
Also Gourds, Citruls, Cucumbers, Melons, Purslain, and Endive seeds, cool the blood, as also the stomach, spleen, and reins, and allay the heat of fevers. Use them as you were taught to do poppy-seeds.
Wormseed, expels wind, kills worms.
Ash-tree Keys, ease pains in the sides, help the dropsy, relieve men weary with labour, provoke venery, and make the body lean.
Piony seeds, help the Ephialtes, or the disease the vulgar call the Mare, as also the fits of the mother, and other such like infirmities of the womb, stop the menses, and help convulsions.
Broom seed, potently provoke urine, break the stone.
Citron seeds, strengthen the heart, cheer the vital spirit, resist pestilence and poison.

TEARS, LIQUORS, AND ROZINS

Laudanum, is of a heating, mollifying nature, it opens the mouth of the veins, stays the hair from falling off, helps pains in the ears, and hardness of the womb. It is used only outwardly in plaisters.
Assafœtida. Is commonly used to allay the fits of the mother by smelling to it; they say, inwardly taken, it provokes lust, and expels wind.
Benzoin, or Benjamin, makes a good perfume.
Sanguis Draconis, cools and binds exceedingly.
Aloes, purges choler and flegm, and with such deliberation that it is often given to withstand the violence of other purges; it preserves the senses and betters the apprehension, it strengthens the liver, and helps the yellow-jaundice. Yet is naught for such as are troubled with the hemorrhoids, or have agues. I do not like it taken raw. See Aloe Rosata, which is nothing but it washed with the juice of roses.
Manna, is temperately hot, of a mighty dilative quality, windy, cleanses choler gently, also it cleanses the throat and stomach. A child may take an ounce of it at a time melted in milk, and the dross strained out, it is good for them when they are scabby.
Scamony, or Diagridium, call it by which name you please, is a desperate purge, hurtful to the body by reason of its heat, windiness, corroding, or gnawing, and violence of working. I would advise my countrymen to let it alone; it will gnaw their bodies as fast as doctors gnaw their purses.
Opopanax, is of a heating, molifying, digesting quality.
Gum Elemi, is exceeding good for fractures of the skull, as also in wounds, and therefore is put in plaisters for that end. See Arceus his Liniment.
Tragacanthum, commonly called Gum Traganth, and Gum Dragon, helps coughs, hoarseness, and distillations on the lungs.
Bdellium, heats and softens, helps hard swellings, ruptures, pains in the sides, hardness of the sinews.
Galbanum. Hot and dry, discussing; applied to the womb, it hastens both birth and after-birth, applied to the navel it stays the strangling of the womb, commonly called the fits of the mother, helps pains in the sides, and difficulty of breathing, being applied to it, and the smell of it helps the vertigo or diziness in the head.
Myrh, heats and dries, opens and softens the womb, provokes the birth and after-birth; inwardly taken, it helps old coughs and hoarseness, pains in the sides, kills worms, and helps a stinking breath, helps the wasting of the gums, fastens the teeth: outwardly it helps wounds, and fills up ulcers with flesh. You may take half a dram at a time.
Mastich, strengthens the stomach exceedingly, helps such as vomit or spit blood, it fastens the teeth and strengthens the gums, being chewed in the mouth.
Frankinsense, and Olibanum, heat and bind, fill up old ulcers with flesh, stop bleeding, but is extremely bad for mad people.
Turpentine, purges, cleanses the reins, helps the running of them.
Styrax Calamitis, helps coughs, and distillations upon the lungs, hoarseness, want of voice, hardness of the womb, but it is bad for head-aches.
Ammoniacum, applied to the side, helps the hardness and pains of the spleen.
Camphire, eases pains of the head coming of heat, takes away inflammations, and cools any place to which it is applied.

JUICES

That all juices have the same virtues with the herbs or fruits whereof they are made, I suppose few or none will deny, therefore I shall only name a few of them, and that briefly.
Sugar is held to be hot in the first degree, strengthens the lungs, takes away the roughness of the throat, succours the reins and bladder.
The juice of Citrons cools the blood, strengthens the heart, mitigates the violent heat of fevers.
The juice of Lemons works the same effect, but not so powerfully.
Juice of Liquorice, strengthens the lungs, helps coughs and colds.

THINGS BRED FROM PLANTS

These have been treated of before, only two excepted. The first of which is:
Agaricus. Agarick: It purges flegm, choler, and melancholy, from the brain, nerves, muscles, marrow (or more properly brain) of the back, it cleanses the breast, lungs, liver, stomach, spleen, reins, womb, joints; it provokes urine, and the menses, kills worms, helps pains in the joints, and causes a good color: it is very seldom or never taken alone. See Syrup of Roses with Agarick.
Lastly, Vicus Quircinus, or Misleto of the Oak, helps the falling-sickness being either taken inwardly, or hung about one's neck.

LIVING CREATURES

Millepedes (so called from the multitude of their feet, though it cannot be supposed they have a thousand) sows, hog-lice, wood-lice, being bruised and mixed with wine, they provoke urine, help the yellow jaundice; outwardly being boiled in oil, help pains in the ears, a drop being put into them.
The flesh of vipers being eaten, clear the sight, help the vices of the nerves, resist poison exceedingly, neither is there any better remedy under the sun for their bitings than the head of the viper that bit you, bruised and applied to the place, and the flesh eaten, you need not eat above a dram at a time, and make it up as you shall be taught in troches of vipers. Neither any comparable to the stinging of bees and wasps, &c. than the same that sting you, bruised and applied to the place.
Land Scorpions cure their own stingings by the same means; the ashes of them (being burnt) potently provokes urine, and breaks the stone.
Earth-worms, are an admirable remedy for cut nerves being applied to the place; they provoke urine; see the oil of them, only let me not forget one notable thing quoted by Mizaldus, which is, That the powder of them put into an hollow tooth, makes it drop out.
To draw a tooth without pain, fill an earthen crucible full of Emmets, Ants, or Pismires, eggs and all, and when you have burned them, keep the ashes, with which if you touch a tooth it will fall out.
Eels, being put into wine or beer, and suffered to die in it, he that drinks it will never endure that sort of liquor again.
Oysters applied alive to a pestilential swelling, draw the venom to them.
Crab-fish, burnt to ashes, and a dram of it taken every morning helps the bitings of mad dogs, and all other venomous beasts.
Swallows, being eaten, clear the sight, the ashes of them (being burnt) eaten, preserves from drunkenness, helps sore throats being applied to them, and inflammations.
Grass-hoppers, being eaten, ease the cholic, and pains in the bladder.
Hedge Sparrows, being kept in salt, or dried and eaten raw, are an admirable remedy for the stone.
Young Pigeons being eaten, help pains in the reins, and the disease called Tenesmus.

PARTS OF LIVING CREATURES,
AND EXCREMENTS

The brain of Sparrows being eaten, provokes lust exceedingly.
The brain of an Hare being roasted, helps trembling, it makes children breed teeth easily, their gums being rubbed with it, it also helps scald heads, and falling off of hair, the head being anointed with it.
The head of a young Kite, being burnt to ashes and the quantity of a drachm of it taken every morning in a little water, is an admirable remedy against the gout.
Crab-eyes break the stone, and open stoppings of the bowels.
The lungs of a Fox, well dried (but not burned) is an admirable strengthener to the lungs. See the Lohoch of Fox lungs.
The liver of a Duck, stops fluxes, and strengthens the liver exceedingly.
The liver of a Frog, being dried and eaten, helps the quartan agues, or as the vulgar call them, third-day agues.
Castoreum resists poison, the bitings of venomous beasts; it provokes the menses, and brings forth birth and after-birth; it expels wind, eases pains and aches, convulsions, sighings, lethargies; the smell of it allays the fits of the mother; inwardly given, it helps tremblings, falling-sickness, and other such ill effects of the brain and nerves. A scruple is enough to take at a time, and indeed spirit of Castorium is better than Castorium, raw, to which I refer you.
A Sheep's or Goat's bladder being burnt, and the ashes given inwardly, helps the Diabetes.
A flayed Mouse dried and beaten into powder, and given at a time, helps such as cannot hold their water, or have a Diabetes, if you do the like three days together.
Ivory, or Elephant's tooth, binds, stops the Whites, it strengthens the heart and stomach, helps the yellow jaundice, and makes women fruitful.
Those small bones which are found in the fore-feet of an Hare, being beaten into powder and drank in wine, powerfully provoke urine.
Goose grease, and Capons grease, are both softening, help gnawing sores, stiffness of the womb, and mitigate pain.
I am of opinion that the suet of a Goat mixed with a little saffron, is as excellent an ointment for the gout, especially the gout in the knees, as any is.
Bears grease stays the falling off of the hair.
Fox grease helps pains in the ears.
Elk's claws or hoofs are a sovereign remedy for the falling sickness, though it be but worn in a ring, much more being taken inwardly; but saith Mizaldus, it must be the hoof of the right foot behind.
Milk is an extreme windy meat; therefore I am of the opinion of Dioscorides, viz. that it is not profitable in head-aches; yet this is for certain, that it is an admirable remedy for inward ulcers in any part of the body, or any corrosions, or excoriations, pains in the reins and bladder; but it is very bad in diseases of the liver, spleen, the falling-sickness, vertigo, or dissiness in the head, fevers and head-aches. Goat's milk is held to be better than Cow's for Hectic fevers, phthisick, and consumptions, and so is Ass's also.
Whey, attenuates and cleanses both choler and melancholy: wonderfully helps melancholy and madness coming of it; opens stoppings of the bowels; helps such as have the dropsy and are troubled with the stoppings of the spleen, rickets and hypochondriac melancholy: for such diseases you may make up your physic with whey. Outwardly it cleanses the skin of such deformities as come through choler or melancholy, as scabs, itch, morphew, leprosies, &c.
Honey is of a gallant cleansing quality, exceeding profitable in all inward ulcers in what part of the body soever; it opens the veins, cleanses the reins and bladder. I know no vices belonging to it, but only it is soon converted into choler.
Wax, softens, heats, and meanly fills sores with flesh, it suffers not the milk to curdle in women's breasts; inwardly it is given (ten grains at a time) against bloody-fluxes.
Raw-silk, heats and dries, cheers the heart, drives away sadness, comforts all the spirits, both natural, vital and animal.

BELONGING TO THE SEA

Sperma Cœti, is well applied outwardly to eating ulcers, the marks which the small pox leaves behind them; it clears the sight, provokes sweat: inwardly it troubles the stomach and belly, helps bruises, and stretching of the nerves, and therefore is good for women newly delivered.
Amber-grease, heats and dries, strengthens the brain and nerves exceedingly, if the infirmity of them come of cold, resists pestilence.
Sea-sand, a man that hath the dropsy, being set up to the middle in it, it draws out all the water.
Red Coral, is cold, dry and binding, stops the immoderate flowing of the menses, bloody-fluxes, the running of the reins, and the Fluor Albus, helps such as spit blood; it is an approved remedy for the falling sickness. Also if ten grains of red Coral be given to a child in a little breast-milk so soon as it is born, before it take any other food, it will never have the falling-sickness, nor convulsions. The common dose is from ten grains to thirty.
Pearls, are a wonderful strengthener to the heart, encrease milk in nurses, and amend it being naught, they restore such as are in consumptions; both they and the red Coral preserve the body in health, and resist fevers. The dose is ten grains or fewer; more, I suppose, because it is dear, than because it would do harm.
Amber, (viz. yellow Amber) heats and dries, therefore prevails against moist diseases of the head; it helps violent coughs, helps consumption of the lungs, spitting of blood, the Fluor Albus; it stops bleeding at the nose, helps difficulty of urine. You may take ten or twenty grains at a time.
The Froth of the Sea, it is hot and dry, helps scabs, itch, and leprosy, scald heads, &c. it cleanses the skin, helps difficulty of urine, makes the teeth white, being rubbed with it, the head being washed with it, it helps baldness, and trimly decks the head with hair.

METALS, MINERALS, AND STONES

Gold is temperate in quality, it wonderfully strengthens the heart and vital spirits, which one perceiving, very wittily inserted these verses:
For Gold is cordial; and that's the reason,
Your raking Misers live so long a season.
However, this is certain, in cordials, it resists melancholy, faintings, swoonings, fevers, falling-sickness, and all such like infirmities, incident either to the vital or animal spirit.
Alum. Heats, binds, and purges; scours filthy ulcers, and fastens loose teeth.
Brimstone, or flower of brimstone, which is brimstone refined, and the better for physical uses; helps coughs and rotten flegm; outwardly in ointments it takes away leprosies, scabs, and itch; inwardly it helps yellow jaundice, as also worms in the belly, especially being mixed with a little Saltpetre: it helps lethargies being snuffed up in the nose.
Litharge, both of gold and silver; binds and dries much, fills up ulcers with flesh, and heals them.
Lead is of a cold dry earthly quality, of an healing nature; applied to the place it helps any inflammation, and dries up humours.
Pompholix, cools, dries and binds.
Jacynth, strengthens the heart being either beaten into powder, and taken inwardly, or only worn in a ring.
Sapphire, quickens the senses, helps such as are bitten by venomous beasts, ulcers in the bowels.
Emerald, called a chaste stone because it resists lust: being worn in a ring, it helps, or at least mitigates the falling sickness and vertigo; it strengthens the memory, and stops the unruly passions of men.
Ruby (or carbuncle, if there be such a stone) restrains lust; resists pestilence; takes away idle and foolish thoughts, makes men cheerful. Cardanus.
Granite. Strengthens the heart, but hurts the brain, causes anger, takes away sleep.
Diamond, is reported to make him that bears it unfortunate.
Amethist, being worn, makes men sober and steady, keeps men from drunkenness and too much sleep, it quickens the wit, is profitable in huntings and fightings, and repels vapours from the head.
Bezoar, is a notable restorer of nature, a great cordial, no way hurtful nor dangerous, is admirably good in fevers, pestilences, and consumptions, viz. taken inwardly; for this stone is not used to be worn as a jewel; the powder of it put upon wounds made by venomous beasts, draws out the poison.
Topaz (if Epiphanius spake truth) if you put it into boiling water, it doth so cool it that you may presently put your hands into it without harm; if so, then it cools inflammations of the body by touching them.
Toadstone, being applied to the place helps the bitings of venomous beasts, and quickly draws all the poison to it; it is known to be a true one by this; hold it near to any toad, and she will make proffer to take it away from you if it be right; else not. Lemnius.
Nephritichus lapis, helps pains in the stomach, and is of great force in breaking and bringing away the stone and gravel.
Jasper, being worn, stops bleeding, eases the labour in women, stops lust, resists fevers and dropsies. Mathiolus.
Atites, or the stone with child, because being hollow in the middle, it contains another little stone within it, is found in an Eagle's nest, and in many other places; this stone being bound to the left arm of women with child, stays their miscarriage or abortion, but when the time of their labour comes, remove it from their arm, and bind it to the inside of their thigh, and it brings forth the child, and that (almost) without any pain at all. Dioscorides, Pliny.
Lapis Lazuli, purges melancholy being taken inwardly; outwardly worn as a jewel, it makes men cheerful, fortunate and rich.
And thus I end the stones, the virtues of which if any think incredible, I answer, 1. I quoted the authors where I had them. 2. I know nothing to the contrary but why it may be as possible as the sound of a trumpet is to incite a man to valour; or a fiddle to dancing: and if I have added a few simples which the Colledge left out, I hope my fault is not much, or at a leastwise, venial.

A Catalogue of Simples in the
New Dispensatory
ROOTS

College : Sorrel, Calamus Aromaticus, Water-flag, Privet, Garlick, Marsh-mallows, Alcanet, Angelica, Anthora, Smallage, Aron, Birthwort long and round, Sowbread, Reeds, Asarabacca, Virginian Snakeweed, Swallwort, Asparagus, Asphodel, male and female. Burdocks great and small, Behen, or Bazil, Valerian, white and red. Daisies, Beets, white, red, and black. Marsh-mallows, Bistort, Borrage, Briony, white and black, Bugloss, garden and wild. Calamus Aromaticus, Our Lady's thistles, Avens, Coleworts, Centaury the less. Onions, Chameleon, white and black. Celandine, Pilewort, China, Succory, Artichokes. Virginian Snakeroot, Comfry greater and lesser, Contra yerva, Costus, sweet and bitter. Turmerick, wild Cucumbers, Sowbread, Hound's-tongue, Cypres, long and round. Toothwort, white Dittany, Doronicum, Dragons, Woody Nightshade, Vipers Bugloss, Smallage, Hellebore, white and black, Endive, Elicampane, Eringo, Colt's-foot, Fearn, male and female, Filipendula or Drop-wort, Fennel, white Dittany, Galanga, great and small, Gentian, Liquorice, Dog-grass, Hermodactils. Swallow wort, Jacinth, Henbane, Jallap, Master-wort, Orris or Flower-de-luce, both English and Florentine, sharp pointed Dock, Burdock greater and lesser, Lovage, Privet, white Lilies, Liquorice, Mallows, Mechoacan, Jallap, Spignel, Mercury, Devil's bit, sweet Navew, Spikenard, Celtic and Indian, Water lilies, Rest-harrow, sharp pointed Dock, Peony, male and female, Parsnips, garden and wild, Cinquefoil, Butter-Bur, Parsley, Hog's Fennel, Valerian, greater and lesser, Burnet, Land and Water Plantain, Polypodium of the Oak, Solomon's Seal, Leeks, Pellitory of Spain, Cinquefoil, Turnips, Raddishes, garden and wild, Rhapontick, common Rhubarb, Monk's Rhubarb, Rose Root, Madder Bruscus. Sopewort, Sarsaparilla, Satyrion, male and female, White Saxifrage, Squills, Figwort, Scorzonera, English and Spanish, Virginian Snake weed, Solomon's Seal, Cicers, stinking Gladon, Devil's bit, Dandelion, Thapsus, Tormentil, Turbith, Colt's-foot, Valerian, greater and lesser, Vervain, Swallow-wort, Nettles, Zedoary long and round, Ginger.
Culpeper : These be the roots the college hath named, and but only named, and in this order I have set them down. It seems the college holds a strange opinion, viz. that it would do an Englishman a mischief to know what the herbs in his garden are good for.
But my opinion is, that those herbs, roots, plants, &c. which grow near a man, are far better and more congruous to his nature than any outlandish rubbish whatsoever, and this I am able to give a reason of to any that shall demand it of me, therefore I am so copious in handling of them, you shall observe them ranked in this order:
1. The temperature of the roots, herbs, flowers, &c. viz. hot, cold, dry, moist, together with the degree of each quality.
2. What part of the body each root, herb, flower, is appropriated to, viz. head, throat, breast, heart, stomach, liver, spleen, bowels, reins, bladder, womb, joints, and in those which heat those places, and which cool them.
3. The property of each simple, as they bind, open, mollify, harden, extenuate, discuss, draw out, suppure, cleanse, glutinate, break wind, breed seed, provoke or stop the menses, resist poison, abate swellings, ease pain.
This I intend shall be my general method throughout the simples, which, having finished I shall give you a paraphrase explaining these terms, which rightly considered, will be the key of Galen's way of administering physic.
Temperature of the Roots
Roots hot in the first degree. Marsh-mallows, Bazil, Valerian, Spattling, Poppy, Burdocks, Borrage, Bugloss, Calamus Aromaticus, Avens, Pilewort, China, Self-heal, Liquorice, Dog-grass, white Lilies, Peony, male and female, wild Parsnips, Parsley, Valerian, great and small, Knee-holly, Satyrion, Scorzonera, Skirrets.
Hot in the second degree. Water-flag, Reeds, Swallow-wort, Asphodel, male, Carline Thistle, Cypress, long and round, Fennel, Lovage, Spignel, Mercury, Devil's bit, Butter Bur, Hog's Fennel, Sarsaparilla, Squils, Zedoary.
Hot in the third degree. Angelica, Aron, Birthwort long and round, Sowbread, Asarabacca, Briony, white and black, Sallendine, Virginian snakeroot, Hemeric, White Dittany, Doronicum, Hellebore, white and black, Elicampane, Fillipendula, Galanga greater and lesser, Masterwort, Orris English and Florentine, Restharrow, stinking Gladen, Turbith, Ginger.
Hot in the fourth degree. Garlick, Onions, Leeks, Pellitory of Spain.
Roots temperate in respect of heat, are Bear's breech, Sparagus, our Lady's Thistle, Eringo, Jallap, Mallows, Mechoacan, garden Parsnips, Cinquefoil, Tormentil.
Roots cold in the first degree. Sorrel, Beets, white and red, Comfrey the greater, Plantain, Rose Root, Madder.
Cold in the second degree. Alcanet, Daisies, Succory, Hound's tongue, Endive, Jacinth.
Cold in the third degree. Bistort and Mandrakes are cold in the third degree, and Henbane in the fourth.
Roots dry in the first degree. Bears-breech, Burdocks, Redbeets, Calamus Aromaticus, Pilewort, Self-heal, Endive, Eringo, Jacinth, Madder, Kneeholly.
Dry in the second degree. Waterflag, Marshmallows, Alkanet, Smallage, Reeds, Sorrel, Swallow-wort, Asphodel male, Bazil, Valerian and Spatling Poppy, according to the opinion of the Greeks. Our Lady's Thistles, Avens, Succory, Hound's tongue, Cypress long and round, Fennel, Lovage, Spignel, Mercury, Devil's bit, Butter-bur, Parsley, Plantain, Zedoary.
Dry in the third degree. Angelica, Aron, Birthwort, long and round, Sowbread, Bistort, Asarabacca, Briony, white and black, Carline Thistle, China, Sallendine, Virginian Snake-root, white Dittany, Doronicum, Hellebore white and black, Elicampane, Fillipendula, Galanga greater and lesser, Masterwort, Orris, English and Florentine, Restharrow, Peony male and female, Cinquefoil, Hog's Fennel, Sarsaparilla, stinking Gladen, Tormentil, Ginger.
Dry in the fourth degree. Garlick, Onions, Costus, Leeks, Pellitory of Spain.
Roots moist are, Bazil, Valerian, and Spatling-poppy, according to the Arabian Physicians, Daisies, white Beets, Borrage, Bugloss, Liquorice, Dog grass, Mallows, Satyrion, Scorzonera, Parsnips, Skirrets.
Roots appropriated to several parts of the body
Heat the head. Doronicum, Fennel, Jallap, Mechoacan, Spikenard, Celtic and Indian. Peony male and female.
Neck and throat. Pilewort, Devil's bit.
Breast and lungs. Birthwort long and round, Elicampane, Liquorice, Orris English and Florentine, Calamus Aromaticus, Cinquefoil, Squills.
Heart. Angelica, Borrage, Bugloss, Carline Thistle, Doronicum, Butter bur, Scorzonera, Tormentil, Zedoary, Bazil, Valerian white and red.
Stomach. Elicampane, Galanga greater and lesser, Spikenard, Celtic and Indian, Ginger, Fennel, Avens, Raddishes.
Bowels. Valerian great and small, Zedoary, Ginger.
Liver. Smallage, Carline Thistle, Sullendine, China, Turmerick,
Fennel, Gentian, Dog-grass, Cinquefoil, Parsley, Smallage, Asparagus, Rhubarb, Rhapontic, Kneeholly.
Spleen. Smallage, Carline Thistle, Fern male and female, Parsley, Water-flag, Asparagus, round Birthwort, Fennel, Capers, Ash, Gentian.
Reins and Bladder. Marshmallows, Smallage, Asparagus, Burdock, Bazil, Valerian, Spatling Poppy, Carline Thistle, China, Cyprus long and round, Fillipendula, Dog grass, Spikenard, Celtic and Indian, Parsly, Knee-holly, white Saxifrage.
Womb. Birthwort long and round, Galanga greater and lesser, Peony male and female, Hog's Fennel.
Fundament. Pilewort.
Joints. Bear's-breech, Hermodactils, Jallap, Mecoacan, Ginger, Costus.
Roots cool the head. Rose root.
Stomach. Sow Thistles, Endive, Succory, Bistort.
Liver. Madder, Endive, Chicory.
Properties of the Roots
Although I confess the properties of the simples may be found out by the ensuing explanation of the terms, and I suppose by that means they were found out at first; and although I hate a lazy student from my heart, yet to encourage young students in the art, I shall quote the chief of them. I desire all lovers of physic to compare them with the explanation of these rules, so shall they see how they agree, so may they be enabled to find out the properties of all simples to their own benefit in physic.
Roots, bind. Cypress, Bistort, Tormentil, Cinquefoil, Bear's breech, Water-flag, Alkanet, Toothwort, &c.
Discuss. Birthwort, Asphodel, Briony, Capers, &c.
Cleanse. Birthwort, Aron, Sparagus, Grass, Asphodel, Celandine, &c.
Open. Asarabacca, Garlic, Leeks, Onions, Rhapontick, Turmerick, Carline Thistle, Succory, Endive, Fillipendula, Fennel, Parsly, Bruscus, Sparagus, Smallage, Gentian, &c.
Extenuate. Orris English and Florentine, Capers, &c.
Burn. Garlick, Onions, Pellitory of Spain, &c.
Mollify. Mallows, Marshmallows, &c.
Suppur. Marshmallows, Briony, white Lillies, &c.
Glutinate. Comfrey, Solomon's Seal, Gentian, Birthwort, Daisies, &c.
Expel Wind. Smallage, Parsly, Fennel, Water-flag, Garlick,
Costus, Galanga, Hog's Fennel, Zedoary, Spikenard Indian, and Celtic, &c.
Breed Seed. Waterflag, Eringo, Satyrian, Galanga, &c.
Provoke the menses. Birthwort, Asarabacca, Aron, Waterflag, white Dittany, Asphodel, Garlick, Centaury the less, Cyperus long and round, Costus, Capers, Calamus Aromaticus, Dittany of Crete, Carrots, Eringo, Fennel, Parsly, Smallage, Grass, Elicampane, Peony, Valerian, Kneeholly, &c.
Stop the menses. Comfrey, Tormentil, Bistort, &c.
Provoke Sweat. Carolina Thistle, China, Sarsaparilla, &c.
Resist poison. Angelica, Garlick, long Birthwort, Smallage, Doronicum, Costus, Zedoary, Cyprus, Gentian, Carolina Thistle, Bistort, Tormentil, Swallow-wort, Viper's Bugloss, Elicampane, &c.
Help burnings. Asphodel, Jacinth, white Lilies, &c.
Ease pains. Waterflag, Eringo, Orris, Restharrow, &c.
Purge choler. Asarabacca, Rhubarb, Rhapontick, Fern, &c.
Relieve melancholy. Hellebore, white and black, Polipodium.
Purge flegm and watery humours. Squills, Turbith, Hermodactils, Jallap, Mecoacan, wild Cucumbers, Sowbread, male Asphodel, Briony white and black, Elder, Spurge great and small.
I quoted some of these properties to teach you the way how to find the rest, which the explanation of these terms will give you ample instructions in. I quoted not all because I would fain have you studious: be diligent gentle reader.
How to use your bodies in, and after taking purges, you shall be taught by and by.
Barks mentioned by the College are these
College : Hazel Nuts, Oranges, Barberries, Birch-tree, Caper roots, Cassia Lignea, Chestnuts, Cinnamon, Citron Pills, Dwarf-Elder, Spurge roots, Alder, Ash, Pomegranates, Guajacum, Walnut tree, green Walnuts, Laurel, Bay, Lemon, Mace, Pomegranates, Mandrake roots, Mezereon, Mulberry tree roots, Sloe tree roots, Pinenuts, Fisticknuts, Poplar tree, Oak, Elder, Sassafras, Cork, Tamerisk, Lime tree, Frankincense, Elm, Capt. Winter's Cinnamon.
Culpeper : Of these, Captain Winter's Cinnamon, being taken as ordinary spice, or half a dram taken in the morning in any convenient liquor, is an excellent remedy for the scurvy; the powder of it being snuffed up in the nose, cleanses the head of rheum gallantly.
The bark of the black Alder tree purges choler and flegm if you make a decoction with it. Agrimony, Wormwood, Dodder, Hops,
Endive and Succory roots: Parsly and Smallage roots, or you may bruise a handful of each of them, and put them in a gallon of ale, and let them work together: put the simples into a boulter-bag, and a draught, half a pint, more or less, according to the age of him that drinks it) being drunk every morning, helps the dropsy, jaundice, evil disposition of the body; also helps the rickets, strengthens the liver and spleen; makes the digestion good, troubles not the stomach at all, causes appetite, and helps such as are scabby and itchy.
The rest of the barks that are worth the noting, and the virtues of them, are to be found in the former part of the book.
Barks are hot in the first degree. Guajacum, Tamarisk, Oranges, Lemons, Citrons.
In the second. Cinnamon, Cassia, Lignea, Captain Winter's Cinnamon, Frankincense, Capers.
In the third. Mace.
Cold in the first. Oak, Pomegranates.
In the third. Mandrakes.
Appropriated to parts of the body
Heat the head. Captain Winter's Cinnamon.
The heart. Cinnamon, Cassia, Lignea, Citron Pills, Walnuts, Lemon pills, Mace.
The stomach. Orange pills, Cassia Lignea, Cinnamon, Citron pills, Lemon pills, Mace, Sassafras.
The lungs. Cassia Lignea, Cinnamon, Walnuts.
The liver. Barberry-tree, Bay-tree, Captain Winter's Cinnamon.
The spleen. Caper bark, Ash tree bark, Bay tree.
The reins and bladder. Bay-tree, Sassafras.
The womb. Cassia Lignea, Cinnamon.
Cool the stomach. Pomegranate pills.
Purge choler. The bark of Barberry tree.
Purge flegm and water. Elder, Dwarf-Elder, Spurge, Laurel.

WOODS

College : Firr, Wood of Aloes, Rhodium, Brazil, Box, Willow, Cypress, Ebony, Guajacum, Juniper, Lentisk, Nephriticum, Rhodium, Rosemary, Sanders, white, yellow, and red, Sassafras, Tamarisk.
Of these some are hot. Wood of Aloes, Rhodium, Box, Ebony, Guajacum, Nephriticum, Rosemary, Sassafras, Tamarisk.
Some cold. As Cypress, Willow, Sanders white, red, and yellow.
Rosemary is appropriated to the head, wood of Aloes to the heart and stomach, Rhodium to the bowels and bladder, Nephriticum to the liver, spleen, reins and bladder, Sassafras to the breast, stomach and bladder, Tamarisk to the spleen, Sanders cools the heart and spirits in fevers.
For the particular virtues of each, see that part of the book preceding.

HERBS

College : Southernwood male and female. Wormwood, common, Roman, and such as bear Wormseed, Sorrel, wood Sorrel, Maiden-hair common, white or wall Rue, black and golden Maudlin, Agremony, Vervain, Mallow, Ladies Mantle, Chickweed, Marshmallows, and Pimpernel both male and female, Water Pimpernel, Dill, Angelica, Smallage, Goose-grass, or Cleavers, Columbine, wild Tansie, or Silver Weed, Mugwort, Asarabacca, Woodroofe, Arach, Distaff Thistle, Mousear, Costmary, or Alcost, Burdock greater and lesser, Brooklime, or water Pimpernel, Beets white, red, and black, Betony of the wood and water. Daisies greater and lesser, Blite, Mercury, Borrage, Oak of Jerusalem, Cabbages, Sodonella, Briony white and black, Bugloss, Buglesse, Shepherd's Purse, Ox-eye, Box leaves, Calaminth of the Mountains and Fens, Ground Pine, Wood-bine, or Honey-suckles, Lady-smocks, Marygolds, Our Lady's Thistle, Carduus Benedictus, Avens, small Spurge, Horse-tail, Coleworts, Centaury the less, Knotgrass, Cervil, Germander, Camomile, Chamepytis female Southernwood, Chelene, Pilewort, Chicory, Hemlock, garden and sea Scurvy-grass, Fleawort, Comfry great, middle, or bugle, least or Daisies, Sarasens, Confound, Buck-horn, Plantain, May weed, (or Margweed, as we in Sussex call it) Orpine, Sampeer, Crosewort, Dodder, Blue Bottle great and small, Artichokes, Houndstone, Cypress leaves, Dandelion, Dittany of Treet, Box leaves, Teazles garden and wild, Dwarff Elder, Viper's Bugloss, Lluellin, Smallage, Endive, Elecampane, Horsetail, Epithimum, Groundsel, Hedge-mustard, Spurge, Agrimony, Maudlin, Eye-bright, Orpine, Fennel, Sampeer, Fillipendula, Indian leaf, Strawberry leaves, Ash tree leaves, Fumitory, Goat's Rue, Lady's Bedstraw, Broom, Muscatu, Herb Robert, Doves Foot, Cottonweed, Hedge Hyssop, Tree Ivy, Ground Ivy, or Alehoof, Elecampane, Pellitory of the wall, Liverwort, Cowslips, Rupture-wort, Hawkweed, Monk's Rhubarb, Alexanders, Clary garden and wild, Henbane, St. John's-wort, Horsetongue, or double tongue, Hysop, Sciatica cresses, small Sengreen, Sharewort, Woods, Reeds, Schænanth, Chamepitys, Glasswort, Lettice, Lagobus, Arch-angel, Burdock great and small, Lavender, Laurel, Bay leaves, English and Alexandrian, Duckweed, Dittander, or Pepper-wort, Lovage, Privet, Sea bugloss, Toad flax, Harts-tongue, sweet Trefoil, Wood-sorrel, Hops, Willow-herb, Marjoram, common and tree Mallows, Mandrake, Horehound white and black, Herb Mastich, Featherfew, Woodbine, Melilot, Bawm garden and water, Mints, Horse-mints, Mercury, Mezereon, Yarrow, Devil's-bit, Moss, sweet Chivil, Mirtle leaves, Garden and water Cresses, Nep, Tobacco, Money-wort, Water Lilies, Bazil, Olive Leaves, Rest-harrow, Adder's Tongue, Origanum, sharp-pointed Dock, Poppy, white, black, and red, or Erratick, Pellitory of the Wall, Cinquefoil, Ars-smart spotted and not spotted, Peach Leaves, Thoroughwax, Parsley, Hart's Tongue, Valerian, Mouse-ear, Burnet, small Spurge, Plantain common and narrow leaved, Mountain and Cretick Poley, Knotgrass, Golden Maidenhair, Poplar leaves and buds, Leeks, Purslain, Silverweed, or wild Tansy, Horehound white and black, Primroses, Self-heal, Field Pellitory, or Sneezewort, Penny-royal, Fleabane, Lungwort, Winter-green, Oak leaves and buds, Docks, common Rue, Wall Rue or white Maidenhair, wild Rue, Savin, Osier Leaves, Garden Sage the greater and lesser, Wild Sage, Elder leaves and buds, Marjorum, Burnet, Sanicle, Sopewort, Savory, White Saxifrage, Scabious, Chicory, Schœnanth, Clary, Scordium, Figwort, House-leek, or Sengreen the greater and lesser, Groundsel, Senna leaves and pods, Mother of Time, Solomon's Seal, Alexanders, Nightshade, Soldanela, Sow-thistles, smooth and rough, Flixweed, common Spike, Spinach, Hawthorn, Devil's-bit, Comfry, Tamarisk leaves, Tansy, Dandelyon, Mullen or Higcaper, Time, Lime tree leaves, Spurge, Tormentil, common and golden Trefoil, Wood-sorrel, sweet Trefoil, Colt's-foot, Valerian, Mullen, Vervain, Paul's Bettony, Lluellin, Violets, Tansy, Perewinkles, Swallow-wort, golden Rod, Vine leaves, Mead-sweet, Elm leaves, Navel-wort, Nettles, common and Roman, Archangel, or dead Nettles, white and red.
Culpeper : These be the herbs as the college set down to look upon we will see if we can translate them in another form to the benefit of the body of man.
Herbs temperate in respect of heat, are common Maiden-hair, Wall-rue, black and golden Maiden-hair, Woodroof, Bugle, Goat's Rue, Hart's-tongue, sweet Trefoil, Flixweed, Cinquefoil, Trefoil, Paul's Bettony, Lluellin.
Intemperate and hot in the first degree, are Agrimony, Marsh-mallows, Goose-grass or Cleavers, Distaff Thistle, Borrage, Bugloss, or Lady's Thistles, Avens, Cetrach, Chervil, Chamomel, Eye-bright, Cowslips, Melilot, Bazil, Self-heal.
In the second. Common and Roman Wormwood, Maudlin, Lady's Mantle, Pimpernel male and female, Dill, Smallage, Mugwort, Costmary, Betony, Oak of Jerusalem, Marigold, Cuckoo-flowers, Carduus Benedictus, Centaury the less, Chamepitys, Scurvy-grass, Indian Leaf, Broom, Alehoof, Alexanders, Double-tongue, or Tongue-blade, Archangel, or dead Nettles, Bay Leaves, Marjoram, Horehound, Bawm, Mercury, Devil's-bit, Tobacco, Parsley, Poley mountain, Rosemary, Sage, Sanicle, Scabious, Senna, Soldanella, Tansy, Vervain, Perewinkle.
In the third degree. Southernwood male and female, Brooklime, Angelica, Briony white and black, Calaminth, Germander, Sullendine, Pilewort, Fleabane, Dwarf Elder, Epithimun, Bank-cresses, Clary, Glasswort, Lavender, Lovage, Herb Mastich, Featherfew, Mints, Water-cresses, Origanum, biting Arsmart, called in Latin Hydropiper (the college confounds this with Persicaria, or mild Arsmart, which is cold), Sneezewort, Pennyroyal, Rue, Savin, summer and winter Savory, Mother of Time, Lavender, Spike, Time, Nettles.
In the fourth degree. Sciatica-cresses, Stone-crop, Dittany, or Pepper-wort, garden-cresses, Leeks, Crowfoot, Rosa Solis, Spurge.
Herbs cold in the first degree. Sorrel, Wood-sorrel, Arach, Burdock, Shepherd's-purse, Pellitory of the wall, Hawk-weed, Mallows, Yarrow, mild Arsmart, called Persicaria, Burnet, Coltsfoot, Violets.
Cold in the second degree. Chickweed, wild Tansy, or Silverweed, Daisies, Knotgrass, Succory, Buck-horn, Plantain, Dandelyon, Endive, Fumitory, Strawberry leaves, Lettice, Duck-meat, Plantain, Purslain, Willow leaves.
In the third degree. Sengreen, or Houseleek, Nightshade.
In the fourth degree. Hemlock, Henbane, Mandrakes, Poppies.
Herbs dry in the first degree. Agrimony, Marsh-mallows, Cleavers, Burdocks, Shepherds-purse, our Lady's Thistle, Chervil, Chamomel, Eye-bright, Cowslips, Hawkweed, Tongue-blade, or double tongue, Melilot, mild Arsmart, Self-heal, Senna, Flixweed, Colts-foot, Perewinkle.
Dry in the second degree. Common and Roman Wormwood, Sorrel, Wood-sorrel, Maudlin, Lady's mantle, Pimpernel male and female, Dill, Smallage, wild Tansy, or Silverweed, Mugwort, Distaff Thistle, Costmary, Betony, Bugle, Cuckooflowers, Carduus Benedictus, Avens, Centaury the less, Chicory, commonly called Succory, Scurvy-grass, Buckhorn, Plantain, Dandelyon, Endive, Indian Leaf, Strawberry leaves, Fumitory, Broom, Alehoof, Alexanders, Archangel, or Dead Nettles, white and red, Bay Leaves, Marjoram, Featherfew, Bawm, Mercury, Devil's-bit, Tobacco, Parsley, Burnet, Plantain, Rosemary, Willow Leaves, Sage, Santicle, Scabious, Soldanella, Vervain.
Dry in the third degree. Southernwood, male and female, Brooklime, Angelica, Briony, white and black, Calamint, Germander, Chamepitys, Selandine, Pilewort, Fleabane, Epithinum, Dwarf-Elder, Bank cresses, Clary, Glasswort, Lavender, Lovage, Horehound, Herb Mastic, Mints, Watercresses, Origanum, Cinquefoil, hot Arsmart, Poley mountain, Sneezewort, Penny-royal, Rue, or herb of Grace, Savin winter and summer Savory, Mother of Time, Lavender, Silk, Tansy, Time, Trefoil.
In the fourth degree. Garden-cresses, wild Rue, Leeks, Onions, Crowfoot, Rosa Solis, Garlic, Spurge.
Herbs moist in the first degree. Borrage, Bugloss, Marigolds, Pellitory of the wall, Mallows, Bazil.
In the fourth degree. Chickweed, Arach, Daisies, Lettice, Duck-meat, Purslain, Sow Thistles, Violets, Water-lilies.
Herbs appropriated to certain parts of the body of man
Heat the head. Maudlin, Costmary, Betony, Carduus Benedictus, Sullendine, Scurvy-grass, Eye-bright, Goat's Rue, Cowslips, Lavender, Laurel, Lovage, herb Mastich, Feather-few, Melilot, Sneezewort, Penny-royal, Senna, Mother of Time, Vervain, Rosemary.
Heat the throat. Archangel white and red, otherwise called dead Nettles, Devil's-bit.
Heat the breast. Maiden-hair, white, black, common and golden, Distaff Thistle, Time, Betony, Calaminth, Chamomel, Fennel, Indian-leaf, Bay leaves, Hyssop, Bawm, Horehound, Oak of Jerusalem, Germander, Melilot, Origanum, Rue, Scabious, Periwinkles, Nettles.
Heat the heart. Southernwood male and female, Angelica, Wood-roof, Bugloss, Carduus Benedictus, Borrage, Goat's Rue, Senna, Bazil, Rosemary, Elecampane.
Heat the stomach. Wormwood common and Roman, Smallage, Avens, Indian leaf, Broom, Schenanth, Bay leaves, Bawm, Mints, Parsley, Fennel, Time, Mother of Time, Sage.
Heat the liver. Agrimony, Maudlin, Pimpernel, male and female, Smallage, Costmary, or Ale cost, our Lady's Thistles, Centaury the less, Germander, Chamepytis, Selandine, Sampier, Fox Gloves, Ash-tree leaves, Bay leaves, Toad-flax, Hops, Horehound, Water-cresses, Parsley, Poley Mountain, Sage, Scordium, Senna, Mother of Time, Soldanella, Asarabacca, Fennel, Hyssop, Spikenard.
Heat the bowels. Chamomel, Alehoofe, Alexanders.
Heat the spleen. All the four sorts of Maiden-hair, Agrimony, Smallage, Centaury the less, Cetrach, Germander, Chamepitys, Samphire, Fox-glove, Epithimum, Ash-tree, Bay leaves, Toad-flax,Hops, Horehound, Parsley, Poley, Mountain Sage, Scordium, Senna, Mother of Time, Tamarisk, Wormwood, Water-cresses, Hart's-tongue.
Heat the reins and bladder. Agrimony, Maudlin, Marsh-mallows, Pimpernel male and female, Brooklime, Costmary, Bettony, Chervil, Germander, Chamomel, Samphire, Broom, Rupture-wort, Clary, Schenanth, Bay-leaves, Toad-flax, Hops, Melilot, Water-cresses, Origanum, Pennyroyal, Scordium, Vervain, Mother of Time, Rocket, Spikenard, Saxifrage, Nettles.
Heat the womb. Maudlin, Angelica, Mugwort, Costmary, Calaminth, Flea-bane, May-weed, Ormarg-weed, Dittany of Crete, Schenanth, Arch-angel or Dead Nettles, Melilot, Feather-few, Mints, Devil's-bit, Origanum, Bazil, Pennyroyal, Savin, Sage, Scordium, Tansy, Time, Vervain, Periwinkles, Nettles.
Heat the joints. Cowslips, Sciatica-cresses, hot Arsmart, Garden-cresses, Costmary, Agrimony, Chamomel, Saint John's-wort, Melilot, Water-cresses, Rosemary, Rue, Sage Stechas.
Herbs cooling the head. Wood-sorrel, Teazles, Lettice, Plantain, Willow-leaves, Sengreen or Houseleek, Strawberry-leaves, Violet-leaves, Fumitory, Water Lilies.
Cool the throat. Orpine, Strawberry leaves, Privet, Bramble leaves.
Breast. Mulberry leaves, Bramble leaves, Violet leaves, Strawberry leaves, Sorrel, Wood-sorrel, Poppies, Orpine, Moneywort, Plantain, Colt's-foot.
Heart. Sorrel, Wood sorrel, Viper's Bugloss, Lettice, Burnet, Violet leaves, Strawberry leaves, and Water-Lilies.
Stomach. Sorrel, Wood sorrel, Succory, Orpine, Dandelyon, Endive, Strawberry leaves, Hawkweed, Lettice, Purslain, Sow Thistles, Violet leaves.
Liver. Sorrel, Woodsorrel, Dandelyon, Endive, Succory, Strawberry leaves, Fumitory, Liverwort, Lettice, Purslain, Nightshade, Water Lilies.
Bowels. Fumitory, Mallows, Buckthorn, Plantain, Orpine, Plantain, Burnet.
Spleen. Fumitory, Endive, Succory, Lettice.
Reins and bladder. Knotgrass, Mallows, Yarrow, Moneywort, Plantain, Endive, Succory, Lettice, Purslain, Water Lilies, House-leek or Sengreen.
The womb. Wild Tansy, Arrach, Burdocks, Willow herb, Mirtle leaves, Moneywort, Purslain, Sow Thistles, Endive, Succory, Lettice, Water Lilies, Sengreen.
The joints. Willow leaves, Vine leaves, Lettice, Henbane, Nightshade, Sengreen or Houseleek.
Herbs altering according to property, in operation, some bind, as
Amomus, Agnus Castus, Shepherd's purse, Cypress, Horsetail, Ivy, Bay leaves, Melilot, Bawm, Mirtles, Sorrel, Plantain, Knotgrass, Comfry, Cinquefoil, Fleawort, Purslain, Oak leaves, Willow leaves, Sengreen or Houseleek, &c.
Open, as, Garlick, Onions, Wormwood, Mallows, Marsh-mallows, Pellitory of the Wall, Endive, Succory, &c.
Soften. Mallows, Marsh-mallows, Beets, Pellitory of the Wall, Violet leaves, Strawberry leaves, Arrach, Cypress leaves, Bay leaves, Fleawort, &c.
Harden. Purslain, Nightshade, Houseleek or Sengreen, Duckmeat, and most other herbs that are very cold.
Extenuate. Mugwort, Chamomel, Hysop, Pennyroyal, Stœchas, Time, Mother of Time, Juniper, &c.
Discuss. Southernwood male and female, all the four sorts of Maidenhair, Marshmallows, Dill, Mallows, Arrach, Beets, Chamomel, Mints, Melilot, Pelitory of the Wall, Chickweed, Rue, Stœchas, Marjoram.
Draw. Pimpernel, Birthwort, Dittany, Leeks, Onions, Garlick, and also take this general rule, as all cold things bind and harden, so all things very hot are drying.
Suppure. Mallows, Marsh-mallows, White Lily leaves, &c.
Cleanse. Pimpernel, Southernwood, Sparagus, Cetrach, Arrach, Wormwood, Beet, Pellitory of the Wall, Chamepitis, Dodder, Liverwort, Horehound, Willow leaves, &c.
Glutinate. Marsh-mallows, Pimpernel, Centaury, Chamepitis, Mallows, Germander, Horsetail, Agrimony, Maudlin, Strawberry leaves, Woad-chervil, Plantain, Cinquefoil, Comfry, Bugle, Selfheal, Woundwort, Tormentil, Rupture-wort, Knot-grass, Tobacco.
Expel wind. Wormwood, Garlick, Dill, Smallage, Chamomel, Epithimum, Fennel, Juniper, Marjoram, Origanum, Savory both winter and summer. Tansy is good to cleanse the stomach and bowels of rough viscous flegm, and humours that stick to them, which the flegmatic constitution of the winter usually infects the body of man with, and occasions gouts and other diseases of like nature and lasting long. This was the original of that custom to eat Tansys in the spring: the herb may be made into a conserve with sugar, or boil it in wine and drink the decoction, or make the juice into a syrup with sugar, which you will.
Herbs breed seed. Clary, Rocket, and most herbs that are hot and moist, and breed wind.
Provoke the terms. Southernwood, Garlick, all the sorts of Maiden hair, Mugwort, Wormwood, Bishops-weed, Cabbages, Bettony, Centaury, Chamomel, Calaminth, Germander, Dodder, Dittany, Fennel, St. John's Wort, Marjoram, Horehound, Bawm, Water-cresses, Origanum, Bazil, Pennyroyal, Poley mountain, Parsley, Smallage, Rue, Rosemary, Sage, Savin, Hartwort, Time, Mother of Time, Scordium, Nettles.
Stop the terms. Shepherd's purse, Strawberries, Mirtles, Water Lilies, Plantain, Houseleek or Sengreen, Comfry, Knotgrass.
Resist poison. Southernwood, Wormwood, Garlick, all sorts of Maiden hair, Smallage, Bettony, Carduus Benedictus, Germander, Calaminth, Alexanders, Carline Thistle, Agrimony, Fennel, Juniper, Horehound, Origanum, Pennyroyal, Poleymountain, Rue, Scordium, Plantain.
Discuss swellings. Maiden-hair, Cleavers, or Goosegrass, Mallows, Marsh-mallows, Docks, Bawm, Water-cresses, Cinquefoil, Scordium, &c.
Ease pain. Dil, Wormwood, Arach, Chamomel, Calaminth, Chamepitis, Henbane, Hops, Hog's Fennel, Parsley, Rosemary, Rue, Marjoram, Mother of Time.
Herbs purging
Choler. Groundsel, Hops, Peach leaves, Wormwood, Centaury, Mallows, Senna.
Melancholy. Ox-eye, Epithimum, Fumitory, Senna, Dodder.
Flegm and water. Briony, white and black, Spurge, both work most violently and are not fit for a vulgar use, Dwarf Elder, Hedge Hyssop, Laurel leaves, Mercury, Mezereon also purges violently, and so doth Sneezewort, Elder leaves, Senna.
For the particular operations of these, as also how to order the body after purges, the quantity to be taken at a time, you have been in part instructed already, and shall be more fully hereafter.

FLOWERS

College : Wormwood, Agnus Castus, Amaranthus, Dill, Rosemary, Columbines, Orrenges, Balaustins, or Pomegranate Flowers, Bettony, Borrage, Bugloss, Marigolds, Woodbine or Honey-suckles, Clove Gilliflowers, Centaury the less, Chamomel, Winter Gilliflowers, Succory, Comfry the greater, Saffron, Bluebottle great and small, (Synosbatus, Tragus, and Dedonæus hold our white thorn to be it, Cordus and Marcelus think it to be Bryars, Lugdunensis takes it for the sweet Bryar, but what our College takes it for, I know not) Cytinus, (Dioscorides calls the flowers of the Manured Pomegranates, Cytinus, but Pliny calls the flowers of the wild kind by that name,) Fox-glove, Viper's Bugloss, Rocket, Eyebright, Beans, Fumitory, Broom, Cowslips, St. John's Wort, Hysop, Jessamine or Shrub, Trefoil, Archangel, or Dead Nettles white and red, Lavender, Wall-flowers, or Winter-Gilliflowers, Privet, Lilies white, and of the valley, Hops, Common and tree Mallows, Feather-few, Woodbine, or Honey-suckles, Melilot, Bawm, Walnuts, Water-Lilies white and yellow, Origanum, Poppies white and red, or Erraticks, Poppies, or corn Roses, so called because they grow amongst Corn, Peony, Honey-suckles, or Woodbine, Peach-flowers, Primroses, Self-heal, Sloebush, Rosemary flowers, Roses, white, damask and red, Sage, Elder, white Saxifrage, Scabious, Siligo, (I think they mean wheat by it, Authors are not agreed about it) Steches, Tamarisk, Tansy, Mullen or Higtaper, Limetree, Clove Gilliflowers, Colt's-foot, Violets, Agnus Castus, Dead Nettles white and red.
Culpeper : That these may be a little explained for the public good: be pleased to take notice.
Some are hot in the first degree, as Borrage, Bugloss, Bettony, Oxeye, Melilot, Chamomel, Stœchas.
Hot in the second degree. Amomus, Saffron, Clove-gilliflowers, Rocket, Bawm, Spikenard, Hops, Schenanth, Lavender, Jasmine, Rosemary.
In the third degree. Agnus Castus, Epithimum, Winter-gilliflowers, or Wallflowers, Woodbine, or Honey-suckles.
Cold in the first degree. Mallows, Roses, red, white, and damask, Violets.
In the second. Anemone, or Wind-flower, Endive, Succory, Water-lilies, both white and yellow.
In the third. Balaustins, or Pomegranate flowers.
In the fourth. Henbane, and all the sorts of Poppies, only whereas authors say, field Poppies, which some call red, others erratick, and corn Roses, are the coldest of all the others: yet my opinion is, that they are not cold in the fourth degree.
Moist in the first degree. Borrage, Bugloss, Mallows, Succory, Endive.
In the second. Water-lilies, Violets.
Dry in the first degree. Ox-eye, Saffron, Chamomel, Melilot, Roses.
In the second. Wind-flower, Amomus, Clove-gilliflowers, Rocket, Lavender, Hops, Peony, Rosemary, Spikenard.
In the third. Woodbine, or Honeysuckles, Balaustines, Epithimum, Germander, Chamepitis.
The temperature of any other flowers not here mentioned are of the same temperature with the herbs, you may gain skill by searching there for them, you can loose none.
For the parts of the body, they are appropriated to, some heat
The head; as, Rosemary flowers, Self-heal, Chamomel, Bettony, Cowslips, Lavender, Melilot, Peony, Sage, Stœchas.
The breast. Bettony, Bawm, Scabious, Schœnanth.
The heart. Bawm, Rosemary flowers, Borrage, Bugloss, Saffron, Spikenard.
The stomach. Rosemary-flowers, Spikenard, Schœnanth.
The liver. Centaury, Schœnanth, Elder, Bettony, Chamomel, Spikenard.
The spleen. Bettony, Wall-flowers.
The reins and bladder. Bettony, Marsh-mallows, Melilot, Schœnanth, Spikenard.
The womb. Bettony, Squinanth or Schœnanth, Sage, Orris or Flower-de-luce.
The joints. Rosemary-flowers, Cowslips, Chamomel, Melilot.
Flowers, as they are cooling, so they cool
The head. Violets, Roses, the three sorts of Poppies, and Water-lilies.
The breast and heart. Violets, Red Roses, Water-lilies.
The stomach. Red Roses, Violets.
The liver and spleen. Endive, and Succory.
Violets, Borrage, and Bugloss, moisten the heart, Rosemary-flowers, Bawm and Bettony, dry it.
According to property, so they bind
Balaustins, Saffron, Succory, Endive, red-roses, Melilot, Bawm, Clove-gilliflowers, Agnus Castus.
Discuss. Dill, Chamomel, Marsh-mallows, Mallows, Melilot, Stœchas, &c.
Cleanse. Damask-roses, Elder flowers, Bean flowers, &c.
Extenuate. Orris, or Flower-de-luce, Chamomel, Melilot, Stœchas, &c.
Mollify. Saffron, white Lilies, Mallows, Marsh-mallows, &c.
Suppure. Saffron, white Lilies, &c.
Glutinate. Balaustines, Centaury, &c.
Provoke the terms. Bettony, Centaury, Chamomel, Schœnanth, Wall-flowers, Bawm, Peony, Rosemary, Sage.
Stop the terms. Balaustines, or Pomegranate flowers, Water Lilies.
Expel wind. Dill, Chamomel, Schœnanth, Spikenard.
Help burnings. White Lilies, Mallows, Marsh-mallows.
Resist poison. Bettony, Centaury.
Ease pain. Dill, Chamomel, Centaury, Melilot, Rosemary.
Flowers purge choler. Peach flowers, Damask Roses, Violets.
Flegm. Broom flowers, Elder flowers.
If you compare but the quality of the flowers with the herbs, and with the explanation of these terms at the latter end, you may easily find the temperature and property of the rest.
The flowers of Ox-eye being boiled into a poultice with a little barley meal, take away swellings and hardness of the flesh, being applied warm to the place.
Chamomel flowers heat, discuss, loosen and rarify, boiled in Clysters, they are excellent in the wind cholic, boiled in wine, and the decoction drunk, purges the reins, break the stone, opens the pores, cast out choleric humours, succours the heart, and eases pains and aches, or stiffness coming by travelling.
The flowers of Rocket used outwardly, discuss swellings, and dissolve hard tumours, you may boil them into a poultice, but inwardly taken they send but unwholesome vapours up to the head.
Hops open obstructions of the bowels, liver, and spleen, they cleanse the body of choler and flegm, provoke urine.
Jasmine flowers boiled in oil, and the grieved place bathed with it, takes away cramps and stitches in the sides.
The flowers of Woodbine, or Honeysuckles, being dryed and beaten into powder, and a dram taken in white wine in the morning, helps the rickets, difficulty of breathing; provoke urine, and help the stranguary.
The flowers of Mallows being bruised and boiled in honey (two ounces of the flowers is sufficient for a pound of honey; and having first clarified the honey before you put them in) then strained out; this honey taken with a liquorice stick, is an excellent remedy for Coughs, Asthmas, and consumptions of the lungs.

FRUITS

College : Winter-cherries, Love Apples, Almonds sweet and bitter, Anacardia, Oranges, Hazel Nuts, the oily Nut Ben, Barberries, Capers, Guinny Pepper, Figs, Carpobalsamum, Cloves, Cassia Fistula, Chestnuts, Cherries, black and red, Cicers, white, black and red, Pome Citrons, Coculus Indi, Colocynthis, Currants, Cornels, or Cornelian
Cherries, Cubebs, Cucumbers garden and wild, Gourds, Cynosbatus, Cypress, Cones, Quinces, Dates, Dwarf-Elder, Green Figs, Strawberries, common and Turkey Galls, Acorns, Acorn Cups, Pomegranates, Gooseberries, Ivy, Herb True-Love, Walnuts, Jujubes, Juniper berries, Bayberries, Lemons, Oranges, Citrons, Quinces, Pomegranates, Lemons, Mandrakes, Peaches, Stramonium, Apples, garden and wild, or Crabs and Apples, Musk Melons, Medlars, Mulberries, Myrobalans, Bellericks, Chebs, Emblicks, Citron and Indian, Mirtle, Berries, water Nuts, Hazel Nuts, Chestnuts, Cypress Nuts, Walnuts, Nutmegs, Fistick Nuts, Vomiting Nuts, Olives pickled in brine, Heads of white and black Poppies, Pompions, Peaches, French or Kidney Beans, Pine Cones, white black and long Pepper, Fistick Nuts, Apples and Crabs, Prunes, French and Damask, Sloes, Pears, English Currants, Berries of Purging Thorn, black Berries, Raspberries, Elder berries, Sebastens, Services, or Checkers, Hawthorn berries, Pine Nuts, Water Nuts, Grapes, Gooseberries, Raisins, Currants.
Culpeper : That you may reap benefit by these, be pleased to consider, that they are some of them.
Temperate in respect of heat. Raisins of the sun, Currants, Figs, Pine Nuts, Dates, Sebastens.
Hot in the first degree. Sweet Almonds, Jujubes, Cypress Nuts, green Hazel Nuts, green Walnuts.
Hot in the second degree. The Nut Ben, Capers, Nutmegs, dry Walnuts, dry Hazel Nuts, Fistick Nuts.
In the third degree. Juniper Berries, Cloves Carpobalsamum, Cubebs, Anacardium, bitter Almonds.
In the fourth degree. Pepper, white, black and long, Guinny Pepper.
Cold in the first degree. The flesh of Citrons, Quinces, Pears, Prunes, &c.
In the second. Gourds, Cucumbers, Melons, Pompions, Oranges, Lemons, Citrons, Pomegranates, viz. the juice of them, Peaches, Prunes, Galls, Apples.
In the third. Mandrakes.
In the fourth. Stramonium.
Moist in the first degree. The flesh of Citrons, Lemons, Oranges, viz. the inner rhind which is white, the outer rhind is hot.
In the second. Gourds, Melons, Peaches, Prunes, &c.
Dry in the first degree. Juniper Berries.
In the second. The Nut Ben, Capers, Pears, Fistick Nuts, Pine Nuts, Quinces, Nutmegs, Bay berries.
In the third. Cloves, Galls, &c.
In the fourth. All sorts of Pepper.
As appropriated to the body of Man, so they heat the head: as
Anacardia, Cubebs, Nutmegs.
The breast. Bitter Almonds, Dates, Cubebs, Hazel Nuts, Pine Nuts, Figs, Raisins of the sun, Jujubes.
The heart. Walnuts, Nutmegs, Juniper berries.
The stomach. Sweet Almonds, Cloves, Ben, Juniper berries, Nutmegs, Pine Nuts, Olives.
The spleen. Capers.
The reins and bladder. Bitter Almonds, Juniper Berries, Cubebs, Pine Nuts, Raisins of the sun.
The womb. Walnuts, Nutmegs, Bay-berries, Juniper berries.
Cool the breast. Sebastens, Prunes, Oranges, Lemons.
The heart. Oranges, Lemons, Citrons, Pomegranates, Quinces, Pears.
The stomach. Quinces, Citruls, Cucumbers, Gourds, Musk Melons, Pompions, Cherries, Gooseberries, Cornelian Cherries, Lemons, Apples, Medlars, Oranges, Pears, English Currants, Cervices or Checkers.
The liver. Those that cool the stomach and Barberries.
The reins and womb. Those that cool the stomach, and Strawberries.
By their several operations, some
Bind. As the berries of Mirtles, Barberries, Chestnuts, Cornels, or Cornelian Cherries, Quinces, Galls, Acorns, Acorn-cups, Medlars, Checkers or Cervices, Pomegranates, Nutmegs, Olives, Pears, Peaches.
Discuss. Capers, all the sorts of Pepper.
Extenuate. Sweet and bitter Almonds, Bayberries, Juniper berries.
Glutinate. Acorns, Acorn Cups, Dates, Raisins of the sun, Currants.
Expel Wind. Bay berries, Juniper berries, Nutmegs, all the sorts of Pepper.
Breed Seed. Raisins of the sun, sweet Almonds, Pine Nuts, Figs, &c.
Provoke urine. Winter Cherries.
Provoke the terms. Ivy berries, Capers, &c.
Stop the terms. Barberries, &c.
Resist poison. Bay berries, Juniper berries, Walnuts, Citrons, commonly called Pome Citrons, all the sorts of Pepper.
Ease pain. Bay berries, Juniper berries, Ivy berries, Figs, Walnuts, Raisins, Currants, all the sorts of Pepper.
Fruits purging
Choler. Cassia Fistula, Citron Myrobalans, Prunes, Tamarinds, Raisins.
Melancholy. Indian Myrobalans.
Flegm. Colocynthis and wild Cucumbers purge violently, and therefore not rashly to be meddled withal. I desire my book should be beneficial, not hurtful to the vulgar, but Myrobalans of all sorts, especially Chebs, Bellericks and Emblicks, purge flegm very gently, and without danger.
Of all these give me leave to commend only one to you as of special concernment, which is Juniper berries.

SEEDS

College : Sorrel, Agnus Castus, Marsh-mallows, Bishop's weed true and common, Amomus, Dill, Angellica, Annis, Rose-seed, Smallage, Columbines, Sparagus, Arach, Oats, Oranges, Burdocks, Bazil, Barberries, Cotton, Bruscus or Knee-holly, Hemp, Cardamoms greater and lesser, Carduus Benedictus, our Lady's Thistles, Bastard, Saffron, Caraway, Spurge greater and lesser, Coleworts, Onions, the Kernels of Cherry stones, Chervil, Succory, Hemlock, Citrons, Citruls, Garden Scurvy-grass, Colocynthis, Coriander, Samphire, Cucumbers, garden and wild, Gourds, Quinces, Cummin, Cynosbatus, Date-stones, Carrots, English, and cretish, Dwarf-Elder, Endive, Rocket, Hedge Mustard, Orobus, Beans, Fennel, Fenugreek, Ash-tree keys, Fumitory, Brooms, Grains of Paradise, Pomegranates, wild Rue, Alexanders, Barley, white Henbane, St. John's Wort, Hyssop, Lettice, Sharp-pointed-Dock, Spurge, Laurel, Lentils, Lovage, Lemons, Ash-tree-keys, Linseed, or Flaxweed, Gromwell, Darnel, Sweet Trefoil, Lupines, Masterwort, Marjoram, Mallows, Mandrakes, Melons, Medlars, Mezereon, Gromwell, sweet Navew, Nigella, the kernels of Cherries, Apricots, and Peaches, Bazil, Orobus, Rice Panick, Poppies white and black, Parsnips garden and wild. Thorough Wax, Parsley, English and Macedonian, Burnet, Pease, Plantain, Peony, Leeks, Purslain, Fleawort, Turnips, Radishes, Sumach, Spurge, Roses, Rue, garden and wild, Wormseed, Saxifrage, Succory, Sesami, Hartwort, common and cretish, Mustardseed, Alexanders, Nightshade, Steves Ager, Sumach, Treacle Mustard, sweet Trefoil, Wheat, both the fine flour and the bran, and that which starch is made of, Vetches or Tares, Violets, Nettles, common and Roman, the stones of Grapes, Greek Wheat, or Spelt Wheat.
Culpeper : That you may receive a little more benefit by these, than the bare reading of them, which doth at the most but tell you what they are; the following method may instruct you what they are good for.
Seeds are hot in the first degree
Linseed, Fenugreek, Coriander, Rice, Gromwell, Lupines.
In the second. Dill, Smallage, Orobus, Rocket, Bazil, Nettles.
In the third. Bishop's Weed, Annis, Amomus, Carraway, Fennel, (and so I believe Smallage too, let authors say what they will, for if the herb of Smallage be somewhat hotter than Parsley; I know little reason why the seed should not be so hot) Cardamoms, Parsley, Cummin, Carrots, Nigella, Navew, Hartwort, Staves Ager.
In the fourth. Water-cresses, Mustard-seed.
Cold in the first degree. Barley, &c.
In the second. Endive, Lettice, Purslain, Succory, Gourds, Cucumbers, Melons, Citruls, Pompions, Sorrel, Nightshade.
In the third. Henbane, Hemlock, Poppies white and black.
Moist in the first degree. Mallows, &c.
Dry in the first degree. Beans, Fennel, Fenugreek, Barley, Wheat, &c.
In the second. Orobus, Lentils, Rice, Poppies, Nightshade, and the like.
In the third. Dill, Smallages, Bishop's Weed, Annis, Caraway, Cummin, Coriander, Nigella, Gromwell, Parsley.
Appropriated to the body of man, and so they
Heat the head. Fennel, Marjoram, Peony, &c.
The breast. Nettles.
The heart. Bazil, Rue, &c. Mustard seed, &c.
The stomach. Annis, Bishop's weed, Amomus, Smallage, Cummin, Cardamoms, Cubebs, Grains of Paradise.
The liver. Annis, Fennel, Bishop's weed, Amomus, Smallage, Sparagus, Cummin, Caraway, Carrots.
The spleen. Annis, Caraway, Watercresses.
The reins and bladder. Cicers, Rocket, Saxifrage, Nettles, Gromwell.
The womb. Peony, Rue.
The joints. Water-cresses, Rue, Mustard-seed.
Cool the head. Lettice, Purslain, white Poppies.
The breast. White Poppies, Violets.
The heart. Orange, Lemon, Citron and Sorrel seeds.
Lastly, the four greater and four lesser cold seeds, which you may find in the beginning of the compositions, as also the seed of white and black Poppies cool the liver and spleen, reins and bladder, womb and joints.
According to operation some seeds
Bind, as Rose-seeds, Barberries, Shepherd's purse, Purslain, &c.
Discuss. Dill, Carrots, Linseeds, Fenugreek, Nigella, &c.
Cleanse. Beans, Orobus, Barley, Lupines, Nettles, &c.
Mollify. Linseed, or Flax seed, Fenugreek seed, Mallows, Nigella.
Harden. Purslain seed, &c.
Suppure. Linseed, Fenugreek seed, Darnel, Barley husked, commonly called French Barley.
Glutinate. Orobus, Lupines, Darnel, &c.
Expel wind. Annis, Dill, Smallage, Caraway, Cummin, Carrots, Fennel, Nigella, Parsley, Hartwort, Wormseed.
Breed Seed. Rocket, Beans, Cicers, Ash-tree keys.
Provoke the menses. Amomus, Sparagus, Annis, Fennel, Bishop's weed, Cicers, Carrots, Smallage, Parsley, Lovage, Hartwort.
Break the stone. Mallows, Marsh-mallows, Gromwell, &c.
Stop the terms. Rose seeds, Cummin, Burdock, &c.
Resist poison. Bishop's weed, Annis, Smallage, Cardamoms, Oranges, Lemons, Citrons, Fennel, &c.
Ease pain. Dill, Amomus, Cardamoms, Cummin, Carrots, Orobus, Fenugreek, Linseed, Gromwell, Parsley, Panick.
Assuage swellings. Linseed, Fenugreek seeds, Marsh-mallows, Mallows, Coriander, Barley, Lupines, Darnel, &c.
* * *

The College tells you a tale that there are such things in Rerum Natura, as these, Gums, Rozins, Balsams, and Juices made thick, viz.
College : Juices of Wormwood and Maudlin, Acacia, Aloes, Lees of Oil, Assa-fœtida, Balsam of Peru and India; Bdellium, Benzoin, Camphire, Caranna, Colophonia, Juice of Maudlin, Euphorbium, Lees of Wine, Less of Oil, Gums of Galbanum, Amoniacum, Anime, Arabick, Cherry Trees, Copal, Elemy, Juniper, Ivy, Plumb Trees, Cambuge, Hypocystis, Labdanum, Lacca, Liquid Amber, Manna, Mastich, Myrrh, Olibanum, Opium, Opopanax, Pice-bitumen, Pitch of the Cedar of Greece, Liquid and dry Rozins of Fir-tree, Larch-tree, Pine tree, Pinefruit, Mastich, Venice and Cyprus Turpentine. Sugar, white, red, and Christaline, or Sugar Candy white and red, Sagapen, Juniper, Gum, Sanguis Draconis, Sarcocolla, Scamony, Styrax, Liquid and Calamitis, Tacha, Mahacca, Tartar, Frankincense, Olibanum, Tragaganth, Birdlime.
Culpeper : That my country may receive more benefit than ever the college of Physicians intended them from these, I shall treat of them severally.
1. Of the Juices. 2. Of the Gums and Rosins.
Concrete Juices, or Juices made thick, are either
Temperate, as, Juice of Liquorice, white starch.
Hot in the first degree. Sugar.
In the second. Labdanum.
In the third. Benzoin, Assafœtida.
Cold in the third degree. Sanguis Draconis, Acacia.
In the third. Hypocistis.
In the fourth. Opium, and yet some authors think Opium is hot because of its bitter taste.
Aloes and Manna purge choler gently, and Scamony doth purge choler violently, that it is no ways fit for a vulgar man's use, for it corrodes the Bowels. Opopoanax purges flegm very gently.
White starch gently levigates or makes smooth such parts as are rough, syrup of Violets being made thick with it and so taken on the point of a knife, helps coughs, roughness of the throat, wheezing, excoriations of the bowels, the bloody-flux.
Juice of Liquorice helps roughness of the Trachea Arteria, which is in plain English called the windpipe, the roughness of which causes coughs and hoarseness, difficulty of breathing, &c. It allays the heat of the stomach and liver, eases pains, soreness and roughness of the reins and bladder, it quencheth thirst, and strengthens the stomach exceedingly. It may easily be carried about in one's pocket, and eat a little now and then.
Sugar cleanses and digests, takes away roughness of the tongue, it strengthens the reins and bladder, being weakened: being beaten into fine powder, and put into the eyes, it takes away films that grow over the sight.
Labdanum is in operation, thickening, heating and mollifying, it opens the passage of the veins, and keeps the hair from falling off; the use of it is usually external; being mixed with wine, myrrh, and oil of mirtles, and applied like a plaister, it takes away filthy scars, and the deformity the small pox leaves behind them; being mixed with oil of Roses, and dropped into the ears, it helps pains there; being used as a pessary, it provokes the menses, and helps hardness or stiffness of the womb. It is sometimes used inwardly in such medicines as ease pains and help the cough: if you mix a little of it with old white wine and drink it, it both provokes urine and stops looseness or fluxes.
Dragons blood, cools, binds, and repels.
Acasia, and Hyposistis, do the like.
The juice of Maudlin, or, for want of it Costmary, which is the same in effect, and better known to the vulgar, the juice is made thick for the better keeping of it; first clarify the juice before you boil it to its due thickness, which is something thicker than honey.
It is appropriated to the liver, and the quantity of a dram taken every morning, helps the Cachexia, or evil disposition of the body proceeding from coldness of the liver: it helps the rickets and worms in children, provokes urine, and gently (without purging) disburdens the body of choler and flegm; it succours the lungs, opens obstructions, and resists putrefaction of blood.
Gums are either temperate, as, Lacca, Elemi, Tragacanth, &c.
Intemperate, and so are hot in the first degree, as Bdellium, Gum of Ivy.
In the second, Galbanum, Myrrh, Mastich, Frankincense, Olibanum, Pitch, Rozin, Styrax.
In the third. Amoniacum.
In the fourth. Euphorbium.
Gum Arabick is cold.
Colophonia and Styrax soften.
Gum Arabick and Tragacanth, Sandarack or Juniper Gum, and Sarcocolla bind.
Gum of Cherry trees, breaks the stone.
Styrax provokes the menses.
Opopanax gently purges flegm.
From the prickly Cedar when it is burned comes forth that which, with us, is usually known by the name of Tar, and is excellently good for unction either for scabs, itch, or manginess, either in men or beasts, as also against the leprosy, tetters, ringworms, and scald heads.
All sorts of Rozins fill up hollow ulcers, and relieve the body sore pressed with cold griefs.
The Rozin of Pitch-tree, is that which is commonly called Burgundy pitch, and is something hotter and sharper than the former, being spread upon a cloth is excellently good for old aches coming of former bruises or dislocations.
Pitch mollifies hard swellings, and brings boils and sores to suppuration, it breaks carbuncles, disperses aposthumes, cleanses ulcers of corruption and fills them with flesh.
Bdellium heats and mollifies, and that very temperately, being mixed with any convenient ointment or plaister, it helps kernels in the neck and throat, Scrophula, or that disease which was called the King's Evil. Inwardly taken in any convenient medicine, it provokes the menses, and breaks the stone, it helps coughs and bitings of venomous beasts: it helps windiness of the spleen, and pains in the sides thence coming. Both outwardly applied to the place and inwardly taken, it helps ruptures or such as are burst, it softens the hardness of the womb, dries up the moisture thereof and expels the dead child.
Bitumen Jadaicum is a certain dry pitch which the dead sea, or lake of Sodom in India casts forth at certain times, the inhabitants thereabouts pitch their ships with it. It is of excellent use to mollify the hardness of swellings and discuss them, as also against inflammations; the smoke of it burnt is excellently good for the fits of the mother, and the falling-sickness. Inwardly taken in wine it provokes the menses, helps the bitings of venomous beasts, and dissolves congealed blood in the body.
Ambergreese is hot and dry in the second degree, I will not dispute whether it be a Gum or not. It strengthens nature much which way soever it be taken, there are but few grains usually given of it at a time: mixed with a little ointment of Orange flowers, and the temples and forehead anointed with it, it eases the pains of the head and strengthens the brain exceedingly; the same applied to the privities helps the fits of the mother; inwardly taken it strengthens the brain and memory, the heart and vital spirit, warms cold stomachs, and is an exceeding strengthener of nature to old people, adding vigour to decayed and worn-out spirits: it provokes venery, and makes barren women fruitful, if coldness and moisture or weakness be the cause impediting.
Assafœtida being smelled to, is vulgarly known to repress the fits of the mother; a little bit put into an aching tooth, presently eases the pain, ten grains of it taken before dinner, walking half an hour after it, provokes appetite, helps digestion, strengthens the stomach, and takes away loathing of meat, it provokes lust exceedingly and expels wind as much.
Borax, besides the virtues it has to solder Gold, Silver, Copper, &c. inwardly given in small quantities, it stops fluxes, and the running of the reins; being in fine powder, and put into green wounds, it cures them at once dressing.
Gambuge, which the College calls Gutta Gamba. I know no good of it.
Caranna outwardly applied, is excellent for aches and swellings in the nerves and joints. If you lay it behind the ears, it draws back humours from the eyes; applied to the temples as they usually do Mastich, it helps the tooth-ache.
Gum Elimi, authors appropriate to fractures in the skull and head. See Arceus' liniment.
Gum Lacca being well purified, and the quantity of half a dram taken in any convenient liquor, strengthens the stomach and liver, opens obstructions, helps the yellow jaundice and dropsy; provokes urine, breaks the stone in the reins and bladder.
Liquid Amber is not much unlike liquid Styrax: by unction it warms and comforts a cold and moist brain, it eases all griefs
coming of a cold cause, it mightily comforts and strengthens a weak stomach, being anointed with it, and helps digestion exceedingly, it dissolves swellings. It is hot in the third degree, and moist in the first.
I think it would do the commonwealth no harm if I should speak a word or two of Manna here, although it be no Gum. I confess authors make some flutter about it, what it is, some holding it to be the juice of a tree; I am confident it is the very same condensated that our honey-dews here are, only the countries whence it comes being far hotter, it falls in great abundance. Let him that desires reason for it, be pleased to read Butler's book of Bees, a most excellent experimental work, there he shall find reason enough to satisfy any reasonable man. Choose the driest and whitest; it is a very gentle purger of choler, quenches thirst, provokes appetite, eases the roughness of the throat, helps bitterness in the throat, and often proneness to vomit, it is very good for such as are subject to be costive to put it into their drink instead of sugar, it hath no obnoxious quality at all in it, but may be taken by a pregnant woman without any danger; a child of a year old may take an ounce of it at a time dissolved in milk, it will melt like sugar, neither will it be known from it by the taste.
Myrrh is hot and dry in the second degree, dangerous for pregnant women, it is bitter and yet held to be good for the roughness of the throat and wind-pipe; half a dram of it taken at a time helps rheumatic distillations upon the lungs, pains in the sides; it stops fluxes, provokes the menses, brings away both birth and after-birth, softens the hardness of the womb; being taken two hours before the fit comes, it helps agues. Mathiolus saith he seldom used any other medicine for the quartan ague than a dram of myrrh given in Muskadel an hour before the fit usually came; if you make it up into pills with treacle, and take one of them every morning fasting, it is a sovereign preservative against the pestilence, against the poison of serpents, and other venomous beasts; a singular remedy for a stinking breath if it arise from putrefaction of the stomach, it fastens loose teeth, and stays the shedding off of the hair, outwardly used it breeds flesh in deep wounds, and covers the naked bones with flesh.
Olibanum is hot in the second degree, and dry in the first, you may take a dram of it at a time, it stops looseness and the running of the reins; it strengthens the memory exceedingly, comforts the heart, expels sadness and melancholy, strengthens the heart, helps coughs, rheums and pleurises; your best way (in my opinion), to take it is to mix it with conserve of roses, and take it in the morning fasting.
Tachamacha is seldom taken inwardly, outwardly spread upon leather, and applied to the navel; it stays the fits of the mother, applied to the side, it mitigates speedily, and in little time quite takes away the pain and windiness of the spleen; the truth is, whatsoever ache or swelling proceeds of wind or cold raw humours, I know no better plaister coming from beyond sea than this gum. It strengthens the brain and memory exceedingly, and stops all such defluctions thence as trouble the eyes, ears, or teeth, it helps the gout and sciatica.
Gum Coopal, and Gum Anime, are very like one another both in body and operation, the former is hard to come by, the last not very easy. It stops defluctions from the head, if you perfume your cap with the smoke of it, it helps the headache and megrim, strengthens the brain, and therefore the sinews.
Gum Tragaganth, which the vulgar call Gum Dragon, being mixed with pectoral Syrups, (which you shall find noted in their proper places) it helps coughs and hoarseness, salt and sharp distillations upon the lungs, being taken with a liquorice stick, being dissolved in sweet wine, it helps (being drank) gnawing in the bowels, sharpness and freetings of the urine, which causes excoriations either in the reins or bladder, being dissolved in milk and the eyes washed with it, it takes away weals and scabs that grow on the eyelids, it is excellently good to be put in poultice to fodder wounds, especially if the nerves or sinews be hurt.
Sagapen, dissolved in juice of rue and taken, wonderfully breaks the stone in the bladder, expels the dead child and afterbirth, clears the sight; dissolved in wine and drank, it helps the cough, and distillation upon the lungs, and the fits of the mother; outwardly in oils or ointments, it helps such members as are out of joint or over-stretched.
Galbanum is of the same operation, and also taken from the same plant, viz. Fennel, Giant.
Gum Arabic, thickens and cools, and corrects choleric sharp humours in the body, being dissolved in the white of an egg, well beaten, it helps burnings, and keeps the place from blistering.
Mastich stays fluxes, being taken inwardly any way. Three or four small grains of Mastich, swallowed at night going to bed, is a remedy for pains in the stomach; being beaten into powder, and mixed with conserve of Roses, it strengthens the stomach, stops distillations upon the lungs, stays vomiting, and causes a sweet breath; being mixed with white wine and the mouth washed with it, it cleanses the gums of corruption, and fastens loose teeth.
Frankincense being used outwardly in the way of a plaister, heats and binds; being applied to the temples, stops the rheums that
flow to the eyes, helps green wounds, and fills hollow ulcers with flesh, stops the bleeding of wounds, though the arteries be cut; being made into an ointment with Vinegar and Hog's-grease, helps the itch, pains in the ears, inflammations in women's breasts commonly called agues in the breast; beware of taking it inwardly, lest it cause madness.
Turpentine is hot in the second degree, it heals, softens, it discusses and purges, cleanses the reins, provokes urine.
Styrax Calamitis is hot and dry in the second degree, it heals, mollifies, and concocts; being taken inwardly helps the cough, and distillations of the lungs, hoarseness and loss of voice, helps the hardness of the womb, and provokes the menses.
Ammoniacum, hot and dry in the third degree, softens, draws, and heats; being dissolved in vinegar, strained and applied plaister-wise, it takes away carbuncles and hardness in the flesh, it is one of the best remedies that I know for infirmities of the spleen, being applied to the left side; being made into an ointment with oil, it is good to anoint the limbs of such as are weary: a scruple of it being taken in the form of a pill loosens the belly, gives speedy delivery to women in travail, helps diseases of the spleen, the sciatica and all pains in the joints, and have any humour afflicting their breast.
Camphire, it is held by all authority to be cold and dry in the third degree, it is of very thin subtile parts, insomuch that being beaten into very fine powder it will vanquish away into the air, being beaten into powder and mixed with oil, and the temples anointed therewith, eases headaches proceeding of heat, all inflammations whatsoever, the back being anointed with the same, cools the reins, and seminal vessels, stops the running of the reins and Fluor Albus, the moderate use of Venery, the like it doth if it be drank inwardly with Bettony-water, take but a small quantity of it at a time inwardly, it resists poison and bitings by venomous beasts; outwardly, applied as before, and the eyes anointed with it, stops hot rheums that flow thither.
Opopanax purges thick flegm from the most remote parts of the body, viz. the brain, joints, hands, and feet, the nerves and breast, and strengthens all those parts when they are weak, if the weakness proceed of cold, as usually it doth; it helps weakness of the sight, old rotten coughs, and gouts of all sorts, dropsies, and swellings of the spleen, it helps the stranguary and difficulty of making urine, provokes the menses, and helps all cold afflictions of the womb; have a care you give it not to any pregnant women. The dose is one dram at most, corrected with a little Mastich, dissolved in Vinegar and outwardly applied helps the passions of the spleen.
* * *

In the next place the College tells you a tale concerning Liquid, Juices, and Tears, which are to be kept for present use, viz.
College : Vinegar, Juice of Citrons, Juice of sour Grapes, Oranges, Barberries, Tears of a Birch-tree, Juice of Chermes, Quinces, Pomegranates, Lemons, Wood-sorrel, Oil of unripe Olives, and ripe Olives, both new and cold, Juice of red and Damask Roses, Wine Tears of a Vine.
Culpeper : The virtues of the most of these may be found in the Syrups, and are few of them used alone.
Then the College tells you there are things bred of PLANTS.
College : Agarick, Jew's-ears, the berries of Chermes, the Spungy substance of the Briar, Moss, Viscus Quercinus, Oak, Apples.
Culpeper : As the College would have you know this, so would I know what the chief of them are good for.
Few's-ears boiled in milk and drank, helps sore throats.
Moss is cold, dry, and binding, therefore good for fluxes of all sorts.
Misleto of the Oak, it helps the falling sickness and the convulsions, being discreetly gathered and used.
Oak Apples are dry and binding; being boiled in milk and drank, they stop fluxes and the menses, and being boiled in vinegar, and the body anointed with the vinegar, cures the itch.
* * *

Then the College acquaints you, That there are certain living Creatures called:
College : Bees, Woodlice, Silkworms, Toads, Crabs of the River, little Puppy Dogs, Grass-hoppers, Cantharides, Cothanel, Hedgehogs, Emmets or Ants, Larks, Swallows, and their young ones, Horse-leeches, Snails, Earthworms, Dishwashers or Wagtails, House Sparrows and Hedge Sparrows, Frogs, Scineus, Land Scorpions, Moles, or Monts, Tortoise of the Woods, Tenches, Vipers and Foxes.
Culpeper : That part of this crew of Cattle and some others which they have not been pleased to learn, may be made beneficial to your sick bodies, be pleased to understand, that
Bees being burnt to ashes, and a lye made with the ashes, trimly decks a bald head being washed with it.
Snails with shells on their backs, being first washed from the dirt, then the shells broken, and they boiled in spring water, but not scummed at all, for the scum will sink of itself, and the water drank for ordinary drink is a most admirable remedy for consumption; being bruised and applied to the place they help the gout, draw thorns out of the flesh, and held to the nose help the bleeding thereof.
* * *

Therefore consider that the College gave the Apothecaries a catalogue of what Parts of Living creatures and Excrements they must keep in their shops.
College : The fat, grease, or suet, of a Duck, Goose, Eel, Boar, Herron, Thymallows (if you know where to get it) Dog, Capon, Beaver, wild Cat, Stork, Coney, Horse, Hedge-hog, Hen, Man, Lion, Hare, Pike, or Jack, (if they have any fat, I am persuaded 'tis worth twelve-pence a grain) Wolf, Mouse of the mountains, (if you can catch them) Pardal, Hog, Serpent, Badger, Grey or brock Fox, Vulture, (if you can catch them) Album Græcum, Anglice, Dog's dung, the hucklebone of a Hare and a Hog, East and West Bezoar, Butter not salted and salted, stone taken out of a man's bladder, Vipers flesh, fresh Cheese, Castorium, white, yellow, and Virgin's Wax, the brain of Hares and Sparrows, Crabs' Claws, the Rennet of a Lamb, a Kid, a Hare, a Calf, and a Horse, the heart of a Bullock, a Stag, Hog, and a Wether, the horn of an Elk, a Hart, a Rhinoceros, an Unicorn, the skull of a man killed by a violent death, a Cockscomb, the tooth of a Bore, an Elephant, and a Sea-horse, Ivory, or Elephant's Tooth, the skin a Snake hath cast off, the gall of a Hawk, Bullock, a she Goat, a Hare, a Kite, a Hog, a Bull, a Bear, the cases of Silk-worms, the liver of a Wolf, an Otter, a Frog, Isinglass, the guts of a Wolf and a Fox, the milk of a she Ass, a she Goat, a Woman, an Ewe, a Heifer, East and West Bezoar, the stone in the head of a Crab, and a Perch, if there be any stone in an Ox Gall, stone in the bladder of a Man, the Jaw of a Pike or Jack, Pearls, the marrow of the Leg of a Sheep, Ox, Goat, Stag, Calf, common and virgin Honey, Musk, Mummy, a Swallow's nest, Crabs Eyes, the Omentum or call of a Lamb, Ram, Whether, Calf, the whites, yolks, and shells of Hen's Eggs, Emmet's Eggs, bone of a Stag's heart, an Ox leg, Ossepiœ, the inner skin of a Hen's Gizzard, the wool of Hares, the feathers of Partridges, that which Bees make at the entrance of the hive, the pizzle of a Stag, of a Bull, Fox Lungs, fasting spittle, the blood of a Pigeon, of a Cat, of a he Goat, of a Hare, of a Partridge, of a Sow, of a Bull, of a Badger, of a Snail, Silk, Whey, the suet of a Bullock, of a Stag, of a he Goat, of a Sheep, of a Heifer, Spermaceti, a Bullock's spleen, the skin a Snake hath cast off, the excrements of a Goose, of a Dog, of a Goat, of Pigeons, of a stone Horse, of a Hen, of Swallows, of a Hog, of a Heifer, the ancle of a Hare, of a Sow, Cobwebs, Water thells, as Blatta Bazantia, Buccinæ, Crabs, Cockles, Dentalis, Entalis, Mother of Pearl, Mytuli Purpuræ, Os speiæ, Umbilious Marinus, the testicles of a Horse, a Cock, the hoof of an Elk, of an Ass, a Bullock, of a Horse, of a Lyon, the urine of a Boar, of a she Goat.
Culpeper : The liver of an Hedge-hog being dried and beaten into powder and drank in wine, strengthens the reins exceedingly, and helps the dropsy, convulsions, and the falling sickness, together with all fluxes of the bowels.
The liver being in like manner brought into powder, strengthens the liver exceedingly, and helps the dropsy.
* * *

Then the College tells you these things may be taken from the sea, as College : Amber-grease, Sea-water, Sea-sand, Bitumen, Amber white and yellow, Fet, Carlinæ, Coral, white and red, Foam of the Sea, Spunge, Stone Pumice, Sea salt, Spunges, Amber.

METALS, STONES, SALTS, AND
OTHER MINERALS

Ver-de-grease, Scales of Brass, Ætitis, Alana Terra, Alabaster, Alectorions, Alum Seisile and Roach Amethist, Amianth, Amphelites, Antimony, leaves and filings of Silver, Quick Silver, Lapis, Armenius, native Arsenic, both white and red, artificial Arsenic, white and realgar, Argilla, Asteria, leaves and filings of Gold, Belemites, Berril, Bolearmenick, Borrax, Toad-stone, Lapis Calaminatis, Cadmia, Lime quick and quenched, Vitriol, white, blue, and green, Steel, Borrax, Chrisolite, Chrisopus, Cynabris, native and artificial, Whetstones, Chalk, white and green, Crystal, Diphriges, the rust, dust, scales, and flakes of Iron, Granite, Mortar, such as walls are daubed with, Hematitis, Heliotropium, Jacinth, Hyber, Nicius, Jasper, Lapis Judacious, Tiles, Lapis Lazuly, Lapis Lincis, Lithanthrax, Litharge of Silver and Gold, Loadstone, Marchasite, or fire stone Marble, Red Lead, native and artificial, Miss, Naptha, Lapis Nephriticus, Nitre, Oaker yellow and red, Onyx, Opalus, Ophytes, Ostcocolla Lead white and black, Plumbago, Pompholix, Marchasite, Realgar, Ruby, red Oaker, Sal Armoniach, Sal Gem, and salt Nitre, Saphyr and Sardine, Selenitis, Flints, Emerald, Smiris, Sori, Spodium, Pewter, Brimstone, quick and common, Talth, Earth of Cimolia, Sames, Lemnos, Sylesia, Topas, Alana, Terra, Tutty, Vitriol, white, blue, and green.
Precious stones alter by a way manifest or hidden
By a way manifest, they are hot, in the first degree. Hemetitis, Pyritis, Lopis Asius, Thyitis, Smyres, Lapis Schistus.
Precious stones cold, are in the first degree. Jacinth, Saphyr, Emerald, Cristal, Lapis Samius, Lapis Phrigius.
In the second degree. Ruby, Carbuncle, Granite, Sardony.
In the fourth degree. Diamond.
In respect of property, they bind, as Lapis Asius, Nectius, Geodes, Pumice-stone.
Emolient, as Alabaster, Jet, Lapis Thrasius.
Stupify, as Memphitis, Jasper, Ophites.
Clease, as Lapis Arabicus.
Glutinate, as Galactitis, Melites.
Scarify, as Morochtus.
Break the stone, as Lapis Lyncis, Lapis Judaicus, Lapis Sponge.
Retain the fruit in the womb, as Ætitis, Jasper.
Provoke the menses. Ostracites.
Stones altering by a hidden property (as they call it,) are
Bezoar, Topaz, Lapis Colubrinus, Toad-stone, Emerald, Alectorius, Calcidonius, Amethist, Saphyr, Jasper, Lapis Nephriticus, Lapis Tibernum, Lapis Spongites, the stone found in the maw of a Swallow, Load-stone, Lapis Vulturis, Merucius, Coral, Lynturius, Jet, Ætites, the stones of Crabs, Amber, Crystal, &c.
The Load-stone purges gross humours.
Lapis Armenius and Lapis Lazuli, purge melancholy.
Pyrites heat and cleanse, take away dimness of sight. Dioscorides. Lapis Asius binds and moderately corrodes and cleanses filthy ulcers, and fills them up with flesh; being mixed with honey, and applied to the place, is an admirable remedy for the gout.
Chrystal being beaten into very fine powder, and a dram of it taken at a time helps the bloody-flux, stops the Fluor Albus, and increases milk in Nurses. Mathiolus.
Lapis Samius is cooling and binding, it is very comfortable to the stomach, but it dulls the senses, helps fluxes of the eyes and ulcers.
Geodetes binds and drys, being beaten into powder and mixed with water, and applied to the place, takes away inflammations of the Testicles.
Pumice-stone being beaten into powder and the teeth rubbed with it, cleanses them. Dioscorides.
Jet, it is of a softening and discussing nature, it resists the fits of the mother.
Lapis Arabicus being beaten into powder, and made into an ointment helps the hemorrhoids.

Ostracites, a dram of it taken in powder provokes the menses; being taken after that purgation, causes conception, also being made into an ointment, helps inflammations of the breast.
Myexis being borne about one takes away pains in the reins, and hinders the breeding of the stone.
Lapis Armenius purges melancholy, and also causes vomiting, I hold it not very safe for our English bodies, and therefore I will speak no more of it.
Explanation of certain Vacuations
The five opening Roots.
Smallage, Sparagus, Fennel, Parsley, Knee-holly.
The two opening Roots.
Fennel, Parsley.
The five emolient Herbs.
Marsh-mallows, Mallows, Beets, Mercury, Pellitory of the Wall, Violet Leaves.

The five Capillary Herbs.
Maidenhair, Wall Rue, Cetrach, Hart's-tongue, Politricum.
The four cordial Flowers.
Borrage, Bugloss, Roses, Violets.
The four greater hot Seeds, Carminative, or breaking wind.
Annis, Carraway, Cummin, Fennel.
The four lesser hot seeds.
Bishop's weed, Amomus, Smallage, Carrots.
The four greater cold seeds.
Citrul, Cucumber, Gourds, Melon.
The four lesser cold seeds.
Succory, Endive, Lettice, Purslain.
Five fragments of precious stones.
Granite, Jacinth, Sapphire, Sardine, Emerald.
The right worshipful, the College of Physicians of London in their New Dispensatory give you free leave to distil these common waters that follow, but they never intend you should know what they are good for.

SIMPLE DISTILLED WATERS
Of fresh Roots of
Briony, Onions, Elecampane, Orris, or Flower-de-luce, Turnips.
Of flowers and buds of
Southernwood, both sorts of Wormwood, Wood Sorrel, Lady's-Mantle, Marsh-mallows, Angelica, Pimpernel with purple flowers, Smallage, Columbines, Sparagus, Mouse-ear, Borrage, Shepherd's Purse, Calaminth, Woodbine or Honey-suckles, Carduus Benedictus, our Lady's Thistles, Knotgrass, Succory, Dragons, Colt's-foot, Fennel, Goat's Rue, Grass, Hyssop, Lettice, Lovage, Toad-flax, Hops, Marjoram, Mallows, Horehound, Featherfew, Bawm, Mints, Horse-mints, Water Cresses, English Tobacco, white Poppies, Pellatory of the Wall, Parsley, Plantain, Purslain, Self-heal, Pennyroyal, Oak leaves, Sage, Scabious, Figwort or Throatwort, Houseleek, or Sengreen, the greater and lesser Mother of Time, Nightshade, Tansy, Tormentil, Valerian.
Of Flowers of
Oranges, (if you can get them) Blue-bottle the greater, Beans, Water-Lilies, Lavender, Nut-tree, Cowslips, Sloes, Rosemary, Roses white, damask, and red, Satyrien, Lime-tree, Clove-gilliflowers, Violets.
Of Fruits of
Oranges, Black Cherries, Pome Citrons, Quinces, Cucumbers, Strawberries, Winter Cherries, Lemons, Rasberries, unripe Walnuts, Apples.
Of parts of living Creatures and their excrements
Lobsters, Cockles, or Snails, Hartshorn, Bullocks dung made in May, Swallows, Earthworms, Magpies, Spawn of Frogs.

SIMPLE WATERS DISTILLED
being digested before-hand
Of the fresh Roots of Nettles
Of the leaves of Agrimony, wild Tansy, or Silverweed, Mugwort, Bettony, Marigolds, Chamomel, Chamepitys, Celandine, Pilewort, Scurvy-grass, Comfry the greater, Dandelyon, Ash-tree leaves, Eyebright, Fumitory, Alehoof, or ground Ivy, Horsetail, St. John's Wort, Yarrow, Moneywort, Restharrow, Solomon's Seal, Res solis, Rue, Savin, Saxifrage, Hart's tongue, Scordium, Tamarisk, Mullin, Vervain, Paul's Bettony, Mead-sweet, Nettles.
Of the Flowers of Mayweed, Broom, Cowslips, Butter-bur, Peony, Elder.
Of the berries of Broom, Elder.
Culpeper : Then the College gives you an admonition concerning these, which being converted into your native language, is as follows.
We give you warning that these common waters be better prepared for time to come, either in common stills, putting good store of ashes underneath, the roots and herbs being dryer, &c. or if they be full of Juice, by distilling the juice in a convenient bath, that so burning may be avoided, which hitherto hath seldom been. But let the other Herbs, Flowers, or Roots, be bruised, and by adding Tartar, common salt, or leven be digested, then putting spring water to them, distil them in an Alembick with its refrigeratory, or Worm, till the change of the taste shew the virtue to be drawn off; then let the oil (if any) be separated from the water according to art.
Into the number of these waters may be ascribed.
The Tears of Vines, the liquor of the Birch-tree, May dew.
Culpeper : That my country may receive the benefit of these waters, I shall first shew the temperatures, secondly, the virtues of the most usual and most easy to come by. If any should take exceptions that I mention not all, I answer first, I mention enough.
Secondly, who ever makes this objection, they shew extreme ingratitude, for had I mentioned but only one, I had revealed more to them than ever the College intended they should know, or give me thanks for doing.
The qualities and appropriation of the simple Distilled Waters
Simple distilled waters either cool or heat: such as cool, either cool the blood or choler.
Waters cooling the blood. Lettice, Purslain, Water Lilies, Violets, Sorrel Endive, Succory, Fumitory.
Waters cooling and repressing choleric humours, or vapours in the head
Nightshade, Lettice, Water Lilies, Plantain, Poppies, viz. The flowers both of white black and red Poppies, black Cherries.
The breast and lungs. Violets, Poppies all three sorts, Colt's-foot.
In the heart. Sorrel, Quinces, Water Lilies, Roses, Violets, green or unripe Walnuts.
In the stomach. Quinces, Roses, Violets, Nightshade, Houseleeks, or Sengreen, Lettice, Purslain.
In the liver. Endive, Succory, Night-shade, Purslain, Water Lilies.
In the reins and bladder. Endive, Succory, Winter Cherries, Plantain, Water Lilies, Strawberries, Houseleek or Sengreen, black Cherries.
In the womb. Endive, Succory, Lettice, Water Lilies, Purslain, Roses. Simple waters which are hot, concoct either flegm or melancholy.
Waters concocting flegm in the head,are
Bettony, Sage, Marjoram, Chamomel, Fennel, Calaminth, Rosemary-flowers, Primroses, Eye-bright.
In the breast and lungs. Maiden-hair, Bettony, Hysop, Horehound, Carduus Benedictus, Scabious, Orris, or Flower-de-luces, Bawm, Self-heal, &c.
In the heart. Bawm, Rosemary.
In the stomach. Wormwood, Mints, Fennel, Chervil, Time, Mother of Time, Marigolds.
In the liver. Wormwood, Centaury, Origanum, Marjoram, Maudlin, Costmary, Agrimony, Fennel.
In the spleen. Water-cresses, Wormwood, Calaminth.
In the reins and bladder. Rocket, Nettles, Saxifrage, Pellitory of the Wall, Alicampane, Burnet.
In the womb. Mugwort, Calaminth, Penny-royal, Savin, Mother of Time, Lovage.
Waters concocting Melancholy in the head, are
Hops, Fumitory.
The breast. Bawm, Carduus Benedictus.
The heart. Borrage, Bugloss, Bawm, Rosemary.
The liver. Endive, Chicory, Hops.
The spleen. Dodder, Hart's-tongue, Tamarisk, Time.
Having thus ended the appropriation, I shall speak briefly of the virtues of distilled waters.
Lettice water cools the blood when it is over-heated, for when it is not, it needs no cooling: it cools the head and liver, stays hot vapours ascending to the head, and hinders sleep; it quenches immoderate thirst, and breeds milk in nurses, distil it in May.
Purslain water cools the blood and liver, quenches thirst, helps such as spit blood, have hot coughs, or pestilences.
The distilled water of water Lily-flower, cools the blood and the bowels, and all internal parts of the body; helps such as have the yellow jaundice, hot coughs and pleurisies, the head-ache, coming of heat, fevers pestilential and not pestilential, as also hectic fevers.
The water of Violet flowers, cools the blood, the heart, liver and lungs, over-heated, and quenches an insatiable desire of drinking, they are in their prime about the latter end of March, or beginning of April, according as the year falls out.
The water of Sorrel cools the blood, heart, liver, and spleen. If Venice Treacle be given with it, it is profitable in pestilential fevers, distil it in May.
Endive and Succory water are excellent against heat in the stomach; if you take an ounce of either (for their operation is the same) morning and evening, four days one after another, they cool the liver, and cleanse the blood: they are in their prime in May.
Fumitory water is usual with the city dames to wash their faces with, to take away morphew, freckles, and sun-burning; inwardly taken, it helps the yellow jaundice and itch, cleanses the blood, provokes sweat, strengthens the stomach, and cleanses the body of adust humours: it is in its prime in May and June.
The water of Nightshade helps pains in the head coming of heat. Take heed you distil not the deadly Nightshade instead of the common, if you do, you may make mad work. Let such as have not wit enough to know them asunder, have wit enough to let them both alone till they do.
The water of white Poppies extinguishes all heat against nature, helps head-aches coming of heat, and too long standing in the sun. Distil them in June or July.
Colt's-foot water is excellent for burns to wash the place with it; inwardly taken it helps Phthisicks and other diseases incident to the lungs, distil them in May or June.
The water of Distilled Quinces strengthens the heart and stomach exceedingly, stays vomiting and fluxes, and strengthens the retentive faculty in man.
Damask Rose water cools, comforts, and strengthens the heart, so doth Red Rose-water, only with this difference, the one is binding, the other loosening; if your body be costive, use Damask Rose water, because it is loosening: if loose, use red, because it is binding.
White Rose water is generally known to be excellent against hot rheums, and inflammations in the eyes, and for this it is better than the former.
The water of Red Poppy flowers, called by many Corn-roses, because they grow so frequently amongst corn, cools the blood and spirits over-heated by drinking or labour, and is therefore excellent in surfets.
Green Walnuts gathered about the latter end of June or July, and bruised, and so stilled, strengthen the heart, and resist the pestilence.
Plantain water helps the headache; being dropped into the ear it helps the tooth-ache, helps the phthisicks, dropsy and fluxes, and is an admirable remedy for ulcers in the reins and bladder, to be used as common drink: the herb is in its prime in May.
Strawberry water cools, quenches thirst, clarifies the blood, breaks the stone, helps all inward inflammations, especially those in the reins, bladder and passages of the urine; it strengthens the liver and helps the yellow jaundice.
The distilled water of Dog grass, or Couch grass, as some call it, cleanses the reins gallantly, and provokes urine, opens obstructions of the liver and spleen, and kills worms.
Black Cherry water provokes urine, helps the dropsy. It is usually given in diseases of the brain, as convulsions, falling-sickness, palsy and apoplexy.
Betony is in its prime in May, the distilled water thereof is very good for such as are pained in their heads, it prevails against the dropsy and all sorts of fevers, it succours the liver and spleen, and helps want of digestion and evil disposition of the body thence arising; it hastens travail in women with child, and is excellent against the bitings of venomous beasts.
Distil Sage whilst the flowers be on it, the water strengthens the brain, provokes the menses, helps nature much in all its actions.
Marjoram is in its prime in June, distilled water is excellent for such whose brains are too cold, it provokes urine, heats the womb, provokes the menses, strengthens the memory and helps the judgment, causes an able brain.
Distil Camomel water about the beginning of June. It eases the cholick and pains in the belly; it breaks the stone in the reins and bladder, provokes the menses, expels the dead child, and takes away pains in the head.
Fennel water strengthens the heart and brain; dilates the breast, the cough, provokes the menses, encreases milk in nurses, and if you wash your eyes with it, it clears the sight.
The Hooves of the fore feet of a Cow dried and taken any away, encrease milk in nurses, the smoke of them drives away mice. Mizaldus.
Calaminth water heats and cleanses the womb, provokes the menses, and eases the pains of the head, distil it in May.
The distilled water of Rosemary flowers, helps such as are troubled with the yellow Jaundice, Asthmas, it cleanses the blood, helps concoction, strengthens the brain and body exceedingly.
Water of the flowers of Lilies of the valley, strengthens the brain and all the senses.
The water of Cowslip flowers helps the palsey; takes away pains in the head, the vertigo and megrim, and is exceedingly good for pregnant women.
The eyes being washed every morning with Eyebright water, most strangely clears and strengthens the sight.
Maidenhair distilled in May, the water cleanses both liver and lungs, clarifies the blood, and breaks the stone.
Hyssop water cleanses the lungs of flegm, helps coughs and Asthmas, distil it in August.
The water of Hore-hound, helps the cough and straitness of the breast; it strengthens the breast, lungs and stomach, and liver, distil it in June.
Carduus water succours the head, strengthens the memory, helps such as are troubled with vertigoes and quartan agues, it provokes sweat, strengthens the heart, and all other fevers of choler. It is in its prime in May and June.
Scabious water helps pleurises and pains, and pricking in the sides; Aposthumes, coughs, pestilences, and straitness of the breast.
Water of Flower-de-luce is very profitable in dropsies, an ounce being drank continually every morning and evening; as also pains and torments in the bowels.
Bawm water distilled in May, restores memory, it quickens all the senses, strengthens the brain, heart, and stomach, causes a merry mind and a sweet breath.
The water of Comfrey solders broken bones, being drank, helps ruptures, outwardly it stops the bleeding of wounds, they being washed with it.
Wormwood water distilled cold, about the end of May, heats and strengthens the stomach, helps concoction, stays vomiting, kills worms in the stomach and bowels, it mitigates the pains in the teeth, and is profitably given in fevers of choler.
Mint water strengthens the stomach, helps concoction and stays vomiting, distil it in the latter end of May, or beginning of June, as the year is in forwardness or backwardness, observe that in all the rest.
Chervil water distilled about the end of May, helps ruptures, breaks the stone, dissolves congealed blood, strengthens the heart and stomach.
The water of Mother of Time strengthens the brain and stomach, gets a man a good stomach to his victuals, provoke urine and the menses, heats the womb. It is in its prime about the end of June.
The water of Marigold flowers is appropriated to most cold diseases of the head, eyes, and stomach: they are in their vigour when the Sun is in the Lion.
The distilled water of Centaury comforts a cold stomach, helps in fever of choler, it kills worms, and provokes appetite.
Maudlin and Costmary water distilled in May or June, strengthens the liver, helps the yellow jaundice, opens obstructions, and helps the dropsy.
Water-cresses distilled in March, the water cleanses the blood, and provokes urine exceedingly, kills worms, outwardly mixed with honey, it clears the skin of morphew and sunburning.
Distil Nettles when they are in flower, the water helps coughs and pains in the bowels, provokes urine, and breaks the stone.
Saxifrage water provokes urine, expels wind, breaks the stone, cleanses the reins and bladder of gravel, distil them when they are in flower.
The water of Pellitory of the Wall, opens obstructions of the liver and spleen, by drinking an ounce of it every morning; it cleanses the reins and bladder, and eases the gripings of the bowels coming of wind. Distil it in the end of May, or beginning of June.
Cinquefoil water breaks the stone, cleanses the reins, and is of excellent use in putrified fevers. Distil it in May.
The water of Radishes breaks the stone, cleanses the reins and bladder, provokes the menses, and helps the yellow jaundice.
Elicampane water strengthens the stomach and lungs, provokes urine, and cleanses the passages of it from gravel.
Distil Burnet in May or June, the water breaks the stone, cleanses the passages of urine, and is exceeding profitable in pestilential times.
Mugwort water distilled in May, is excellent in coughs and diseases proceeding from stoppage of the menses, it warms the stomach, and helps the dropsy.
Distil Penny-royal when the flowers are upon it: the water heats the womb gallantly, provokes the menses, expels the afterbirth; cuts, and casts out thick and gross humours in the breast, eases pains in the bowels, and consumes flegm.
The water of Lovage distilled in May, eases pains in the head, and cures ulcers in the womb being washed with it; inwardly taken it expels wind, and breaks the stone.
The tops of Hops when they are young, being distilled, the water cleanses the blood of melancholy humours, and therefore helps scabs, itch, and leprosy, and such like diseases thence proceeding; it opens obstructions of the spleen, helps the rickets, and hypochondriac melancholy.
The water of Borrage and Bugloss distilled when their flowers are upon them, strengthens the heart and brain exceedingly, cleanses the blood, and takes away sadness, griefs and melancholy.
Dodder water cleanses the liver and spleen, helps the yellow jaundice.
Tamarisk water opens obstructions, and helps the hardness of the spleen, and strengthens it.
English Tobacco distilled, the water is excellently good for such as have dropsy, to drink an ounce or two every morning; it helps ulcers in the mouth, strengthens the lungs, and helps such as have asthmas.
The water of Dwarf Elder, hath the same effects.
Thus you have the virtues of enough of cold waters, the use of which is for mixtures of other medicines, whose operation is the same, for they are very seldom given alone. If you delight most in liquid medicines, having regard to the disease, and part of the body afflicted by it, these will furnish you with where withal to make them so as will please your pallate best.

COMPOUNDS, SPIRIT AND COMPOUND DISTILLED WATERS

Culpeper : Before I begin these, I thought good to premise a few words. They are all hot in operation, and therefore not to be meddled with by people of hot constitutions when they are in health, for fear of fevers and adustion of blood, but for people of cold constitutions, as melancholy and flegmatic people. If they drink of them moderately now and then for recreation, due consideration being had to the part of the body which is weakest, they may do them good: yet in diseases of melancholy, neither strong waters nor sack is to be drank, for they make the humour thin, and then up to the head it flies, where it fills the brain with foolish and fearful imaginations.
2. Let all young people forbear them whilst they are in health, for their blood is usually hot enough without them.
3. Have regard to the season of the year, so shall you find them more beneficial in Summer than in Winter, because in summer the body is always coldest within, and digestion weakest, and that is the reason why men and women eat less in Summer than in Winter.
Thus much for people in health, which drink strong waters for recreation.
As for the medicinal use of them, it shall be shewed at the latter end of every receipt, only in general they are (due respect had to the humours afflicting, and part of the body afflicted) medicinal for diseases of cold and flegm, chilliness of the spirits, &c.
But that my countrymen may not be mistaken in this, I shall give them some symptoms of each complexion how a man may know when it exceeds its due limits.
Signs of choler abounding
Leanness of body, costiveness, hollow eyes, anger without a cause, a testy disposition, yellowness of the skin, bitterness in the throat, pricking pains in the head, the pulse swifter and stronger than ordinary, the urine higher colored, thinner and brighter,troublesome sleeps, much dreaming of fire, lightning, anger, and fighting.
Signs of blood abounding
The veins are bigger (or at least they seem so) and fuller than ordinary; the skin is red, and as it were swollen; pricking pains in the sides, and about the temples, shortness of breath, head-ache, the pulse great and full, urine high colored and thick, dreams of blood, &c.
Signs of melancholy abounding
Fearfulness without a cause, fearful and foolish imaginations, the skin rough and swarthy, leanness, want of sleep, frightful dreams, sourness in the throat, the pulse very weak, solitariness, thin clear urine, often sighing, &c.
Signs of flegm abounding
Sleepiness, dulness, slowness, heaviness, cowardliness, forgetfulness, much spitting, much superfluities at the nose, little appetite to meat and as bad digestion, the skin whiter, colder and smoother than it was want to be; the pulse slow and deep: the urine thick and low colored: dreams of rain, floods, and water, &c.
These things thus premised, I come to the matter. The first the College presents you with is
Spiritus et Aqua Absinthis minus Composita
Or, Spirit and water of Wormwood, the lesser composition
College : Take of the leaves of dryed Wormwood two pounds, Annis seeds, half a pound: steep them in six gallons of small wine twenty four hours, then distil them in an Alembick, adding to every pound of the distilled water two ounces of the best Sugar.
Let the two first pound you draw out be called Spirit of Wormwood, those which follow, Wormwood water the lesser composition.
Culpeper : I like this distinction of the College very well, because what is first stilled out, is far stronger than the rest, and therefore very fitting to be kept by itself: you may take which you please, according as the temperature of your body, either to heat or cold, and the season of year requires.
It hath the same virtues Wormwood hath, only fitter to be used by such whose bodies are chilled by age, and whose natural heat abates. You may search the herbs for the virtues, it heats the stomach, and helps digestion.
College : After the same manner (only omitting the Annis seeds) is distilled spirit and water of Angelica, both Herb and Root, Bawm, Mints, Sage, &c. the Flowers of Rosemary, Clary, Clove-gilliflowers, &c. the seeds of Caraway, &c. Juniper-berries, Orange Pills, Lemons, Citrons, &c. Cinnamon, Nutmegs, &c.
Spiritus et Aqua Absynthii magis composita
Or spirit and water of Wormwood, the greater composition
College : Take of common and Roman Wormwood, of each a pound; Sage, Mints, Bawm, of each two handfuls; the Roots of Galanga, Ginger, Calamus, Aromaticus, Elecampane, of each three drachms; Liquorice, an ounce, Raisins of the Sun stoned, three ounces, Annis seeds, and sweet Fennel seeds, of each three drachms; Cinnamon, Cloves, Nutmegs, of each two drachms; Cardamoms, Cubebs, of each one drachm: let the things be cut that are to be cut, and the things be bruised that are to be bruised, all of them infused in twenty four pints of Spanish wine, for twenty four hours, then, distilled in an Alembick, adding two ounces of white sugar to every pint of distilled water.
Let the first pint be called Spirit of Wormwood the greater composition.
Culpeper : The opinion of Authors is, That it heats the stomach, and strengthens it and the lungs, expels wind, and helps digestion in ancient people.
Spiritus et Aqua Angelica magis composita
Or Spirit and water of Angelica, the greater composition
College : Take of the leaves of Angelica eight ounces, of Carduus Benedictus six ounces, of Bawm and Sage, of each four ounces, Angelica seeds six ounces; sweet Fennel seeds nine ounces. Let the herbs, being dryed, and the seeds be grossly bruised, to which add of the species called Aromaticum Rosarum, and of the species called Diamoschu Dulce, of each an ounce and a half, infuse them two days in thirty two pints of Spanish Wine, then distil them with a gentle fire, and with every pound mix two ounces of sugar dissolved in Rose-water.
Let the three first pounds be called by the name of Spirit, the rest by the name of water.
Culpeper : The chief end of composing this medicine, was to strengthen the heart and resist infection, and therefore is very wholesome in pestilential times, and for such as walk in stinking air.
I shall now quote you their former receipt in their former dispensatory.
Angelica water the greater composition
College : Take of Angelica two pounds, Annis seed half a pound, Coriander and Caraway seeds, of each four ounces, Zedoary bruised, three ounces: steep them twenty four hours in six gallons of small wine, then draw out the spirit, and sweeten it with sugar.
Culpeper : It comforts the heart, cherishes the vital spirits, resists the pestilence, and all corrupt airs, which indeed are the natural causes of epidemical diseases, the sick may take a spoonful of it in any convenient cordial, and such as are in health, and have bodies either cold by nature, or cooled by age, may take as much either in the morning fasting, or a little before meat.
Spiritus Lavendula compositus Matthiæ
Or compound spirit of Lavender. Matthias
College : Take of Lavender flowers one gallon, to which pour three gallons of the best spirits of wine, let them stand together in the sun six days, then distil them with an Alembick with this refrigeratory.
Take of the flowers of Sage, Rosemary, and Bettony, of each one handful; the flowers of Borrage, Bugloss, Lilies of the Valley, Cowslips, of each two handfuls: let the flowers be newly and seasonably gathered, being infused in one gallon of the best spirits of wine, and mingled with the foregoing spirit of Lavender flowers, adding the leaves of Bawm, Feather-few, and Orange tree, fresh gathered; the flowers of Stœchas and Orange tree, May berries, of each one ounce. After convenient digestion distil it again, after which add Citron pills the outward bark, Peony seed husked, of each six drams, cinnamon, Mace, Nutmegs, Cardamoms, Cubebs, yellow Sanders, of each half an ounce, Wood of Aloes one dram, the best Jujubes, the stones being taken out, half a pound, digest them six weeks, then strain it and filter it, and add to it prepared Pearls two drams, Emeralds prepared a scruple, Ambergrease, Musk, Saffron, of each half a scruple, red Roses dryed, red Sanders, of each half an ounce, yellow Sanders, Citron Pills, dryed, of each one dram. Let the species being tyed up in a rag, be hung into the aforementioned spirit.
Culpeper : I could wish the Apothecaries would desire to be certified by the College.
1. Whether the gallon of Lavender flowers must be filled by heap, or by strike. 2. Next, whether the flowers must be pressed down in the measure or not. 3. How much must be drawn off in the first distillation. 4. Where they should get Orange leaves and flowers fresh gathered. 5. What they mean by convenient digestion. 6. Where you shall find Borrage, Bugloss, and Cowslips, flowering together, that so you may have them all fresh according to their prescript, the one flowering in the latter end of April, and beginning of May, the other in the end of June, and beginning of July. 7. If they can make a shift to make it, how, or which way the virtues of it will countervail the one half of the charge and cost, to leave the pains and trouble out.
Spiritus Castorii
Or Spirit of Castoreum
College : Take of fresh Castoreum four ounces, Lavender flower an ounce, the tops of Sage and Rosemary, of each half an ounce, Cinnamon six drams, Mace, Cloves, of each two drachms, spirits of Wine rectified, six pounds, digest them in a phial filled only to the third part, close stopped with cork and bladder in warm ashes for two days, then distilled in Balneo Mariæ, and the distilled water kept close stopped.
Culpeper : By reason of its heat it is no ways fit to be taken alone, but mixed with other convenient medicines appropriated to the diseases you would give it for, it resists poison, and helps such as are bitten by venomous beasts: it causes speedy delivery to women in travail, and casteth out the Placenta: it helps the fits of the mother, lethargies and convulsions, being mixed with white wine, and dropped into the ears, it helps deafness; if stopping be the cause of it, the dose to be given inwardly is between one dram, and half a dram, according to the strength and age of the patient.
Aqua Petasitidis composita
Or compound water of Butter-bur
College : Take of the fresh roots of Butter-bur bruised, one pound and a half, the roots of Angelica and Masterwort, of each half a pound, steep them in ten pints of strong Ale, then distil them till the change of the taste gives a testimony that the strength is drawn out.
Culpeper : This water is very effectual being mixed with other convenient cordials, for such as have pestilential fevers: also a spoonful taken in the morning, may prove a good preservative in pestilential times: it helps the fits of the mother, and such as are short winded, and being taken inwardly, dries up the moisture of such sores as are hard to be cured.
Aqua Raphani Composita
Or Compound water of Radishes
College : Take of the leaves of both sorts of Scurvy-grass, of each six pound, having bruised them, press the juice out of them, with which mix of the juice of brook-lime, and Water-cresses, of each one pound and a half, of the best white wine, eight pounds, twelve whole Lemons, pills and all, fresh Briony roots four pound, the roots of wild Radishes two pound, Captain Winter's Cinnamon half a pound, Nutmegs four ounces, steep them altogether, and then distil them.
Culpeper : I fancy it not, and so I leave it; I suppose they intended it for purgation of women in child-bed.
Aqua Peoniæ Composita
Or Compound water of Peony
College : Take of the flowers of Lilies of the Valley, one pound: infuse them in four gallons of Spanish wine so long till the following flowers may be had fresh.
Take of the fore-named flowers half a pound, Peony flowers four ounces: steep them together fourteen days, then distil them in Balneo Mariæ till they be dry: in the distilled liquor infuse again male Peony roots gathered in due time, two ounces and a half, white Dittany, long Birthwort, of each half an ounce, the leaves of Misselto of the Oak, and Rue, of each two handfuls, Peony seeds husked, ten drams, Rue seeds three drams and a half, Castoreum two scruples, Cubebs, Mace, of each two drachms, Cinnamon an ounce and a half, Squills prepared, three drachms, Rosemary flowers six pugils, Arabian Stæchas, Lavender, of each four pugils, the flowers of Betony, Clove-gilliflowers, and Cowslips, of each eight pugils, then adding four pound of the juice of black Cherries, distil it in a glass till it be dry.
Aqua Bezoartica
Or Bezoar Water
College : Take of the leaves of Celandine, roots and all, three handfuls and a half, Rue two handfuls, Scordium four handfuls, Dittany of Crete, Carduus, of each one handful and a half, Zedoary and Angelica roots, of each three drams, Citrons and Lemon pills, of each six drams, Clove-gilliflowers one ounce and a half, Red Rose, Centaury the less, of each two drams, Cinnamon, Cloves, of each three drams, Venice Treacle three ounces, Mithridates one ounce and a half, Camphire two scruples, Troches of Vipers two ounces, Mace two drams, Wood of Aloes half an ounce, Yellow Sanders one dram and a half, Carduus seeds one ounce, Citron seeds six drams, let them be cut and infused in spirits of Wine, and Malaga Wine, of each three pound and a half, Vinegar of Clove-gilliflowers, Juice of Lemons, of each one pound, and distilled in a glass still in Balneo Mariæ, after it is half distilled off, the residue may be strained through a linen cloath, and be reduced to the thickness of Honey, and called the Bezoartic extract.
Culpeper : Extracts have the same virtues with the waters they are made from, only the different form is to please the palates of such whose fancy loathes any one particular form.
This Bezoar water strengthens the heart, arteries, and vital spirits. It provokes sweat, and is exceeding good in pestilential fevers, in health it withstands melancholy and consumptions, and makes a merry, blithe, chearful creature. Of the extract you may take ten grains at a time, or somewhat more, if your body be not feverish, half a spoonful of water is sufficient at a time, and that mixed with other cordials or medicines appropriated to the disease that troubles you.
Aqua et Spiritus Lambricorum, magistralis
Or Water and Spirit of Earthworms
College : Take of Earthworms well cleansed, three pound, Snails, with shells on their backs cleansed, two gallons, beat them in a mortar, and put them into a convenient vessel, adding stinging Nettles, roots and all, six handfuls, wild Angelica, four handfuls, brank Ursine, seven handfuls, Agrimony, Bettony, of each three handfuls, Rue one handful, common Wormwood two handfuls, Rosemary flowers six ounces, Dock roots ten ounces, the roots of Sorrel five ounces, Turmerick, the inner bark of Barberries, of each four ounces, Fenugreek seeds two ounces, Cloves three ounces, Hart's-horn, Ivory in gross powder, of each four ounces, Saffron three drams, small spirits of wine four gallons and a half, after twenty-four hours infusion, distil them in an alembick. Let the four first pounds be reserved for spirit, the rest for water.
Culpeper : 'Tis a mess altogether, it may be they intended it for a universal medicine.
Aqua Gentianæ compositæ
Or Gentian Water compound
College : Take of Gentain roots sliced, one pound and a half, the leaves and flowers of Centaury the less, of each four ounces, steep them eight days in twelve pounds of white Wine, then distil them in an alembick.
Culpeper : It conduces to preservation from ill air, and pestilential fevers: it opens obstructions of the liver, and helps such as they say are liver-grown; it eases pains in the stomach, helps digestion, and eases such as have pains in their bones by ill lodging abroad in the cold, it provokes appetite, and is exceeding good for the yellow jaundice, as also for prickings or stitches in the sides: it provokes the menses, and expels both birth and placenta: it is naught for pregnant women. If there be no fever, you may take a spoonful by itself; if there be, you may, if you please, mix it with some cooler medicine appropriated to the same use you would give it for.
Aqua Gilbertii
Or Gilbert's Water
College : Take of Scabious, Burnet, Dragons, Bawm, Angelica, Pimpernel, with purple flowers, Tormentil, roots and all, of each two handfuls, let all of them, being rightly gathered and prepared, be steeped in four gallons of Canary Wine, still off three gallons in an alembick, to which add three ounces of each of the cordial flowers, Clove-gilliflowers six ounces, Saffron half an ounce, Turmerick two ounces, Galanga, Bazil seeds, of each one dram, Citron pills one ounce, the seed of Citrons and Carduus, Cloves of each five ounces, Hart's-horn four ounces, steep them twenty four hours and then distil them in Balneo Mariæ: to the distilled water add Pearls prepared, an ounce and a half, red Coral, Crabs eyes, white Amber, of each two drams, Crabs claws, six drams, Bezoar, Amber-grease, of each two scruples, steep them six weeks in the sun, in a vessel well stopped, often shaking it, then filter it, (you may keep the powders for Spicord. temp.) by mixing twelve ounces of Sugar candy, with six ounces of red Rose-water, and four ounces of spirit of Cinnamon with it.
Culpeper : I suppose this was invented for a cordial to strengthen the heart, to relieve languishing nature. It is exceeding dear. I forbear the dose, they that have money enough to make it themselves, cannot want time to study both the virtues and dose. I would have gentlemen to be studious.
Aqua cordialis frigida Saxeniæ
College : Take of the juice of Borrage, Bugloss, Bawm, Bistort, Tormentil, Scordium, Vervain, sharp-pointed Dock, Sorrel, Goat's Rue, Mirrhis, Blue Bottle great and small, Roses, Marigolds, Lemon, Citrons, of each three ounces, white Wine Vinegar one pound, Purslain seeds two ounces, Citron and Carduus seeds, of each half an ounce, Water Lily flowers two ounces, the flowers of Borrage, Bugloss, Violets, Clove-gilliflowers, of each one ounce, Diatrion Sentalon six drams: let all of them, being rightly prepared, be infused three days, then distilled in a glass still: to the distilled Liquor add earth of Lemnos, Siletia, and Samos, of each one ounce and an half, Pearls prepared with the juice of Citrons, three drams, mix them, and keep them together.
Culpeper : It mightily cools the blood, and therefore profitable in fevers, and all diseases proceeding of heat of blood; it provokes sleep. You may take half an ounce at a time, or two drams if the party be weak.
Aqua Theriacalis
Or Treacle Water
College : Take of the juice of green Walnuts, four pounds, the juice of Rue three pounds, juice of Carduus, Marigolds, and Bawm, of each two pounds, green Petasitis roots one pound and a half, the roots of Burs one pound, Angelica and Master-wort, of each half a pound, the leaves of Scordium four handfuls, old Venice Treacle, Mithridates, of each eight ounces, Canary Wine twelve pounds, Vinegar six pounds, juice of Lemons two pounds, digest them two days, either in Horse-dung, or in a bath, the vessel being close shut, then distil them in sand; in the distillation you may make a Theriacal extraction.
Culpeper : This water is exceeding good in all fevers, especially pestilential; it expels venomous humours by sweat; it strengthens the heart and vitals; it is an admirable counter-poison, special good for such as have the plague, or are poisoned, or bitten by venomous beasts, and expels virulent humours from such as have the venereal disease. If you desire to know more virtues of it, see the virtues of Venice Treacle. The dose is from a spoonful to an ounce.
Aqua Brioniæ composita
Or Briony Water compound
College : Take of the juice of Briony roots, four pounds, the leaves of Rue and Mugwort, of each two pounds, dryed Savin three handfuls, Featherfew, Nep, Pennyroyal, of each two handfuls, Bazil, Dittany, of Crete, of each one handful and a half, Orange pills four ounces, Myrrh two ounces, Castoreum one ounce, Canary Wine twelve pounds, digest them four days in a convenient vessel, then still them in Balneo Mariæ. About the middle of the distillation strain it out, and make an Hysterical extraction of the residue.
Culpeper : A spoonful of it taken, eases the fits of the mother in women that have them; it potently expels the afterbirth, and clears the body of what a midwife by heedlessness or accident hath left behind; it cleanses the womb exceedingly, and for that I fancy it much, take not above a tasterful at a time, and then in the morning fasting, for it is of a purging quality, and let pregnant women forbear it.
Aqua Imperialis
Or Imperial Water
College : Take of dried Citron, and Orange pills, Nutmegs, Cloves, Cinnamon, of each two ounces, the roots of Cypress, Orris, Florentine, Calamus Aromaticus, of each one ounce, Zedoary Galanga, Ginger, of each half an ounce, the tops of Lavender and Rosemary, of each two handfuls, the leaves of Bay, Marjoram, Bawm, Mints, Sage, Thyme, of each one handful, the flowers of white and Damask Roses fresh, of each half a handful, Rosewater four pounds, white Wine eight pounds, let all of them be bruised and infused twenty four hours, then distil them according to art.
Culpeper : You must distil it in a bath, and not in sand. It comforts and strengthens the heart against faintings and swoonings, and is held to be a preservative against consumptions and apoplexies. You may take half a spoonful at a time.
Aqua Mirabilis
College : Take of Cloves, Galanga, Cubebs, Mace, Cardamoms, Nutmegs, Ginger, of each one dram, Juice of Celandine half a pound, spirits of Wine one pound, white Wine three pounds, infuse them twenty-four hours, and draw off two pounds with an alembick.
Culpeper : The simples also of this, regard the stomach, and therefore the water heats cold stomachs, besides authors say it preserves from apoplexies, and restores lost speech.
Aqua Protheriacalis
College : Take of Scordium, Scabius, Carduus, Goat's Rue, of each two handfuls, Citron and Orange pills, of each two ounces, the seeds of Citrons, Carduus, Hartwort, Treacle Mustard, of each one ounce, the flowers of Marigolds and Rosemary, of each one handful, cut them, and bruise them grossly, then infuse them in four pounds of white Wine, and two pounds of Carduus water, in a glass, close stopped, and set it in the sun or bath for a fortnight, often shaking it, then distil it in Balneo Mariæ. Let the two first pounds be kept by themselves for use, and the remainder of the distillation by itself. Lastly, mix one ounce of Julep of Alexandria, and a spoonful of Cinnamon water with each pound.
Culpeper : Aqua Protheriacalis, signifies a water for Treacle, so then if you put Diascoridum to it, it is a water for Diascoridum; well then, we will take it for a general water for all physick.
Aqua Caponis
Or Capon Water
College : Take a Capon the guts being pulled out, cut in pieces, the fat being taken away, boiled in a sufficient quantity of spring-water in a close vessel, take of this broth three pounds. Borrage and Violet-water, of each a pound and a half, white Wine one pound, red rose leaves two drams and an half, the flowers of Borrage, Violets and Bugloss, of each one dram, pieces of bread, hot out of the oven, half a pound, Cinnamon bruised, half an ounce, distil it in a glass still according to art.
Culpeper : The simples are most of them appropriated to the heart, and in truth the composition greatly nourishes and strengthens such as are in consumptions, and restores lost strength, either by fevers or other sickness. It is a sovereign remedy for hectic fevers, and Marasmos, which is nothing else but a consumption coming from them. Let such as are subject to these diseases, hold it for a jewel.
Aqua Limacum Magistr.
Or Water of Snails
College : Take of the juice of Ground Ivy, Colt's-foot, Scabious, Lungwort, of each one pound and a half, the juice of Purslain, Plantain, Ambrosia, Paul's Bettony, of each a pound, Hog's blood, white Wine, of each four pounds, Garden Snails, two pounds, dried Tobacco leaves eight, powder of Liquorice two ounces, of Elecampane half an ounce, of Orris an ounce, Cotton seeds an ounce and a half, the greater cold seeds, Annis seeds of each six drams, Saffron one dram, the flowers of red Roses, six pugils, of Violets and Borrage, of each four pugils, steep them three days warm, and then distil them in a glass still, in sand.
Culpeper : It purges the lungs of flegm and helps consumptions there. If you should happen to live where no better nor readier medicine can be gotten, you may use this.
Aqua Scordii composita
Or Compound Water of Scordium
College : Take of the juice of Goat's Rue, Sorrel, Scordium, Citrons, of each one pound, London Treacle, half a pound, steep it three days, and distil it in sand.
Culpeper : A tasterful taken in the morning, preserves from ill airs.
Aqua Mariœ
College : Take of Sugar Candy a pound, Canary Wine six ounces, Rose Water four ounces; boil it well into a Syrup, and add to it Imperial water two pounds, Ambergreese, Musk, of each eighteen grains, Saffron fifteen grains, yellow Sanders infused in Imperial water, two drams; make a clear water of it.
Aqua Papaveries composita
Or Poppy Water compound
College : Take of red Poppies four pounds, sprinkle them with white Wine two pounds, then distil them in a common still, let the distilled water be poured upon fresh flowers and repeated three times; to which distilled water add two Nutmegs sliced, red Poppy flowers a pugil, Sugar two ounces, set it in the sun to give it a pleasing sharpness; if the sharpness be more than you would have it, put some of the same water to it which was not set in the sun.
Aqua Juglandium composita
Or Walnut Water compound
College : Take of green Walnuts a pound and an half, Radish roots one pound, green Asarabacca six ounces, Radish seeds, six ounces. Let all of them, being bruised, be steeped in three pounds of white Wine for three days, then distilled in a leaden still till they be dry.

TINCTURES
Tinctura Croci
Or Tincture of Saffron
College : Take two drams of Saffron, eight ounces of Treacle water, digest them six days, then strain it.
Culpeper : See the virtues of Treacle water, and then know that this strengthens the heart something more, and keeps melancholy vapours thence by drinking a spoonful of it every morning.
Tinctura Castorii
Or Tincture of Castoreum
College : Take of Castoreum in powder half an ounce, spirit of Castoreum half a pound, digest them ten days cold, strain it, and keep the Liquor for Tincture.
Culpeper : A learned invention! 'Tis something more prevalent than the spirit.
Tinctura Fragroram
Or Tincture of Strawberries
College : Take of ripe Wood-strawberries two pounds, put them in a phial, and put so much small spirits of Wine to them, that it may overtop them the thickness of four fingers, stop the vessel close, and set it in the sun two days, then strain it, and press it but gently; pour this spirit to as many fresh Strawberries, repeat this six times, at last keep the clear liquor for your use.
Culpeper : A fine thing for Gentlemen that have nothing else to do with their money, and it will have a lovely look to please their eyes.
Tinctura Scordii
Or Tincture of Scordium
College : Take of the leaves of Scordium gathered in a dry time, half a pound, digest them in six pounds of small spirits of Wine, in a vessel well stopped, for three days, press them out gently, and repeat the infusion three times, and keep the clarified liquor for use.
So is made Tincture of Celandine, Restharrow, and Rosa-solis.
Culpeper : See the herbs for the virtues, and then take notice that these are better for cold stomachs, old bodies.
Tinctura Theriacalis vulgo Aqua Theriacalis Ludg. per infus.
Or Tincture of Treacle
College : Take of Canary Wine often times distilled, Vinegar in which half an ounce of Rue seeds have been boiled, two pounds choice treacle, the best Mithridate, of each half a pound; mix them and set them in the sun, or heat of a bath, digest them, and keep the water for use.
Tinctura Cinnamoni, vulgo, Aqua Clareta Cinnam.
Or Tincture of Cinnamon
College : Take of bruised Cinnamon two ounces, rectified spirits of Wine two pounds, infuse them four days in a large glass stopped with cork and bladder, shake it twice a day, then dissolve half a pound of Sugar Candy by itself in two pounds of Rose Water, mix both liquors, into which hang a nodule containing, Ambergris half a scruple, Musk four grains.
Tinctura Viridis
Or a green Tincture
College : Take of Verdigris, half an ounce, Auripigmentum six drams, Alum three drams, boil them in a pound of white Wine till half be consumed, adding, after it is cold, the water of red Roses, and Nightshade, of each six ounces.
Culpeper : This was made to cleanse ulcers, but I fancy it not.
Aqua Aluminosa Magistralis
College : Take of Plantain and red Rose water, of each a pound, roch Alum and Sublimatum, of each two drams; let the Alum and Sublimatum, being in powder, boil in the waters, in a vessel with a narrow mouth till half be consumed, when it has stood five days, strain it.

PHYSICAL WINES
Vinum Absynthitis
Or Wormwood Wine
College : Take a handful of dried Wormwood, for every gallon of Wine, stop it in a vessel close, and so let it remain in steep: so is prepared wine of Rosemary flowers, and Eye-bright.
Culpeper : It helps cold stomachs, breaks wind, helps the wind cholic, strengthens the stomach, kills worms, and helps the green sickness.
Rosemary-flower Wine, is made after the same manner. It is good against all cold diseases of the head, consumes flegm, strengthens the gums and teeth.
Eye-bright Wine is made after the same manner. It wonderfully
clears the sight being drank, and revives the sight of elderly men. A cup of it in the morning is worth a pair of spectacles.
All other Wines are prepared in the same manner.
The best way of taking any of these Wines is, to drink a draught of them every morning. You may, if you find your body old or cold, make Wine of any other herb, the virtues of which you desire; and make it and take it in the same manner.
Vinum Cerassorum Nigrorum Or Wine of Black Cherries
College : Take a gallon of Black Cherries; keep it in a vessel close stopped till it begin to work, then filter it, and an ounce of Sugar being added to every pound, let it pass through Hippocrates' sleeve, and keep in a vessel close stopped for use.
Vinum Helleboratum Or Helleborated Wine
College : Take of white Hellebore cut small, four ounces, Spanish Wine two pounds, steep it in the sun in a phial close stopped, in the dog days, or other hot weather.
Vinum Rubellum
College : Take of Stibium, in powder, one ounce, Cloves sliced two drams, Claret Wine two pounds, keep it in a phial close shut.
Vinum Benedictum
College : Take of Crocus Metallorum, in powder, one ounce, Mace one dram, Spanish Wine one pound and an half, steep it.
Vinum Antimoniale
Or Antimonial Wine
College : Take of Regulus of Antimony, in powder, four ounces, steep it in three pounds of white Wine in a glass well stopped, after the first shaking let the Regulus settle.
Culpeper : These last mentioned are vomits, and vomits are fitting medicines for but a few, the mouth being ordained to take in nourishment, not to cast out excrements, and to regulate a man's body in vomiting; and doses of vomits require a deeper study in physic, than I doubt the generality of people yet have; I omit it therefore at this time, not because I grudge it my country, but because I would not willingly have them do themselves a mischief. I shall shortly teach them in what diseases vomits may be used, and then, and not till then, the use of vomits.
Vinum Scilliticum
Or Wine of Squills
College : Take of a white Squill of the mountains, gathered about the rising of the dog star, cut it in thin pieces, and dried for a month, one pound, put it in a glass bottle, and pour to it eight pounds of French Wine, and when it hath stood so four days, take out the Squill.
The virtues of this are the same with Vinegar of Squills, only it is hotter.

PHYSICAL VINEGARS
Acetum distillatum
Or distilled Vinegar
College : Fill a glass or stone alembick with the best Vinegar to the third part, separate the flegm with a gentle fire, then increase the fire by degrees, and perform the work.
Acetum Rosarum
Or Rose Vinegar
College : Take of red Rose buds, gathered in a dry time, the whites cut off, dried in the shade three or four days, one pound, Vinegar eight sextaries, set them in the sun forty days, then strain out the Roses, and repeat the infusion with fresh ones.
After the same manner is made Vinegar of Elder flowers, Rosemary flowers, and Clove-gilliflowers.
Culpeper : For the virtues of all Vinegars, take this one only observation, They carry the same virtues with the flowers whereof they are made, only as we said of Wines, that they were better for cold bodies then the bare simples whereof they are made; so are Vinegars for hot bodies. Besides, Vinegars are often, nay, most commonly used externally, viz. to bathe the place, then look amongst the simples, and see what place of the body the simple is appropriated to, and you cannot but know both what Vinegar to use, and to what place to apply it.
Acetum Scilliticum
Or Vinegar of Squils
College : Take of that part of the Squill which is between the outward bark and the bottom, cut in thin slices, and placed thirty or forty days in the sun or some remiss heat, then a pound of them (being cut small with a knife made of ivory or some white wood) being put in a vessel, and six pounds of Vinegar put to them; set the vessel, being close stopped, in the sun thirty or forty days, afterwards strain it, and keep it for use.
Culpeper : A little of this medicine being taken in the morning fasting, and walking half an hour after, preserves the body in health, to extreme old age, (as Sanius tried, who using no other medicine but this, lived in perfect health till one hundred and seventeen years of age) it makes the digestion good, a long wind, a clear voice, an acute sight, a good color, it suffers no offensive thing to remain in the body, neither wind, flegm, choler, melancholy, dung, nor urine, but brings them forth; it brings forth filth though it lie in the bones, it takes away salt and sour belchings, though a man be never so licentious in diet, he shall feel no harm. It hath cured such as have the phthisic, that have been given over by all Physicians. It cures such as have the falling sickness, gouts, and diseases and swellings of the joints. It takes away the hardness of the liver and spleen. We should never have done if we should reckon up the particular benefits of this medicine. Therefore we commend it as a wholesome medicine for soundness of body, preservation of health, and vigour of mind. Thus Galen.
Acetum Theriacale, Norimberg
Or Treacle Vinegar
College : Take of the roots of Celandine the greater, one ounce and a half: the roots of Angelica, Masterwort, Gentian, Bistort, Valerian, Burnet, white Dittany, Elecampane, Zedoary, of each one dram, of Plantain the greater one dram and a half, the leaves of Mousear, Sage, Scabious, Scordium, Dittany of Crete, Carduus, of each half an handful, barks and seeds of Citrons, of each half a dram, Bole Amoniac one dram, Saffron three drams, of these let the Saffron, Hart's-horn, Dittany, and Bole, be tied up in a rag, and steeped with the things before mentioned, in five pints of Vinegar, for certain days by a temperate heat in a glass well stopped, strain it, and add six drams of the best Treacle to it, shake it together, and keep it for your use.
Acetum Theriacale
Or Treacle Vinegar
College : Add to the description of Treacle water, Clove-gilliflowers two ounces, Lavender flowers an ounce and a half, Rose, and Elder flower Vinegar, of each four pounds, digest it without boiling, three days, then strain it through Hippocrates' sleeve.
Culpeper : See Treacle Water for the virtues, only this is more cool, a little more fantastical.

DECOCTIONS
Decoctum commune pro clystere
Or a common Decoction for a Clyster.
College : Take of Mallows, Violets, Pellitory, Beets, and Mercury, Chamomel flowers, of each one handful, sweet Fennel seeds half an ounce, Linseeds two drams, boil them in a sufficient quantity of common water to a pound.
Culpeper : This is the common decoction for all clysters, according to the quality of the humour abounding, so you may add what Simples, or Syrups, or Electuaries you please; only half a score Linseeds, and a handful of Chamomel flowers are added.
Decoctum Epythimi
Or a Decoction of Epithimum
College : Take of Myrobalans, Chebs, and Inds, of each half an ounce, Stœchas, Raisins of the sun stoned, Epithimum, Senna, of each one ounce, Fumitory half an ounce, Maudlin five drams, Polipodium, six drams, Turbith half an ounce, Whey made with Goat's milk, or Heifer's milk four pounds, let them all boil to two pounds, the Epithimum excepted, which boil but a second or two, then take it from the fire, and add black Hellebore one dram and an half, Agerick half a dram, Sal. Gem. one dram and an half, steep them ten hours, then press it strongly out.
Culpeper : It purges melancholy, as also choler, it resists madness, and all diseases coming of melancholy, and therefore let melancholy people esteem it as a jewel.
Decoctum Sennœ Gereonis
Or a Decoction of Senna
College : Take of Senna two ounces, Pollipodium half an ounce, Ginger one dram, Raisins of the sun stoned two ounces, Sebestens,Prunes, of each twelve, the flowers of Borrage, Violets, Roses, and Rosemary, of each two drams, boil them in four pounds of water till half be consumed.
Culpeper : It is a common Decoction for any purge, by adding other simples or compounds to it, according to the quality of the humour you would have purged, yet, in itself, it chiefly purges melancholy.
Decoctum Pectorale
Or a Pectoral Decoction
College : Take of Raisins of the sun stoned, an ounce, Sebestens, Jujubes, of each fifteen, Dates six, Figs four, French Barley one ounce, Liquorice half an ounce, Maiden-hair, Hyssop, Scabious, Colt's-foot, of each one handful, boil them in three pounds of water till two remain.
Culpeper : The medicine is chiefly appropriated to the lungs, and therefore causes a clear voice, a long wind, resists coughs, hoarseness, asthmas, &c. You may drink a quarter of a pint of it every morning, without keeping to any diet, for it purges not.
I shall quote some Syrups fitting to be mixed with it, when I come to the Syrups.
Decoctum Trumaticum
College : Take of Agrimony, Mugwort, wild Angelica, St. John's Wort, Mousear, of each two handfuls, Wormwood half a handful, Southernwood, Bettony, Bugloss, Comfrey the greater and lesser, roots and all, Avens, both sorts of Plantain, Sanicle, Tormentil with the roots, the buds of Barberries and Oak, of each a handful, all these being gathered in May and June and diligently dried, let them be cut and put up in skins or papers against the time of use, then take of the forenamed herbs three handfuls, boil them in four pounds of conduit water and two pounds of white Wine gently till half be consumed, strain it, and a pound of Honey being added to it, let it be scummed and kept for use.
Culpeper : If sight of a medicine will do you good, this is as like to do it as any I know.

SYRUPS
ALTERING SYRUPS
Culpeper : Reader, before we being with the particular Syrups, I think good to advertise thee of these few things, which concern the nature, making, and use of Syrups in general. 1. A Syrup is a medicine of a liquid body, compounded of Decoction, Infusion, or Juice, with Sugar or Honey, and brought by the heat of the fire, into the thickness of Honey. 2. Because all Honey is not of a thickness, understand new Honey, which of all other is thinnest. 3. The reason why Decoctions, Infusions, Juices, are thus used, is, Because thereby, First, They will keep the longer. Secondly, They will taste the better. 4. In boiling Syrups have a great care of their just consistence, for if you boil them too much they will candy, if too little, they will sour.
All simple Syrups have the virtues of the simples they are made of, and are far more convenient for weak people, and delicate stomachs.
Syrupus de Absinthio simplex
Or Syrup of Wormwood simple
College : Take of the clarified Juice of common Wormwood, clarified Sugar, of each four pounds, make it into a Syrup according to art. After the same manner, are prepared simple Syrups of Betony, Borrage, Bugloss, Carduus, Chamomel, Succory, Endive, Hedge-mustard, Strawberries, Fumitory, Ground Ivy, St. John's Wort, Hops, Mercury, Mousear, Plantain, Apples, Purslain, Rasberries, Sage, Scabious, Scordium, Houseleek, Colt's-foot, Paul's Bettony, and other Juices not sour.
Culpeper : See the simples, and then you may easily know both their virtues, and also that they are pleasanter and fitter for delicate stomachs when they are made into Syrups.
Syrupus de Absinthio Compositus
Or Syrup of Wormwood compound
College : Take of common Wormwood meanly dry, half a pound, red Roses two ounces, Indian Spikenard three drams, old white Wine, juice of Quinces, of each two pounds and an half, steep them a whole day in an earthen vessel, then boil them gently, and strain it, and by adding two pounds of sugar, boil it into a Syrup according to art.
Culpeper : Mesue is followed verbatim in this; and the receipt is appropriated to cold and flegmatic stomachs, and it is an admirable remedy for it, for it strengthens both stomach and liver, as also the instruments of concoction, a spoonful taken in the morning, is admirable for such as have a weak digestion, it provokes an appetite to one's victuals, it prevails against the yellow jaundice, breaks wind, purges humours by urine.
Syrupus de Acetosus simplex
Or Syrup of Vinegar simple
College : Take of clear Water four pounds, white Sugar five pounds, boil them in a glazed vessel over a gentle fire, scumming it till half the water be consumed, then by putting in two pounds of white Wine Vinegar by degrees, perfect the Syrup.
Culpeper : That is, only melt the Sugar with the Vinegar over the fire, scum it, but boil it not.
Syrupus Acetosus simplicior
Or Syrup of Vinegar more simple
College : Take of white Sugar five pounds, white Wine Vinegar two pounds, by melting it in a bath, make it into a Syrup.
Culpeper : Of these two Syrups let every one use which he finds by experience to be best; the difference is but little. They both of them cut flegm, as also tough, hard viscous humours in the stomach; they cool the body, quench thirst, provoke urine, and prepare the stomach before the taking of a vomit. If you take it as a preparative for an emetic, take half an ounce of it when you go to bed the night before you intend it to operate, it will work the easier, but if for any of the foregoing occasions, take it with a liquorice stick.
Syrupus Acetosus compositus
Or Syrup of Vinegar compound
College : Take of the roots of Smallage, Fennel, Endive, of each three ounces, the seeds of Annis, Smallage, Fennel, of each one ounce, of Endive half an ounce, clear Water six pounds, boil it gently in an earthen vessel till half the water be consumed, then strain and clarify it, and with three pounds of Sugar, and a pound and a half of white Wine Vinegar, boil it into a Syrup.
Culpeper : This in my opinion is a gallant Syrup for such whose bodies are stuffed either with flegm, or tough humours, for it opens obstructions or stoppings both of the stomach, liver, spleen, and reins; it cuts and brings away tough flegm and choler, and is therefore a special remedy for such as have a stuffing at their stomach.
Syrupus de Agno Casto
Or Syrup of Agnus Castus
College : Take of the seeds of Rue and Hemp, of each half a dram, of Endive, Lettice, Purslain, Gourds, Melons, of each two drams, of Fleawort half an ounce, of Agnus Castus four ounces, the flowers of Water Lilies, the leaves of Mints, of each half a handful, decoction of seeds of Lentils, and Coriander seeds, of each half an ounce, three pounds of the decoction, boil them all over a gentle fire till two pounds be consumed, and to the residue, being strained, two ounces of juice of Lemons, a pound and a half of white sugar, make it into a Syrup according to art.
Culpeper : A pretty Syrup, and good for little.
Syrupus de Althæa
Or Syrup of Marsh-mallows
College : Take of roots of Marsh-mallows, two ounces, the roots of Grass Asparagus, Liquorice, Raisins of the Sun stoned, of each half an ounce, the tops of Mallows, Marsh-mallows, Pellitory of the Wall, Burnet, Plantain, Maiden-hair white and black, of each a handful, red Cicers an ounce, of the four greater and four lesser cold seeds, of each three drams, boil them in six pounds of clear Water till four remain, which being strained, boil into a syrup with four pounds of white sugar.
Culpeper : It is a fine cooling, opening, slipery Syrup, and chiefly commendable for the cholic, stone, or gravel, in the kidneys or bladder.
Syrupus de Ammoniaca
Or Syrup of Ammoniacum
College : Take of Maudlin and Cetrach, of each four handfuls, common Wormwood an ounce, the roots of Succory, Sparagus, bark of Caper roots, of each two ounces, after due preparation steep them twenty-four hours in three ounces of white Wine, Radish and Fumitory water, of each two pounds, then boil it away to one pound eight ounces, let it settle, in four ounces of which, whilst it is warm, dissolve by itself Gum Ammoniacum, first dissolved in white Wine Vinegar, two ounces, boil the rest with a pound and an half of white sugar into a Syrup, adding the mixtures of the Gum at the end.
Culpeper : It cools the liver, and opens obstructions both of it and the spleen, helps old surfeits, and such like diseases, as scabs, itch, leprosy, and what else proceed from the liver over heated. You may take an ounce at a time.
Syrupus de Artemisia
Or Syrup of Mugwort
College : Take of Mugwort two handfuls, Pennyroyal, Calaminth, Origanum, Bawm, Arsmart, Dittany of Crete, Savin, Marjoram,Germander, St. John's Wort, Camepitis, Featherfew with the flowers, Centaury the less, Rue, Bettony, Bugloss, of each a handful, the roots of Fennel, Smallage, Parsley, Sparagus, Bruscus, Saxifrage, Elecampane, Cypress, Madder, Orris, Peony, of each an ounce, Juniper Berries, the seeds of Lovage, Parsley, Smallage, Annis, Nigella, Carpobalsamum or Cubebs, Costus, Cassia Lignea, Cardamoms, Calamus Aromaticus, the roots of Asarabacca, Pellitory of Spain, Valerian, of each half an ounce, being cleansed, cut, and bruised, let them be infused twenty-four hours in fourteen pounds of clear water, and boiled till half be consumed, being taken off from the fire, and rubbed between your hands whilst it is warm, strain it, and with honey and sugar, of each two pounds, sharp Vinegar four ounces, boil it to a Syrup, and perfume it with Cinnamon and Spikenard, of each three drams.
Culpeper : It helps the passion of the matrix, and retains it in its place, it dissolves the coldness, wind, and pains thereof, it strengthens the nerves, opens the pores, corrects the blood, it corrects and provokes the menses. You may take a spoonful of it at a time.
Syrupus de Betonica compositus
Or Syrup of Bettony compound
College : Take of Bettony three handfuls, Marjoram four handfuls and a half, Thyme, red Roses, of each a handful, Violets, Stœchas, Sage, of each half a handful, the seeds of Fennel, Annis, and Ammi, of each half an ounce, the roots of Peons, Polypodium, and Fennel, of each five drams, boil them in six pounds of river water, to three pounds, strain it, and add juice of Bettony two pounds, sugar three pounds and a half, make it into a Syrup.
Culpeper : It helps diseases coming of cold, both in the head and stomach, as also such as come of wind, vertigos, madness; it concocts melancholy, it provokes the menses, and so doth the simple Syrup more than the compound.
Syrupus Byzantinus, simple
College : Take of the Juice of the leaves of Endive and Smallage, of each two pounds, of Hops and Bugloss, of each one pound, boil them together and scum them, and to the clarified liquor, add four pounds of white sugar, to as much of the juices, and with a gentle fire boil it to a Syrup.
Syrupus Byzantinus, compound
College : Take of the Juices so ordered as in the former, four pounds, in which boil red Roses, two ounces, Liquorice half an ounce, the seeds of Annis, Fennel, and Smallage, of each three drams, Spikenard two drams, strain it, and to the three pounds remaining, add two pounds of Vinegar, four pounds of Sugar, make it into a syrup according to art.
Culpeper : They both of them (viz. both Simple and Compound) open stoppings of the stomach, liver, and spleen, help the rickets in children, cut and bring away tough flegm, and help the yellow jaundice. You may take them with a Liquorice stick, or take a spoonful in the morning fasting.
Syrupus Botryos
Or Syrup of Oak of Jerusalem
College : Take of Oak of Jerusalem, Hedge-mustard, Nettles, of each two handfuls, Colt's-foot, one handful and a half, boil them in a sufficient quantity of clear water till half be consumed; to two pounds of the Decoction, add two pounds of the Juice of Turnips baked in an oven in a close pot, and with three pounds of white sugar, boil it into a Syrup.
Culpeper : This Syrup was composed against coughs, shortness of breath, and other the like infirmities of the breast proceeding of cold, for which (if you can get it) you may take it with a Liquorice stick.
Syrupus Capillorum Veneris
Or Syrup of Maiden-hair
College : Take of Liquorice two ounces, Maiden-hair five ounces, steep them a natural day in four pounds of warm water, then after gentle boiling, and strong straining, with a pound and a half of fine sugar make it into a Syrup.
Culpeper : It opens stoppings of the stomach, strengthens the lungs, and helps the infirmities of them. This may be taken also either with a Liquorice stick, or mixed with the Pectoral Decoction like Syrup of Coltsfoot.
Syrupus Cardiacus, vel Julepum Cardiacum
Or a Cordial Syrup
College : Take of Rhenish Wine two pounds, Rose Water two ounces and a half, Cloves two scruples, Cinnamon half a dram,Ginger, two scruples, Sugar three ounces and a half, boil it to the consistence of a Julep, adding Ambergris three grains, Musk one grain.
Culpeper : If you would have this Julep keep long, you may put in more sugar, and yet if close stopped, it will not easily corrupt because it is made up only of Wine, indeed the wisest way is to order the quantity of sugar according to the palate of him that takes it. It restores such as are in consumptions, comforts the heart, cherishes the drooping spirits, and is of an opening quality, thereby carrying away those vapours which might otherwise annoy the brain and heart. You may take an ounce at a time, or two if you please.
Syrupus infusionis florum Cariophillorum
Or Syrup of Clove-gilliflowers
College : Take a pound of Clove-gilliflowers, the whites being cut off, infuse them a whole night in two pounds of water, then with four pounds of sugar melted in it, make it into a Syrup without boiling.
Culpeper : This Syrup is a fine temperate Syrup: it strengthens the heart, liver, and stomach; it refreshes the vital spirits, and is a good cordial in fevers; and usually mixed with other cordials, you can hardly err in taking it, it is so harmless a Syrup.
Syrupus de Cinnamomo
Or Syrup of Cinnamon
College : Take of Cinnamon grossly bruised, four ounces, steep it in white Wine, and small Cinnamon Water, of each half a pound, three days, in a glass, by a gentle heat; strain it, and with a pound and a half of sugar, boil it gently to a Syrup.
Culpeper : It refreshes the vital spirits exceedingly, and cheers both heart and stomach languishing through cold, it helps digestion exceedingly, and strengthens the whole body. You may take a spoonful at a time in a cordial.
College : Thus also you may conveniently prepare Syrups (but only with white Wine,) of Annis seeds, sweet Fennel seeds, Cloves, Nutmegs, Ginger, &c.
Syrupus Acetositatis Citriorum
Or Syrup of Juice of Citrons
College : Take of the Juice of Citrons, strained without expression, and cleansed, a pound, Sugar two pounds, make it into a Syrup like Syrup of Clove-gilliflowers.
Culpeper : It prevails against all diseases proceeding from choler, or heat of blood, fevers, both pestilential, and not pestilential: it resists poison, cools the blood, quenches thirst, cures the vertigo, or dizziness in the head.
College : After the same manner is made Syrups of Grapes, Oranges, Barberries, Cherries, Quinces, Lemons, Wood-sorrel, Mulberries, Sorrel, English Currants, and other sour Juices.
Culpeper : If you look the simples you may see the virtues of them: they all cool and comfort the heart, and strengthen the stomach, Syrup of Quinces stays vomiting, so doth all Syrup of Grapes.
Syrupus Corticum Citriorum
Or Syrup of Citron Pills
College : Take of fresh yellow Citron Pills five ounces, the berries of Chermes, or the juice of them brought over to us two drams, Spring Water four pounds, steep them all night; boil them till half be consumed, taking off the scum, strain it, and with two pounds and a half of sugar boil it into a Syrup: let half of it be without Musk, but perfume the other half with three grains of Musk tied up in a rag.
Culpeper : It strengthens the stomach, resists poison, strengthens the heart, and resists the passions thereof, palpitation, faintings, swoonings; it strengthens the vital spirits, restores such as are in consumptions, and hectic fevers, and strengthens nature much. You may take a spoonful at a time.
Syrupus e Coralliis simplex
Or Syrup of Coral simple
College : Take of red Coral in very fine powder four ounces, dissolve it in clarified juice of Barberries in the heat of a bath, a pound, in a glass well stopped with wax and cork, a digestion being made three or four days, pour off what is dissolved, put in fresh clarified juice, and proceed as before, repeat this so often till all the coral be dissolved; lastly, to one pound of this juice add a pound and a half of sugar, and boil it to a Syrup gently.
Syrupus e Coralliis compositus
Or Syrup of Coral compound
College : Take of red Coral six ounces, in very fine powder, and levigated upon a marble, add of clarified juice of Lemons, the flegm being drawn off in a bath, sixteen ounces, clarified juice of Barberries, eight ounces, sharp white Wine Vinegar, and juice of Wood-sorrel, of each six ounces, mix them together, and put them in a glass stopped with cork and bladder, shaking it every day till it have digested eight days in a bath, or horse dung, then filter it, of which take a pound and a half, juice of Quinces half a pound, sugar of Roses twelve ounces, make them into a Syrup in a bath, adding Syrup of Clove-gilliflowers sixteen ounces, keep it for use, omitting the half dram of Ambergris, and four grains of Musk till the physician command it.
Culpeper : Syrup of Coral both simple and compound, restore such as are in consumptions, are of a gallant cooling nature, especially the last, and very cordial, good for hectic fevers, it stops fluxes, the running of the reins, and the Fluor Albus, helps such as spit blood, and such as have the falling-sickness, it stays the menses. Half a spoonful in the morning is enough.
Syrupus Cydoniorum
Or Syrup of Quinces
College : Take of the Juice of Quinces clarified six pounds, boil it over a gentle fire till half of it be consumed, scumming it, adding red Wine three pounds, white sugar four pounds, boil it into a Syrup, to be perfumed with a dram and a half of Cinnamon, Cloves and Ginger, of each two scruples.
Culpeper : It strengthens the heart and stomach, stays looseness and vomiting, relieves languishing nature: for looseness, take a spoonful of it before meat, for vomiting after meat, for both, as also for the rest, in the morning.
Syrupus de Erysimo
Or Syrup of Hedge-mustard
College : Take of Hedge-mustard, fresh, six handfuls, the roots of Elecampane, Colt's-foot, Liquorice, of each two ounces, Borrage, Succory, Maiden-hair, of each a handful and a half, the cordial flowers, Rosemary and Bettony, of each half a handful, Annis seeds half an ounce, Raisins of the sun stoned, two ounces, let all of them, being prepared according to art, be boiled in a sufficient quantity of Barley Water and Hydromel, with six ounces of juice of Hedge-mustard to two pounds and a half, the which, with three pounds of sugar, boil it into a Syrup according to art.
Culpeper : It was invented against cold afflictions of the breast and lungs, as asthmas, hoarseness, &c. You may take it either with a Liquorice stick, or which is better, mix an ounce of it with three or four ounces of Pectoral Decoction, and drink it off warm in the morning.
Syrupus de Fumaria
Or Syrup of Fumitory
College : Take of Endive, common Wormwood, Hops, Dodder, Hart's-tongue, of each a handful, Epithimum an ounce and a half, boil them in four pounds of water till half be consumed, strain it, and add the juice of Fumitory a pound and a half, of Borrage and Bugloss, of each half a pound, white sugar four pounds, make them into a Syrup according to art.
Culpeper : The receipt is a pretty concoctor of melancholy, and therefore a rational help for diseases arising thence, both internal and external; it helps diseases of the skin, as Leprosies, Cancers, Warts, Corns, Itch, Tetters, Ringworms, Scabs, &c. and it is the better to be liked, because of its gentleness. It helps surfeits exceedingly, cleanses, cools, and strengthens the liver, and causes it to make good blood, and good blood cannot make bad flesh. I commend this receipt to those whose bodies are subject to scabs and itch. If you please you may take two ounces by itself every morning.
Syrupus de Glycyrrhiza
Or Syrup of Liquorice
College : Take of green Liquorice, scraped and bruised, two ounces, white Maiden-hair an ounce, dryed Hyssop half an ounce, steep these in four pounds of hot water, after twenty-four hours, boil it till half be consumed, strain it, and clarify it, and with Honey, Penids, and Sugar, of each eight ounces, make it into a Syrup, adding, before it be perfectly boiled, red Rose Water six ounces.
Culpeper : It cleanses the breast and lungs, and helps continual coughs and pleurisies. You may take it with a Liquorice stick, or add an ounce of it or more to the Pectoral Decoction.
Syrupus Granatorum cum Aceto; vulgo, Oxysaccharum simplex
Or Syrup of Pomegranates with Vinegar
College : Take of white sugar a pound and a half, juice of Pomegranates eight ounces, white Wine Vinegar four ounces, boil it gently into a Syrup.
Culpeper : Look the virtues of Pomegranates among the simples.
Syrupus de Hyssopo
Or Syrup of Hyssop
College : Take eight pounds of Spring Water, half an ounce of Barley, boil it about half an hour, then add the Roots of Smallage, Parsley, Fennel, Liquorice, of each ten drams, Jujubes, Sebestens, of each fifteen, Raisins of the sun stoned, an ounce and a half, Figs, Dates, of each ten, the seeds of Mallows and Quinces, Gum Tragacanth tied up in a rag, of each three drams, Hyssop meanly dryed, ten drams, Maiden-hair six drams, boil them together, yet so, that the roots may precede the fruits, the fruits the seeds, and the seeds the herbs, about a quarter of an hour; at last, five pounds of water being consumed, boil the other three (being first strained and clarified) into a Syrup with two pounds and a half of sugar.
Culpeper : It mightily strengthens the breast and lungs, causes long wind, clears the voice, is a good remedy against coughs. Use it like the Syrup of Liquorice.
Syrupus Ivæ arthriticæ, sive Chamæpityos
Or Syrup of Chamepitys
College : Take of Chamepitys, two handfuls, Sage, Rosemary, Poley Mountain, Origanum, Calaminth, wild Mints, Pennyroyal, Hyssop, Thyme, Rue, garden and wild, Bettony, Mother of Thyme, of each a handful, the roots of Acorns, Birthwort long and round, Briony, Dittany, Gentian, Hog's Fennel, Valerian, of each half an ounce, the roots of Smallage, Asparagus, Fennel, Parsley, Bruscus, of each an ounce, Pellitory of Spain, an ounce and a half, Stœchas, the seeds of Annis, Ammi, Caraway, Fennel, Lovage, Hartwort, of each three drams, Raisins of the sun two ounces, boil them in ten pounds of water to four, to which add honey and sugar, of each two pounds, make it into a Syrup to be perfumed with Sugar, Nutmegs, and Cubebs, of each three drams.
Syrupus Jujubinus
Or Syrup of Jujubes
College : Take of Jujubes, Violets, five drams, Maiden-hair, Liquorice, French Barley, of each an ounce, the seeds of Mallows five drams, the seeds of white Poppies, Melons, Lettice, (seeds of Quinces and Gum Tragacanth tied up in a rag) of each three drams, boil them in six pounds of rain or spring water till half be consumed, strain it, and with two pounds of sugar make it into a Syrup.
Culpeper : It is a fine cooling Syrup, very available in coughs, hoarseness, and pleurisies, ulcers of the lungs and bladder, as also in all inflammations whatsoever. You may take a spoonful of it once in three or four hours, or if you please take it with a Liquorice stick.
Syrupus de Meconio, sive Diacodium
Or Syrup of Meconium, or Diacodium
College : Take of white Poppy heads with their seeds, gathered a little after the flowers are fallen off, and kept three days, eight ounces, black Poppy heads (so ordered) six ounces, rain Water eight pounds, steep them twenty-four hours, then boil and press them gently, boil it to three pounds, and with twenty-four ounces of sugar boil it into a Syrup according to art.
Syrupus de Meconio compositus
Or Syrup of Meconium compound
College : Take of white and black Poppy heads with their seeds, fifty drams, Maiden-hair fifteen drams, Jujubes thirty, the seeds of Lettice, forty drams, of Mallows and Quinces tied up in a rag, a dram and a half, Liquorice five drams, water eight pounds, boil it according to art, strain it, and to three pounds of Decoction add Sugar and Penids, of each one pound, make it into a Syrup.
Culpeper : Meconium is nothing else but the juice of English Poppies boiled till it be thick. It prevails against dry coughs, phthisicks, hot and sharp gnawing rheums, and provokes sleep. It is an usual fashion for nurses when they have heated their milk by exercise or strong liquor (no marvel then if their children be froward) then run for Syrup of Poppies, to make their young ones sleep. I would fain have that fashion left, therefore I forbear the dose; let nurses keep their own bodies temperate, and their children will sleep well enough, never fear.
Syrupus Melissophylli
Or Syrup of Bawm
College : Take of the Bark of Bugloss roots, an ounce, the roots of white Dittany, Cinquefoil, Scorzonera, of each half an ounce, the leaves of Bawm, Scabious, Devil's-bit, the flowers of both sorts of Bugloss, and Rosemary, of each a handful, the seeds of Sorrel, Citrons, Fennel, Carduus, Bazil, of each three drams, boil them in four pounds of water till half be consumed, strain it, and add three pounds of white sugar, juice of Bawm and Rose Water, of each half a pound, boil them to a Syrup, the which perfume with Cinnamon and yellow Sanders, of each half an ounce.
Culpeper : It is an excellent cordial, and strengthens the heart, breast, and stomach, it resists melancholy, revives the spirits, is given with good success in fevers, it strengthens the memory, and relieves languishing nature. You may take a spoonfull of it at a time.
Syrupus de Mentha
Or Syrup of Mints
College : Take of the juices of Quinces sweet and between sweet and sour, the juice of Pomegranates sweet, between sweet and sour, and sour, of each a pound and a half, dried Mints half a pound, red Roses two ounces, let them lie in steep one day, then boil it half away, and with four pounds of sugar boil it into a Syrup according to art, perfume it not unless the Physicians command.
Culpeper : The Syrup is in quality binding, yet it comforts the stomach much, helps digestion, stays vomiting, and is as excellent a remedy against sour or offensive belchings, as any is in the Dispensatory. Take a spoonful of it after meat.
Syrupus de Mucilaginibus
Or Syrup of Mussilages
College : Take of the seeds of Marsh-mallows, Mallows, Quinces, of each an ounce, Gum Tragacanth three drams, let these infuse six hours in warm Decoction of Mallows, white Poppy seeds, and Winter Cherries, then press out the Mussilage to an ounce and an half, with which, and three ounces of the aforesaid Decoction, and two ounces of sugar, make a Syrup according to art.
Culpeper : A spoonful taken by itself, or in any convenient liquor, is excellent for any sharp corroding humours be they in what part of the body soever, phthisicks, bloody-flux, stone in the reins or bladder, or ulcers there: it is excellent good for such as have taken purges that are too strong for their bodies, for by its slippery nature it helps corrosions, and by its cooling helps inflammations.
Syrupus Myrtinus
Or Syrup of Myrtles
College : Take of Myrtle Berries two ounces and an half, Sanders white and red, Sumach, Balaustines, Barberry stones, red Roses, of each an ounce and a half, Medlars half a pound, bruise them in eight pounds of water to four, strain it, and add juice of Quinces and sour Pomegranates, of each six ounces, then with three pounds of sugar, boil it into a Syrup.
Culpeper : The Syrup is of a very binding, yet comforting nature, it helps such as spit blood, all fluxes of the belly, or corrosions of the internal parts, it strengthens the retentive faculty, and stops immoderate flux of menses. A spoonful at a time is the dose.
Syrupus Florum Nymphæ simplex
Or Syrup of Water-Lily flowers, simple
College : Take of the whitest of white Water-Lily flowers, a pound, steep them in three pounds of warm water six or seven hours, let them boil a little, and strain them out, put in the same weight of flowers again the second and third time, when you have strained it the last time, add its weight of sugar to it, and boil it to a Syrup.
Syrupus Florum Nymphæ compositus
Or Syrup of Water-Lily flowers compound
College : Take of white Water-Lily flowers half a pound, Violets two ounces, Lettice two handfuls, the seeds of Lettice, Purslain, and Gourds, of each half an ounce, boil them in four pounds of clear water till one be consumed, strain it, and add half a pound of red Rose water, white sugar four pounds, boil it into a Syrup according to art. Culpeper : They are both fine cooling Syrups, allay the heat of choler, and provoke sleep, they cool the body, both head, heart, liver, reins, and matrix, and therefore are profitable for hot diseases in either, you may take an ounce of it at a time when your stomach is empty.
Syrupus de Papavere Erratico, sive Rubro
Or Syrup of Erratic Poppies
College : Take of the fresh flowers of red Poppies two pounds, steep them in four pounds of warm spring water, the next day strain it, and boil it into a Syrup with its equal weight in sugar.
Culpeper : The Syrup cools the blood, helps surfeits, and may safely be given in frenzies, fevers, and hot agues.
Syrupus de Pilosella
Or Syrup of Mousear
College : Take of Mousear three handfuls, the roots of Lady's-mantle an ounce and an half, the roots of Comfrey the greater,Madder, white Dittany, Tormentil, Bistort, of each an ounce, the leaves of Wintergreen, Horsetail, Ground Ivy, Plantain, Adder's Tongue, Strawberries, St. John's Wort with the flowers, Golden Rod, Agrimony, Bettony, Burnet, Avens, Cinquefoil the greater, red Coleworts, Balaustines, red Roses, of each a handful, boil them gently in six pounds of Plantain Water to three, then strain it strongly, and when it is settled, add Gum Tragacanth, the seeds of Fleawort, Marsh-mallows and Quinces, made into a Mussilage by themselves in Strawberry and Bettony Water, of each three ounces, white sugar two pounds, boil it to the thickness of honey.
Culpeper : It is drying and healing, and therefore good for ruptures.
Syrupus infusionis florum Pæoniæ
Or Syrup of the infusion of Peony flowers
College : It is prepared in the same manner as Syrup of Clove-gilliflowers.
Syrupus de Pæonia compositus
Or Syrup of Peony compound
College : Take of the Roots of both sorts of Peony taken up at the full Moon, cut in slices, and steeped in white Wine a whole day, of each an ounce and an half, Contra Yerva half an ounce, Siler Mountain six drams, Elk's Claws an ounce,. Rosemary with the flowers on, one handful, Bettony, Hyssop, Origanum, Chamepitys, Rue, of each three drams, Wood of Aloes, Cloves, Cardamoms the less, of each two drams, Ginger, Spikenard, of each a dram, Stœchas, Nutmegs, of each two drams and an half, boil them after one day's warm digestion, in a sufficient quantity of distilled water of Peony roots, to four pounds, in which (being strained through Hippocrates' sleeve) put four pounds and an half of white sugar, and boil it to a Syrup.
Culpeper : It helps the falling-sickness, and convulsions.
Syrupus de Pomis aiterans
Or Syrup of Apples
College : Take four pounds of the juice of sweet scented Apples, the juice of Bugloss, garden and wild, of Violet leaves, Rose Water, of each a pound, boil them together, and clarify them, and with six pounds of pure sugar, boil it into a Syrup according to art.
Culpeper : It is a fine cooling Syrup for such whose stomachs are overpressed with heat, and may safely be given in fevers, for it rather loosens than binds: it breeds good blood, and is profitable in hectic fevers, and for such as are troubled with palpitation of the heart, it quenches thirst admirably in fevers, and stays hiccoughs. You may take an ounce of it at a time in the morning, or when you need.
Syrupus de Prasio
Or Syrup of Horehound
College : Take of white Horehound fresh, two ounces, Liquorice, Polipodium of the Oak, Fennel, and Smallage roots, of each half an ounce, white Maiden-hair, Origanum, Hyssop, Calaminth, Thyme, Savory, Scabious, Colt's-foot, of each six drams, the seeds of Annis and Cotton, of each three drams, Raisins of the sun stoned two ounces, fat Figs ten, boil them in eight pounds of Hydromel till half be consumed, boil the Decoction into a Syrup with honey and sugar, of each two pounds, and perfume it with an ounce of the roots of Orris Florentine.
Culpeper : It is appropriated to the breast and lungs, and is a fine cleanser to purge them from thick and putrified flegm, it helps phthisicks and coughs, and diseases subject to old men, and cold natures. Take it with a Liquorice stick.
Syrupus de quinq. Radicibus
Or Syrup of the five opening Roots
College : Take of the roots of Smallage, Fennel, Parsley, Bruscus, Sparagus of each two ounces, spring Water, six pounds, boil away the third part, and make a Syrup with the rest according to art, with three pounds of sugar, adding eight ounces of white Wine Vinegar, towards the latter end.
Culpeper : It cleanses and opens very well, is profitable against obstructions, provokes urine, cleanses the body of flegm, and is safely and profitably given in the beginning of fevers. An ounce at a time upon an empty stomach is a good dose.
Syrupus Raphani
Or Syrup of Radishes
College : Take of garden and wild Radish roots, of each an ounce, the roots of white Saxifrage, Lovage, Bruscus, Eringo, Rest-harrow, Parsley, Fennel, of each half an ounce, the leaves of Bettony, Burnet, Pennyroyal, Nettles, Water-cresses, Samphire, Maiden-hair, of each one handful, Winter Cherries, Jujubes, of each ten, the seeds of Bazil, Bur, Parsley of Macedonia, Hartwort, Carraway, Carrots, Gromwell, the bark of the root of Bay-tree, of each two drams, Raisins of the sun stoned, Liquorice, of each six drams, boil them in twelve pounds of water to eight, strain it, and with four pounds of sugar, and two pounds of honey, make it into a Syrup, and perfume it with an ounce of Cinnamon, and half an ounce of Nutmegs.
Culpeper : A tedious long medicine for the stone.
Syrupus Regius, alias Julapium Alexandrinum
Or Julep of Alexandria
College : Boil four pounds of Rose-water, and one pound of white Sugar into a Julep. Julep of Roses is made with Damask Rose water, in the very same manner.
Culpeper : Two fine cooling drinks in the heat of summer.
Syrupus de Rosis siccis
Or Syrup of dried Roses
College : Make four pounds of spring water hot, in which infuse a pound of dried Roses, by some at a time, press them out and with two pounds of sugar, boil it into a Syrup according to art.
Culpeper : Syrup of dried Roses, strengthens the heart, comforts the spirits, binds the body, helps fluxes, and corrosions, or gnawings of the bowels, it strengthens the stomach, and stays vomiting. You may take an ounce at a time, before meat, if for fluxes; after meat if for vomiting.
Syrupus Scabiosæ
Or Syrup of Scabious
College : Take of the roots of Elecampane, and Polypodium of the Oak, of each two ounces, Raisins of the sun stoned an ounce, Sebestens twenty, Colt's-foot, Lungwort, Savory, Calaminth, of each a handful and an half, Liquorice, Spanish Tobacco, of each half an ounce, the seeds of Nettles and Cotton, of each three drams, boil them all (the roots being infused in white Wine the day before) in a sufficient quantity of Wine and Water to eight ounces, strain it, and adding four ounces of the Juice of Scabious, and ten ounces of sugar, boil it to a Syrup, adding to it twenty drops of oil of sulphur.
Culpeper : It is a cleansing Syrup appropriated to the breast and lungs, when you perceive them oppressed by flegm, crudites, or stoppings, your remedy is to take now and then a spoonful of this Syrup, it is taken also with good success by such as are itchy, or scabby.
Syrupus de Scolopendrio
Or Syrup of Hart's-tongue
College : Take of Hart's-tongue three handfuls, Polypodium of the Oak, the roots of both sorts of Bugloss, bark of the roots of Capers and Tamerisk, of each two ounces, Hops, Dodder, Maiden-hair, Bawm, of each two handfuls, boil them in nine pounds of Spring water to five, and strain it, and with four pounds of white sugar, make it into a Syrup according to art.
Culpeper : It helps the stoppings of melancholy, opens obstructions of the liver and spleen, and is profitable against splenetic evils, and therefore is a choice remedy for the disease which the vulgar call the rickets, or liver-grown. A spoonful in a morning is a precious remedy for children troubled with that disease. Men that are troubled with the spleen, which is known by pain and hardness in their left side, may take three or four spoonfuls, they shall find this one receipt worth the price of the whole book.
Syrupus de Stœchade
Or Syrup of Stœchas
College : Take of Stœchas flowers four ounces, Rosemary flowers half an ounce, Thyme, Calaminth, Origanum, of each an ounce and an half, Sage, Bettony, of each half an ounce, the seeds of Rue, Peony, and Fennel, of each three drams, spring water ten pounds, boil it till half be consumed, and with honey and sugar, of each two pounds, boil it into a Syrup, which perfume with Cinnamon, Ginger, and Calmus Aromaticus, of each two drams tied up in a rag.
Syrupus de Symphyto
Or Syrup of Comfrey
College : Take of roots and tops of Comfrey, the greater and lesser, of each three handfuls, red Roses, Bettony, Plantain, Burnet, Knot grass, Scabious, Colt's foot, of each two handfuls, press the juice out of them all, being green and bruised, boil it, scum it, and strain it, add its weight of sugar to it that it may be made into a Syrup, according to art.
Culpeper : The Syrup is excellent for all inward wounds and bruises, excoriations, vomitings, spittings, or evacuation of blood, it unites broken bones, helps ruptures, and stops the menses. You cannot err in taking of it.
Syrupus Violarum
Or Syrup of Violets
College : Take of Violet flowers fresh and picked, a pound, clear water made boiling hot, two pounds, shut them up close together into a new glazed pot, a whole day, then press them hard out, and in two pounds of the liquor dissolve four pounds and three ounces of white sugar, take away the scum, and so make it into a Syrup without boiling. Syrup of the juice of Violets, is made with its double weight of sugar, like the former.
Culpeper : This syrup cools and moistens, and that very gently, it corrects the sharpness of choler, and gives ease in hot vices of the breast, it quenches thirst in acute fevers, and resist the heat of the disease; it comforts hot stomachs exceedingly, cools the liver and heart, and resists putrefaction, pestilence, and poison.
College : Julep of Violets is made of the water of Violet flowers and sugar, like Julep of Roses.
Culpeper : It is cooling and pleasant.

PURGING SYRUPS
Syrupus de Cichorio cum Rhubarbaro
Or Syrup of Succory with Rhubarb
College : Take of whole Barley, the roots of Smallage, Fennel, and Sparagus, of each two ounces, Succory, Dandelyon, Endive, smooth Sow-thistles, of each two handfuls, Lettuce, Liverwort, Fumitory, tops of Hops, of each one handful, Maiden-hair, white and black, Cetrachs, Liquorice, winter Cherries, Dodder, of each six drams, to boil these take sixteen pounds of spring water, strain the liquor, and boil in it six pounds of white sugar, adding towards the end six ounces of Rhubarb, six drams of Spikenard, bound up in a thin slack rag the which crush often in boiling, and so make it into a Syrup according to art.
Culpeper : It cleanses the body of venemous humours, as boils, carbuncles, and the like; it prevails against pestilential fevers, it strengthens the heart and nutritive virtue, purges by stool and urine, it makes a man have a good stomach to his meat, and provokes sleep. But by my author's leave, I never accounted purges to be proper physic in pestilential fevers; this I believe, the Syrup cleanses the liver well, and is exceeding good for such as are troubled with hypocondriac melancholy. The strong may take two ounces at a time, the weak, one, or you may mix an ounce of it with the Decoction of Senna.
Syrupus de Epithymo
Or Syrup of Epithimum
College : Take of Epithimum twenty drams, Mirobalans, Citron, and Indian of each fifteen drams, Emblicks, Belloricks, Polypodium, Liquorice, Agrick, Thyme, Calaminth, Bugloss, Stœchas of each six drams, Dodder, Fumitory, of each ten drams, red Roses, Annis-seeds and sweet Fennel seeds of each two drams and an half, sweet Prunes ten, Raisins of the sun stoned four ounces, Tamarinds two ounces and an half, after twenty-four hours infusion in ten pints of spring water, boil it away to six, then take it from the fire and strain it, and with five pounds of fine sugar boil it into Syrup according to art.
Culpeper : It is best to put in the Dodder, Stœchas and Agarick, towards the latter end of the Decoction. It purges melancholy, and other humours, it strengthens the stomach and liver, cleanses the body of addust choler and addust blood, as also of salt humours, and helps diseases proceeding from these, as scabs itch, tetters, ringworms, leprosy, &c. A man may take two ounces at a time, or add one ounce to the Decoction of Epithimum.
Syrupus e Floribus Persicorum
Or Syrup of Peach-flowers
College : Take of fresh Peach-flowers a pound, steep them a whole day in three pounds of warm water, then boil a little and strain it out, repeat this infusion five times in the same liquor, in three pounds of which dissolve two pounds and an half of sugar and boil it into a Syrup.
Culpeper : It is a gentle purger of choler, and may be given even in fevers to draw away the sharp choleric humours.
Syrupus de Pomis purgans
Or Syrup of Apples purging
College : Take of the juice of sweet smelling Apples two pounds, the juice of Borrage and Bugloss of each one pound and an half, Senna two ounces, Annis seeds half an ounce, Saffron one dram; let the Senna be steeped in the juices twenty-four hours, and after a boil or two strain it, and with two pounds of white sugar boil it to a Syrup according to art, the saffron being tied up in a rag, and often crushed in the boiling.
Culpeper : The Syrup is a cooling purge, and tends to rectify the distempers of the blood, it purges choler and melancholy, and therefore must needs be effectual both in yellow and black jaundice, madness, scurf, leprosy, and scabs, it is very gentle. The dose is from one ounce to three, according as the body is in age and strength. An ounce of it in the morning is excellent for such children as break out in scabs.
Syrupus de Pomis magistralis
Or Syrup of Apples magisterial
College : Take of the Juice and Water of Apples of each a pound and an half, the Juice and Water of Borrage and Bugloss of each nine ounces, Senna half a pound, Annis seeds, and sweet Fennel seeds, of each three drams, Epithimum of Crete, two ounces, Agarick, Rhubarb, of each half an ounce, Ginger, Mace, of each four scruples, Cinnamon two scruples, Saffron half a dram, infuse the Rhubarb and Cinnamon apart by itself, in white Wine and Juice of Apples, of each two ounces, let all the rest, the Saffron excepted, be steeped in the Waters above mentioned, and the next day put in the juices, which being boiled, scummed, and strained, then with four ounces of white sugar boil it into a Syrup, crushing the saffron in it being tied up in a linen rag, the infusion of the Rhubarb being added at the latter end.
Culpeper : Out of doubt this is a gallant Syrup to purge choler and melancholy, and to resist madness.
Syrupus de Rhubarbaro
Or Syrup of Rhubarb
College : Take of the best Rhubarb and Senna of each two ounces and an half, Violet flowers a handful, Cinnamon one dram and an half, Ginger half a dram, Bettony, Succory and Bugloss Water of each one pound and an half, let them be mixed together warm all night, and in the morning strained and boiled into a Syrup, with two pounds of white sugar, adding towards the end four ounces of Syrup of Roses.
Culpeper : It cleanses choler and melancholy very gently, and is therefore fit for children, old people, and weak bodies. You may add an ounce of it to the Decoction of Epithimum or to the Decoction of Senna.
Syrupus Rosaceus solutivus
Or Syrup of Roses solutive
College : Take of Spring Water boiling hot four pounds, Damask Rose leaves fresh, as many as the water will contain; let them remain twelve hours in infusion, close stopped; then press them out and put in fresh Rose leaves; do so nine times in the same liquor, encreasing the quantity of the Roses as the liquor encreases, which will be almost by the third part every time: Take six parts of this liquor, and with four parts of white sugar, boil it to a Syrup according to art.
Culpeper : It loosens the belly, and gently brings out choler and flegm, but leaves a binding quality behind it.
Syrupus e succo Rosarum
Or Syrup of the Juice of Roses
College : It is prepared without steeping, only with the juice of Damask Roses pressed out, and clarified, and an equal proportion of sugar added to it.
Culpeper : This is like the other.
Syrupus Rosaceus solutivus cum Agarico
Or Syrup of Roses solutive with Agarick
College : Take of Agarick cut thin an ounce, Ginger two drams, Sal. Gem. one dram, Polipodium bruised two ounces, sprinkle them with white Wine and steep them two days over warm ashes, in a pound and an half of the infusion of Damask Roses prescribed before, and with one pound of sugar boil it into a Syrup according to art.
Culpeper : It purges flegm from the head, relieves the senses oppressed by it, provokes the menses, purges the stomach and liver, and provokes urine.
Syrupus Rosaceus solutivus cum Helleboro
Or Syrup of Roses solutive with Hellebore
College : Take of the bark of all the Myrobalans, of each four ounces, bruise them grossly, and steep them twenty-four hours in twelve pounds of the infusion of Roses before spoken, Senna, Epithimum, Polypodium of the Oak, of each four ounces, Cloves an ounce, Citron seeds, Liquorice, of each four ounces, the bark of black Hellebore roots six drams, let the fourth part of the liquor gently exhale, strain it, and with five pounds of sugar, and sixteen drams of Rhubarb tied up in a linen rag, make it into a Syrup according to art.
Culpeper : The Syrup, rightly used, purges melancholy, resists madness.
Syrupus Rosaceus solutivus cum Senna
Or Syrup of Roses solutive with Senna
College : Take of Senna six ounces, Caraway, and sweet Fennel seeds, of each three drams, sprinkle them with white Wine, and infuse them two days in three pounds of the infusion of Roses aforesaid, then strain it, and with two pounds of sugar boil it into a Syrup.
Culpeper : It purges the body of choler and melancholy, and expels the relics a disease hath left behind it; the dose is from one ounce to two, you may take it in a Decoction of Senna, it leaves a binding quality behind it.
Syrupus de Spina Cervina
Or Syrup of Purging Thorn
College : Take of the berries of Purging Thorn, gathered in September, as many as you will, bruise them in a stone mortar, and press out the juice, let the fourth part of it evaporate away in a bath, then to two pounds of it add sixteen ounces of white sugar, boil it into a Syrup, which perfume with Mastich, Cinnamon, Nutmegs, Anniseeds in fine powder, of each three drams.

SYRUPS MADE WITH VINEGAR AND HONEY
Mel Anthosatum
Or Honey of Rosemary Flowers
College : Take of fresh Rosemary flowers a pound, clarified Honey three pounds, mix them in a glass with a narrow mouth, set them in the sun, keep them for use.
Culpeper : It hath the same virtues with Rosemary flowers, to which I refer you, only by reason of the Honey it may be somewhat cleansing.
Mel Helleboratum
Or Honey Helleborated
College : Take of white Hellebore roots bruised a pound, clear Water fourteen pounds, after three days infusions, boil it till half be consumed, then strain it diligently, and with three pounds of Honey, boil it to the thickness of Honey.
Mel Mercuriale
Or Honey of Mercury
College : Boil three pounds of the juice of Mercury, with two pounds of Honey to the thickness of Honey.
Culpeper : It is used as an emollient in clysters.
Mel Mororum, vel Diamoron
Or Honey of Mulberries
College : Take of the juice of Mulberries and Blackberries, before they be ripe, gathered before the sun be up, of each a pound and a half, Honey two pounds, boil them to their due thickness.
Culpeper : It is vulgarly known to be good for sore mouths, as also to cool inflammations there.
Mel Nuceum, alias Diacarion et Dianucum
Or Honey of Nuts
College : Take of the juice of the outward bark of green Walnuts, gathered in the dog days two pounds, boil it gently till it be thick, and with one pound of Honey, boil it to the thickness of Honey.
Culpeper : It is a good preservative in pestilential times, a spoonful being taken as soon as you are up.
Mel Passalatum
Or Honey of Raisins
College : Take of Raisins of the sun cleansed from the stones two pounds, steep them in six pounds of warm water, the next day boil it half away, and press it strongly, and with two pounds of Honey, let the expressed liquor boil to its thickness.
Culpeper : It is a pretty pleasing medicine for such as are in consumptions, and are bound in body.
Mel Rosatum commune, sive Foliatum
Or common Honey of Roses
College : Take of red Roses not quite open two pounds, Honey six pounds, set them in the sun according to art.
Mel Rosatum Colatum
Or Honey of Roses strained
College : Take of the best clarified Honey ten pounds, juice of fresh red Roses one pound, set it handsomely over the fire, and when it begins to boil, put in four pounds of fresh red Roses, the whites being cut off; the juice being consumed by boiling and stirring, strain it and keep it for use.
Culpeper : They are both used for diseases in the mouth.
Mel Rosatum solutivum
Or Honey of Roses solutive
College : Take of the often infusion of Damask Roses five pounds, Honey rightly clarified four pounds, boil it to the thickness of Honey.
Culpeper : It is used as a laxative in clysters, and some use it to cleanse wounds.
College : After the same manner is prepared Honey of the infusion of red Roses.
Mel scilliticum
Or Honey of Squils
College : Take one Squil full of juice, cut in bits, and put it in a glass vessel, the mouth close stopped, and covered with a skin, set in the sun forty days, to wit, twenty before and after the rising of the dog star, then open the vessel, and take the juice which lies at the bottom, and preserve it with the best Honey.
College : Honey of Violets is prepared like as Honey of Roses.
Oxymel, simple
College : Take of the best Honey four pounds, clear Water and white Wine Vinegar, of each two pounds, boil them in an earthen vessel, taking the scum off with a wooden scummer, till it be come to the consistence of a Syrup.
Culpeper : It cuts flegm, and it is a good preparative against a vomit.
Oxymel compound
College : Take of the Bark of the Root of Fennel, Smallage, Parsley, Bruscus, Asparagus, of each two ounces, the seeds of Fennel, Smallage, Parsley, Annis, of each one ounce, steep them all (the roots being first cleansed and the seeds bruised) in six pounds of clear Water and a pound and a half of Wine Vinegar, the next day boil it to the consumption of the third part, boil the rest being strained, with three pounds of Honey into a liquid Syrup according to art.
Culpeper : First having bruised the roots and seeds, boil them in the water till half be consumed, then strain it and add the Honey, and when it is almost boiled enough, add the Vinegar.
Oxymel Helleboratum
Or Oxymel Helleborated
College : Take of Rue, Thyme, Dittany of Crete, Hyssop, Pennyroyal, Horehound, Carduus, the roots of Celtick, Spikenard without leaves, the inner bark of Elders, of each a handful, Mountain Calaminth two pugils, the seeds of Annis, Fennel, Bazil, Roman Nettles, Dill, of each two drams, the roots of Angelica, Marsh-mallows, Aron, Squills prepared, Birthwort, long, round, and climbing, Turbith, English Orris, Costus, Polypodium, Lemon pills, of each an ounce, the strings of black Hellebore, Spurge, Agerick, added at the end of the Decoction, of each two drams, the bark of white Hellebore half an ounce, let all of them being dried and bruised, be digested in a glass, or glazed vessel close stopped, in the heat of the sun, or of a furnace, Posca, made of equal parts of Water and Vinegar, eight pounds, Sapa two ounces, three days being expired, boil it little more than half away, strain it, pressing it gently, and add to the liquor a pound and a half of Honey Roses, wherein two ounces of Citron pills have been infused, boil it to the thickness of Honey, and perfume it with Cloves, Saffron, Ginger, Galanga, Mace, of each a dram.
Oxymel Julianizans
College : Take of the Bark of Caper roots, the roots of Orris, Fennel, Parsley, Bruscus, Chicory, Sparagus, Cypress, of each half an ounce, the leaves of Harts-tongue, Schænanth, Tamarisk, of each half a handful, sweet Fennel seed half an ounce, infuse them in three pounds of Posca, which is something sour, afterwards boil it till half be consumed, strain it, and with Honey and sugar clarified, of each half a pound, boil it to the thickness of Honey.
Culpeper : This medicine is very opening, very good against Hypocondriac melancholy, and as fit a medicine as can be for that disease in children called the Rickets.
College : Oxymel of Squills simple, is made of three pounds of clarified Honey; Vinegar of Squills two pounds, boil them according to art.
Culpeper : It cuts and divides humours that are tough and viscous, and therefore helps the stomach and bowels afflicted by such humours, and sour belchings. If you take but a spoonful in the morning, an able body will think enough.
Oxymel Scilliticum compositus
Or Oxymel of Squills compound
College : Take of Origanum, dried Hyssop, Thyme, Lovage, Cardamoms the less, Stœchas, of each five drams, boil them in three pounds of Water to one, strain it and with two pounds of Honey, Honey of Raisins half a pound, juice of Briony five ounces, Vinegar of Squills a pound and a half, boil it, and scum it according to art.
Culpeper : This is good against the falling-sickness, Megrim, Head-ache, Vertigo, or swimming in the head, and if these be occasioned by the stomach as many times they are, it helps the lungs obstructed by humour, and is good for women not well cleansed after labour, it opens the passage of the womb.
Syrup of Purslain. Mesue
College : Take of the seeds of Purslain grossly bruised, half a pound, of the juice of Endive, boiled and clarified, two pounds, Sugar two pounds, Vinegar nine ounces, infuse the seeds in the juice of Endive twenty-four hours, afterwards boil it half away with a gentle fire, then strain it, and boil it with the sugar to the consistence of a Syrup, adding the Vinegar towards the latter end of the decoction.
Culpeper : It is a pretty cooling Syrup, fit for any hot disease incident to the stomach, reins, bladder, matrix, or liver; it thickens flegm, cools the blood, and provokes sleep. You may take an ounce of it at a time when you have occasion.
Compound Syrup of Colt's-foot. Renod
College : Take six handfuls of green Colt's-foot, two handfuls of Maiden-hair, one handful of Hyssop and two ounces of Liquorice, boil them in four pints, either of rain or spring water till the fourth part be consumed, then strain it, and clarify it, to which add three pounds of white sugar, boil it to the perfect consistence of a Syrup.
Culpeper : The composition is appropriated to the lungs, and therefore helps the infirmities, weaknesses, or failings thereof, as want of voice, difficulty of breathing, coughs, hoarseness, catarrhs,&c. The way of taking it is with a Liquorice-stick, or if you please, you may add an ounce of it to the Pectoral Decoction before mentioned.
Syrup of Poppies, the lesser composition
College : Take of the heads of white Poppies and black, when both of them are green, of each six ounces, the seeds of Lettice, the flowers of Violets, of each one ounce, boil them in eight pints of water till the virtue is out of the heads; then strain them, and with four pounds of sugar boil the liquor to a Syrup.
Syrup of Poppies, the greater composition
College : Take of the heads of both white and black Poppies, seeds and all, of each fifty drams, Maiden-hair, fifteen drams, Liquorice, five drams, Jujubes, thirty by number, Lettice seeds, forty drams, of the seeds of Mallows and Quinces, (tied up in a thin linen cloth) of each one dram and an half, boil these in eight pints of water till five pints be consumed, when you have strained out the three pints remaining, add to them, Penids and white sugar, of each a pound, boil them into a Syrup according to art.
Culpeper : All these former Syrups of Poppies provoke sleep, but in that, I desire they may be used with a great deal of caution and wariness: such as these are not fit to be given in the beginning of fevers, nor to such whose bodies are costive, yet to such as are troubled with hot, sharp rheums, you may safely give them. The last is appropriated to the lungs. It prevails against dry coughs, phthisicks, hot and sharp gnawing rheums, and provokes sleep. It is an usual fashion for nurses when they have heated their milk by exercise or strong liquor then run for Syrup of Poppies to make their young ones sleep. I would fain have that fashion left off, therefore I forbear the dose. Let nurses keep their own bodies temperate, and their children will sleep well enough.
Syrup of Eupatorium (or Maudlin). Mesue
College : Take of the Roots of Smallage, Fennel, and Succory, of each two ounces, Liquorice, Schænanth, Dodder, Wormwood, Roses, of each six drams, Maiden-hair, Bedeguar, or instead thereof, the roots of Carduus Mariæ, Suchaha or instead thereof the roots of Avens, the flowers or roots of Bugloss, Annis seeds, sweet Fennel seeds, Ageratum, or Maudlin, of each five drams, Rhubarb, Mastich, of each three drams, Spikenard, Indian leaf, or instead of it put Roman spike, of each two drams, boil them in eight pints of Water till the third part be consumed, then strain the Decoction, and with four pounds of sugar, clarified juice of Smallage and Endive, of each half a pound, boil it into a Syrup.
Culpeper : It amends infirmities of the liver coming of cold, opens obstructions, helps the dropsy, and evil state of the body; it extenuates gross humours, strengthens the liver, provokes urine, and is a present succour for hypocondriac melancholy. You may take an ounce at a time in the morning, it opens but purges not.
Honey of Emblicks. Augustanus
College : Take fifty Emblick Myrobalans, bruise them and boil them in three pints of water till two be consumed, strain it, and with the like weight of Honey, boil it into a Syrup.
Culpeper : It is a fine gentle purger both of flegm and melancholy: it strengthens the brain and nerves, and senses both internal and external, helps tremblings of the heart, stays vomiting, provokes appetite. You may take a spoonful at a time.

ROB, OR SAPA: AND JUICES

Culpeper : 1. Rob, or Sapa, is the juice of a fruit, made thick by the heat either of the sun, or the fire, that it is capable of being kept safe from putrefaction. 2. Its use was first invented for diseases in the mouth. 3. It is usually made, in respect of body, somewhat thicker than new Honey. 4. It may be kept about a year, little more or less.
Rob sive Sapa, simplex
Or Simple Rob, or Sapa
College : Take of Wine newly pressed from white and ripe Grapes, boil it over a gentle fire to the thickness of Honey.
Culpeper : Whenever you read the word Rob, or Sapa throughout the Dispensatory, simply quoted in any medicine without any relation of what it should be made, this is that you ought to use.
Rob de Barberis
Or Rob of Barberries
College : Take of the juice of Barberries strained as much as you will, boil it by itself (or else by adding half a pound of sugar to each pound of juice) to the thickness of Honey.
Culpeper : It quenches thirst, closes the mouth of the stomach, thereby staying vomiting, and belching, it strengthens stomachs weakened by heat, and procures appetite. Of any of these Robs you may take a little on the point of a knife when you need.
Rob de Cerasis
Or Rob of Cherries
College : Take of the juice of red Cherries somewhat sowerish, as much as you will, and with half their weight in sugar boil them like the former.
Culpeper : See the virtue of Cherries, and there you have a method to keep them all the year.
Rob de Cornis
Or Rob of Cornels
College : Take of the juice of Cornels two pounds, sugar a pound and an half; boil it according to art.
Culpeper : Of these Cornel trees are two sorts, male and female, the fruit of the male Cornel, or Cornelian Cherry is here to be used. The fruit of male Cornel, binds exceedingly, and therefore good in fluxes, and the immoderate flowing of the menses.
Rob Cydoniorum
Or Rob of Quinces
College : Take of the clarified juice of Quinces, boil it till two parts be consumed and with its equal weight in sugar boil it into a Rob.
Miva vel Gelatina Eorundem
Or Jelly of Quinces
College : Take of the juice of Quinces clarified twelve pounds, boil it half away, and add to the remainder, old white Wine five pounds, consume the third part over a gentle fire, taking away the scum (all you ought) let the rest settle, and strain it, and with three pounds of sugar boil it according to art.
Culpeper : Both are good for weak and indisposed stomachs.
College : Rob of sour Plums is made as Rob of Quinces, the use of sugar is indifferent in them both. Rob of English Currants is made in the same manner, let the juice be clarified.
Culpeper : The virtues are the same with Rob of Barberries.
Rob Baccarum Sambuci
Or Rob of Elder Berries
College : Take of the juice of Elder Berries, and make it thick with the help of a gentle fire, either by itself, or a quarter of its weight in sugar being added.
Culpeper : Both Rob of Elder Berries, and Dwarf-Elder, are excellent for such whose bodies are inclining to dropsies, neither let them neglect nor despise it. They may take the quantity of a nutmeg each morning, it will gently purge the watery humour.
College : In the same manner is made Rob of Dwarf-Elder, Junipers, and Paul's Betony, only in the last, the sugar and juice must be equal in weight.
Succus Glycyrrhizæ simplex
Or Juice of Liquorice simple
College : Infuse Liquorice Roots cleansed and gently bruised, three days in Spring Water, so much that it may over-top the roots the breadth of three fingers, then boil it a little, and press it hard out, and boil the liquor with a gentle fire to its due thickness.
Culpeper : It is vulgarly known to be good against coughs, colds, &c. and a strengthener of the lungs.
Succus Glycyrrhizæ compositus
Or Juice of Liquorice compound
College : Take of the water of tender Oak leaves, of Scabious, of each four pounds, English Liquorice scraped and bruised two pounds, boil them by degrees till they be soft, then press out the liquor strongly in a press, to which add three pounds of juice of Hyssop, and dry it away in the sun in a broad earthen vessel.
Culpeper : The virtues are the same with the former.
Succus Pronorum Sylvestrum
Or Juice of Sloes, called Acacia
College : Take of Sloes hardly ripe, press out the juice, and make it thick in a bath.
Culpeper : It stops fluxes, and procures appetite.
College : So are the Juices of Wormwood, Maudlin, and Fumitory made thick, to wit, the herbs bruised while they be tender, and the juice pressed out and after it be clarified, boil over the fire to its just thickness.
LOHOCH, OR ECLEGMATA

Culpeper : Because this word also is understood but by few, we will first explain what it is. 1. The word Lohoch is an Arabick word, called in Greek Eclegma, in Latin Linctus, and signifies a thing to be licked up. 2. It is in respect of body, something thicker than a Syrup, and not so thick as an electuary. 3. Its use was against the roughness of the windpipe, diseases, and inflammations of the lungs, difficulty of breathing, colds, coughs, &c. 4. Its manner of reception is with a Liquorice stick, bruised at the end, to take up some and retain it in the mouth, till it melt of its own accord.
Lohoch de Farfara
Or Lohoch of Coltsfoot
College : Take of Colts-foot roots cleansed eight ounces, Marshmallow roots four ounces cleansed, boil them in a sufficient quantity of water, and press the pulp out through a sieve, dissolve this again in the Decoction, and let it boil once or twice, then take it from the fire, and add two pounds of white sugar, Honey of Raisins fourteen ounces, juice of Liquorice two drams and an half, stir them stoutly with a wooden pestle, mean season sprinkle in Saffron and Cloves, of each a scruple, Cinnamon and Mace, of each two scruples, make them into a Lohoch according to art.
Culpeper : It was invented for the cough.
Lohoch de Papavere
Or Lohoch of Poppies
College : Take white Poppy seeds twenty four drams, sweet Almonds blanched in Rose Water, Pine-nuts cleansed, Gum Arabick and Tragacanth, of each ten drams, juice of Liquorice an ounce, Starch three drams, the seeds of Lettuce, Purslain, Quinces, of each half an ounce, Saffron a dram, Penids four ounces, Syrup of Meconium three pounds, make it into a Lohoch according to art.
Culpeper : It helps salt, sharp and thin distillations upon the lungs, it allays the fury of such sharp humours, which occasion both roughness of the throat, want of sleep, and fevers; it is excellent for such as are troubled with pleurises to take now and then a little of it.
Lohoch e Passulis
Or Lohoch of Raisins
College : Take of male Peony roots, Liquorice, of each half an ounce, Hyssop, Bawm, Hart's-tongue, or Cetrach, of each half a handful, boil them in Spring Water, and press them strongly, and by adding a pound of Raisins bruised, boil it again, pressing it through a linen cloth, then with a pound of white sugar, make it into a Lohoch according to art.
Culpeper : It is very good against coughs, consumptions of the lungs, and other vices of the breast, and is usually given to children for such diseases, as also for convulsions, and falling-sickness.
Lohoch e Pino
Or Lohoch of Pinenuts
College : Take of Pine-nuts, fifteen drams, sweet Almonds, Hazel Nuts gently roasted, Gum Arabick and Tragacanth, powder and juice of Liquorice, white Starch, Maiden-hair, Orris roots, of each two drams, the pulp of Dates seventeen drams, bitter Almonds one dram and an half, Honey of Raisins, white Sugar-candy, fresh Butter, of each two ounces, Honey one pound and an half, dissolve the Gums in so much Decoction of Maiden-hair as is sufficient; let the rest be mixed over a gentle fire, and stirred, that so it may be made into a Lohoch.
Culpeper : The medicine is excellent for continual coughs, and difficulty of breathing, it succours such as are asthmatic, for it cuts and atenuates tough humours in the breast.
Lohoch de Portulaca
Or Lohoch of Purslain
College : Take of the strained Juice of Purslain two pounds, Troches of Terra Lemnia two drams, Troches of Amber, Gum Arabic, Dragon's-blood of each one dram, Lapis Hematilis, the wool of a Hare toasted, of each two scruples, white Sugar one pound, mix them together, that so you may make a Lohoch of them.
Culpeper : The medicine is so binding that it is better let alone than taken, unless in inward bruises when men spit blood, then you may safely take a little of it.
Lohoch e Pulmone Vulpis
Or Lohoch of Fox Lungs
College : Take of Fox Lungs rightly prepared, juice of Liquorice, Maiden-hair, Annis-seeds, sweet Fennel seeds, of each equal parts, Sugar dissolved in Colt's-foot, and Scabious Water, and boiled into a Syrup, three times their weight; the rest being in fine powder, let them be put to it and strongly stirred together, that it may be made into a Lohoch according to art.
Culpeper : It cleanses and unites ulcers in the lungs and breast, and is a present remedy in phthisicks.
Lohoch sanum et Expertum
Or a sound and well experienced Lohoch
College : Take of dried Hyssop and Calaminth, of each half an ounce, Jujubes, Sebestens, the stones being taken out, fifteen Raisins of the Sun stoned, fat Figs, Dates, of each two ounces, Linseed, Fenugreek seed, of each five drams, Maiden-hair one handful, Annis-seeds, sweet Fennel seeds, Orris Roots cut, Liquorice, Cinnamon, of each an ounce, boil them according to art in four pounds of clear water till half be consumed, and with two pounds of Penids boil it into a Syrup, afterwards cut and bruise very small Pine-nuts five drams, sweet Almonds blanched, Liquorice, Gum Tragacanth and Arabick, white Starch of each three drams, let these be put into the Syrup when it is off the fire, and stir it about swiftly with a wooden pestle till it look white.
Culpeper : It succors the breast, lungs, throat, oppressed by cold, it restores the voice lost by reason of cold, and attenuates thick and gross humours in the breast and throat.
Lohoch Scilliticum
Or Lohoch of Squils
College : Take three drams of a Squil baked in paste, Orris Roots two drams, Hyssop, Hore-hound, of each one dram, Saffron, Myrrh, of each half a dram, Honey two ounces and an half, bruise the Squil, after it is baked, in a stone mortar, and after it hath boiled a walm or two with the Honey, put in the rest of the things in powder, diligently stirring it, and make it into a Lohoch according to art.
Eclegma of Squils. Mesue
College : Take of the juice of Squils and Honey, both of them clarified, of each two pounds, boil them together according to art to the consistence of Honey.
Culpeper : For the virtues of it see Vinegar of Squils, and Oximel of Squils, only this is more mild, and not so harsh to the throat, because it hath no Vinegar in it, and therefore is far more fitting for Asthmaes, and such as are troubled with difficulty of breathing, it cuts and carries away humours from the breast, be they thick or thin, and wonderfully helps indigestion of victuals, and eases pains in the breast, and for this, I quote the authority of Galen.
Lohoch of Coleworts. Gordonius
College : Take one pound of the juice of Coleworts, clarified Saffron three drams, clarified Honey, and Sugar, of each half a pound, make of them a Lohoch according to art.
Culpeper : It helps hoarseness, and loss of voice, eases surfeits and head-ache coming of drunkenness, and opens obstructions of the liver and spleen, and therefore is good for that disease in children called the rickets.

PRESERVED ROOTS, STALKS, BARKS, FLOWERS, FRUITS

College : Take of Eringo Roots as many as you will, cleanse them without and within, the pith being taken out, steep them two days in clear water, shifting the water sometimes, then dry them with a cloth, then take their equal weight in white Sugar, and as much Rose-water as will make it into a Syrup, which being almost boiled, put in the roots, and let them boil until the moisture be consumed, and let it be brought to the due body of a Syrup. Not much unlike to this are preserved the roots of Acorus, Angelica, Borrage, Bugloss, Succory, Elecampane, Burnet, Satyrion, Sicers, Comfrey the greater, Ginger, Zedoary. Take of the stalks of Artichokes, not too ripe, as many as you will, and (contrary to the roots) take only the pith of these, and preserve them with their equal weight in sugar, like the former. So is prepared the stalks of Angelica, Burs, Lettuce, &c. before they be too ripe. Take of fresh Orange pills as many as you will, take away the exterior yellowness, and steep them in spring water three days at the least, often renewing the water, then preserve them like the former. In like manner are Lemon and Citron pills preserved. Preserve the flowers of Citrons, Oranges, Borrage, Primroses, with Sugar, according to art. Take of Apricots as many as you will, take away the outer skin and the stones, and mix them with their like weight in sugar, after four hours take them out, and boil the Sugar without any other Liquor, then put them in again, and boil them a little. Other Fruits may be preserved in the same manner, or at least not much unlike to it, as whole Barberries, Cherries, Cornels, Citrons, Quinces, Peaches, common Apples, the five sorts of Myrobalans, Hazel Nuts, Walnuts, Nutmegs, Raisins of the Sun, Pepper brought green from India, Plums, garden and wild Pears, Grapes. Pulps are also preserved, as Barberries, Cassia Fistula, Citrons, Cinosbatus, Quinces, and Sloes, &c. Take of Barberries as many as you will, boil them in spring water till they are tender, then having pulped them through a sieve, that they are free from the stones, boil it again in an earthen vessel over a gentle fire, often stirring them for fear of burning, till the watery humour be consumed, then mix ten pounds of sugar with six pounds of this pulp, boil it to its due thickness. Broom buds are also preserved, but with brine and vinegar, and so are Olives and Capers. Lastly, Amongst the Barks, Cinnamon, amongst the flowers, Roses, and Marigolds, amongst the fruits, Almonds, Cloves, Pine-nuts, and Fistick-nuts, are said to be preserved but with this difference, they are encrusted with dry sugar, and are more called confects than preserves.
CONSERVES AND SUGARS

College : Conserves of the herbs of Wormwood, Sorrel, Wood-sorrel, the flowers of Oranges, Borrage, Bugloss, Bettony, Marigolds, the Tops of Carduus, the Flowers of Centaury the less, Clove-gilliflowers, Germander, Succory, the Leaves of Scurvygrass, the flowers of Comfrey the greater, Citratiæ, Cinosbati, the roots of Spurge, herbs and flowers of Eye-bright, the tops of Fumitory, Goat's-rue, the flowers of Broom not quite open, Hyssop, Lavender, white Lilies, Lilies of the Valley, Marjoram, Mallows, the tops of Bawm, the leaves of Mints, the flowers of Water Lilies, red Poppies, Peony, Peaches, Primroses, Roses, the leaves of Rue, the flowers of Sage, Elder, Scabious, the leaves of Scordium, the flowers of Limetree, Coltsfoot, Violets, with all these are conserves made with their treble proportion of white sugar; yet note, that all of them must not be mixed alike, some of them must be cut, beaten, and gently boiled, some neither cut, beaten nor boiled, and some admit but one of them, which every artist in his trade may find out by this premonition and avoid error.

SUGARS
Diacodium Solidum, sive Tabulatum
College : Take of white Poppy heads, meanly ripe, and newly gathered, twenty, steep them in three pounds of warm spring water, and the next day boil them until the virtue is out, then strain out the liquor, and with a sufficient quantity of good sugar, boil it according to art, that you may make it up into Lozenges.
Culpeper : The virtues are the same with the common Diacodium, viz. to provoke sleep, and help thin rheums in the head, coughs, and roughness of the throat, and may easily be carried about in one's pocket.
Saccharum tabulatum simplex, et perlatum
Or Lozenges of Sugar both simple and pearled
College : The first is made by pouring the sugar upon a marble, after a sufficient boiling in half its weight in Damask Rose Water: And the latter by adding to every pound of the former towards the latter end of the decoction, Pearls, prepared and bruised, half an ounce, with eight or ten leaves of gold.
Culpeper : It is naturally cooling, appropriated to the heart, it restores lost strength, takes away burning fevers, and false imaginations, (I mean that with Pearls, for that without Pearls is ridiculous) it hath the same virtues Pearls have.
Saccharum Tabulatum compositum
Or Lozenges of Sugar compound
College : Take of choice Rhubarb four scruples, Agarick Trochiscated, Corallins, burnt Hart's-horn, Dittany of Crete, Wormseed and Sorrel seed, of each a scruple, Cinnamon, Zedoary, Cloves, Saffron, of each half a scruple, white Sugar a pound, dissolved in four ounces of Wormwood Water, Wormwood Wine, an ounce, Cinnamon Water a spoonful, with the forenamed powders make it into Lozenges according to art.
Culpeper : The title shews you the virtues of it.
Saccharum Penidium
Or Sugar Penids
College : Are prepared of sugar dissolved in spring water by a gentle fire, and the whites of Eggs diligently beaten, and clarified once, and again whilst it is boiling, then strain it and boil it gently again, till it rise up in great bubbles, and being chewed it stick not to your teeth, then pour it upon a marble, anointed with oil of Almonds, (let the bubbles first sink, after it is removed from the fire) bring back the outsides of it to the middle till it look like Larch rosin, then, your hands being rubbed with white starch, you may draw it into threads either short or long, thick or thin, and let it cool in what form you please.
Culpeper : I remember country people were wont to take them for coughs, and they are sometimes used in other compositions.
Confectio de Thure
Or Confection of Frankincense
College : Take Coriander seeds prepared half an ounce, Nutmegs, white Frankincense, of each three drams, Liquorice, Mastich, of each two drams, Cubebs, Hart's-horn prepared, of each one dram, conserve of Red roses an ounce, white Sugar as much as is sufficient to make it into mean bits.
Culpeper : I cannot boast much of the rarity nor virtues of this receipt.
Saccharum Rosatum
Or Sugar of Roses
College : Take of red Rose leaves, the whites being cut off, and speedily dried in the sun an ounce, white Sugar a pound, melt the Sugar in Rose-water and juice of Roses of each two ounces which being consumed by degrees, put in the Rose leaves in powder, mix them, put it upon a marble, and make it into Lozenges according to art.
Culpeper : As for the virtues of this, it strengthens weak stomachs, weak hearts, and weak brains, restores such as are in consumptions, restores lost strength, stays fluxes, eases pains in the head, ears and eyes, helps spitting, vomiting, and urining of blood; it is a fine commodity for a man in a consumption to carry about with him, and eat now and then a bit.

SPECIES, OR POWDERS
Aromaticum Caryophyllatum
College : Take of Cloves seven drams, Mace, Zedoary, Galanga the less, yellow Sanders, Troches, Diarrhodon, Cinnamon, wood of Aloes, Indian Spikenard, long Pepper, Cardamoms the less, of each a dram, Red Roses four ounces, Gallia Moschata, Liquorice, of each two drams, of Indian leaf, Cubebs of each two scruples, beat them all diligently into powder.
Culpeper : This powder strengthens the heart and stomach, helps digestion, expels wind, stays vomiting, and cleanses the stomach of putrified humors.
Aromaticum Rosatum
College : Take of Red Roses exungulated fifteen drams, Liquorice seven drams, wood of Aloes, yellow Sanders, of each three drams, Cinnamon five drams, Cloves, Mace, of each two drams and an half, Gum Arabic and Tragacanth, of each eight scruples, Nutmegs, Cardamoms the less, Galanga of each one dram, Indian Spikenard two scruples, make it into a powder to be kept in a glass for use.
Culpeper : It strengthens the brain, heart and stomach, and all such internal members as help towards decoction, it helps digestion, consumes the watery excrements of the bowels, strengthens such as are pined away by reason of the violence of a disease, and restores such as are in consumption.
Pulvus ex chelus Cancrorum compositus
Or Powder of Crab's claws compound
College : Take of Pearls prepared, Crab's eyes, red Coral, white Amber Hart's-horn, oriential Bezoar, of each half an ounce, powder of the black tops of Crab's claws, the weight of them all, beat them into powder, which may be made into balls with jelly, and the skins which our vipers have cast off, warily dried and kept for use.
Culpeper : This is that powder they ordinarily call Gascoigns powder, there are divers receipts of it, of which this is none of the worst, four, or five, or six grains is excellently good in a fever to be taken in any cordial, for it cheers the heart and vital spirits exceedingly, and makes them impregnable.
Species Cordiales Temperatæ
College : Take of wood of Aloes, Spodium of each a dram, Cinnamon, Cloves, bone of a Stag's-heart, the roots of Angelica, Avens, and Tormentil, of each a dram and an half, Pearls prepared six drams, raw Silk toasted, both sorts of Coral of each two drams, Jacinth, Emerald, Samphire, of each half a dram, Saffron a scruple, the leaves of gold and silver, of each ten, make them into powder according to art.
Culpeper : It is a great cordial, a great strengthener of the heart, and brain.
Diacalaminthe Simple
College : Take of Mountain Calaminth, Pennyroyal, Origanum, the seeds of Macedonian Parsley, common Parsley, and Hartwort, of each two drams, the seeds of Smallage, the tops of Thyme of each half an ounce, the seeds of Lovage, black Pepper, of each an ounce, make them into powder according to art.
Culpeper : It heats and comforts cold bodies, cuts thick and gross flegm, provokes urine and the menses. I confess this differs something from Galen, but is better for our bodies in my opinion than his. It expels wind exceedingly, you may take half a dram of the powder at a time. There is nothing surer than that all their powders will keep better in Electuaries than they will in powders, and into such a body, you may make it with two pound and an half of white sugar dissolved in rose water.
Diacalamintha compound
College : Take of Diacalamintha simple, half an ounce, the leaves of Horehound, Marjoram, Bawm, Mugwort, Savin dried, of each a dram, Cypress roots, the seeds of Maddir and Rue, Mace, Cinnamon, of each two scruples, beat them and mix them diligently into a powder according to art.
Culpeper : This seems to be more appropriated to the feminine gender than the former, viz. to bring down the terms, to bring away the birth, and after-birth, to purge them after labour, yet it is dangerous for pregnant women.
Dianisum
College : Take of Annis seeds two ounces and an half, Liquorice, Mastich, of each an ounce, the seeds of Caraway, Fennel, Galanga, Mace, Ginger, Cinnamon, of each five drams, the three sorts of Pepper, Cassia Lignea, mountain Calaminth, Pellitory of Spain, of each two drams, Cardamoms the greater, Cloves, Cubebs, Indian Spikenard, Saffron, of each a dram and an half, make them into powder.
Culpeper : It is chiefly appropriated to the stomach, and helps the cold infirmities thereof, raw, flegm, wind, continual coughs, and other such diseases coming of cold. You may safely take a dram of the electuary at a time. You may make an electuary of it with its treble weight of clarified Honey.
Pulvis Radicum Ari compositus
Or Powder of Aron Roots compound
College : Take of Aron Roots two ounces, of common Water Flag, and Burnet, of each one ounce, Crab's eyes, half an ounce, Cinnamon three drams, salt of Wormwood, and Juniper, of each one dram, make them into powder.
Culpeper : And when you have done tell me what it is good for.
Diaireos simple
College : Take of Orris roots half an ounce, Sugar-candy, Diatragacanthum frigidum, of each two drams, make them into powder.
Culpeper : I do not mean the Diatragacanthum frigidum, for that is in powder before. It comforts the breast, is good in colds, coughs, and hoarseness. You may mix it with any pectoral Syrups which are appropriated to the same diseases, and so take it with a Liquorice stick.
Dialacca
College : Take of Gum-lacca, prepared Rhubarb, Schænanth, of each three drams, Indian Spikenard, Mastich, the juice of Wormwood and Agrimony, made thick, the seeds of Smallage, Annis, Fennel, Ammi, Savin, bitter Almonds, Myrrh, Costus, or Zedoary, the roots of Maddir, Asarabacca, Birthwort long and round, Gentian, Saffron, Cinnamon, dried Hyssop, Cassia Lignea, Bdellium, of each a dram and an half, black Pepper, Ginger, of each a dram, make them into powder according to art.
Culpeper : It strengthens the stomach and liver, opens obstructions, helps dropsies, yellow jaundice, provokes urine, breaks the stone in the reins and bladder. Half a dram is a moderate dose, if the patient be strong they may take a dram in white Wine. Let pregnant woman forbear it.
Pulvis Cardiacus Magistralis
College : Take of East Bezoar, bone of a Stag's-heart, of each a dram and an half, Magisterium, of white and red Coral, white Amber, Magisterium of Pearl, Hart's-horn, Ivory, Bole-amoniac, Earth of Germany, Samos and Lemnos, Elk's-claw, Tormentil roots, of each a dram, Wood of Aloes, Citron peels, the roots of Angelica and Zedoary, of each two scruples, leaves of Gold twenty, Ambergris one scruple, Musk six grains, mix them and make them into powder.
Culpeper : It is too dear for a vulgar purse, yet a mighty cordial and great strengthener of the heart and vitals in fevers.
Diamargariton frigidum
College : Take of the four greater cold seeds, the seeds of Purslain, white Poppies, Endive, Sorrel, Citrons, the three Sanders, Wood of Aloes, Ginger, red Roses exungulated, the flowers of Water-lilies, Bugloss, Violets, the berries of Mirtles, bone in a Stag's heart, Ivory, Contra yerva, Cinnamon of each one dram, both sorts of Coral, of each half a dram, Pearls three drams, Camphire six grains, make them into powder according to art. Observe that the four greater cold seeds, and the Poppy seeds, are not to be added before the powder be required by physician for use. Do so by the other powder in the composition of which these powders are used.
Culpeper : Authors hold it to be restorative in consumptions, to help such as are in hectic fevers, to restore strength lost, to help coughs, asthmaes, and consumptions of the lungs, and restore such as have laboured long under languishing or pining diseases.
Diamoschu Dulce
Take of Saffron, Galanga, Zedoary, Wood of Aloes, Mace, of each two drams, Pearls, raw Silk toasted, white Amber, red Coral prepared, Gallia Moschata, Bazil, of each two drams and an half, Ginger, Cubebs, Long Pepper, of each a dram and an half, Nutmegs, Indian leaf or Cinnamon, Cloves, of each one dram, Musk two scruples, make them into powder according to art.
Culpeper : It wonderfully helps cold afflictions of the brain, that come without a fever, melancholy and its attendants, viz. sadness without a cause, vertigo or diziness in the head, falling-sickness, palsies, resolution of the nerves, convulsions, heart-qualms, afflictions of the lungs, and difficulty of breathing. The dose of the powder is half a dram, or two scruples, or less; according to the age or strength of him or her that takes it. Mesue appoints it to be made into an electuary with clarified honey, and of the electuary, two drams is the dose. The time of taking it is, in the morning fasting.
Diamoschu Amarum
College : Is prepared by adding to the forenamed Wormwood, dried Roses, of each three drams, Aloes half an ounce, Cinnamon two drams and an half, Castorium and Lovage, of each one dram, make them into powder.
Culpeper : Besides the virtues of the former, it purges the stomach of putrified humours.
Specia Dianthus
College : Take of Rosemary flowers an ounce, red Roses, Violets, Liquorice, of each six drams, Cloves, Indian Spikenard, Nutmegs, Galanga, Cinnamon, Ginger, Zedoary, Mace, Wood of Aloes, Cardamoms the less, the seeds of Dill and Anis, of each four scruples, make them into powder according to art.
Culpeper : It strengthens the heart and helps the passions thereof, it causes a joyful and cheerful mind, and strengthens such as have been weakened by long sickness, it strengthens cold stomachs, and helps digestion notably. The dose is half a dram, you may make it into an electuary with honey, and take two drams of that at a time.
Diapendion
College : Take of Penides two ounces, Pine-nuts, sweet Almonds blanched, white Poppy seeds, of each three drams and a scruple, (Cinnamon, Cloves, Ginger, which three being omitted, it is a Diapendion without spices) juice of Liquorice, Gum Tragacanth and Arabic, white Starch, the four greater cold seeds husked, of each a dram and an half, Camphire seven grains, make them into powder.
Culpeper : It helps the vices of the breast, coughs, colds, hoarseness, and consumptions of the lungs, as also such as spit matter. You may mix it with any pectoral syrup, and take it with a Liquorice stick if you fancy the powder best, but if the electuary, you may take a dram of it upon a knife's point at any time when the cough comes.
Diarrhodon Abbatis
College : Take of Sanders white and red, of each two drams and an half, Gum Tragacanth, Arabic, Ivory of each two scruples, Asarabacca roots, Mastich, Indian Spikenard, Cardamoms, Liquorice, Saffron, Wood of Aloes, Cloves, Gallia Moschata, Annis and sweet Fennel seeds, Cinnamon, Rhubarb, Bazil seeds, Barberry seeds, the seeds of Succory, Purslain, the four greater cold seeds cleansed, white Poppy seeds, of each a scruple, Pearls, bone of a Stag's-heart of each half a scruple, red Roses exungulated, one ounce and three drams, Camphire seven grains, make them into powder according to art.
Culpeper : It cools the violent heat of the heart and stomach, as also of the liver, lungs, and spleen, eases pains in the body, and most infirmities coming to the body by reason of heat. The dose of the powder is half a dram, and two ounces of the electuary, into which with sugar dissolved in Rose-water you may make it.
Diospoliticum
College : Take of Cummin seeds steeped in vinegar and dried, long Pepper, Rue leaves, of each an ounce, Nitre half an ounce, make them into powder.
Culpeper : It is an admirable remedy for such whose meat is putrified in their stomachs, it helps cold stomachs, cold belchings and windy. You may take half a dram after meat, either in a spoonful of Muskadel, or in a Syrup of Mirtles or Quinces, or any Cordial Water whose effects is the same.
Species Diatragacanthi frigidi
College : Take of Gum Tragacanth two ounces, Gum Arabic an ounce and two drams, white Starch half an ounce, Liquorice, the seeds of Melons and white Poppies, of each three drams, the seeds of Citruls, Cucumbers and Gourds, of each two drams, Penids three ounces, Camphire half a scruple, make of them a powder according to art. Also you may make an electuary of them with a sufficient quantity of Syrup of Violets, but have a care of what was told you before of the seeds.
Culpeper : Make up into an electuary. It helps the faults of the breast and lungs coming of heat and dryness, it helps consumptions, leanness, inflammations of the sides, pleurises, &c. hot and dry coughs, roughness of the tongue and jaws.
Diatrion Piperion
College : Take of the three sorts of Peppers, of each six drams and fifteen grains, Annis seeds, Thyme, Ginger, of each one dram, beat them into gross powder.
Culpeper : It heats the stomach and expels wind. Half a dram in powder, or two drams in electuary (for so Galen who was author of it, appoints it to be made with clarified honey, a sufficient quantity) if age and strength permit, if not, half so much, is a sufficient dose, to be taken before meat, if to heat the stomach and help digestion; after meat, if to expel wind.
Diatrion Santalon
College : Take of all the sorts of Sanders, red Roses, of each three drams, Rhubarb, Ivory, Juice of Liquorice, Purslain seeds, of each two drams and fifteen grains, white Starch, Gum Arabic, Tragacanth, the seeds of Melons, Cucumbers, Citruls, Gourds, Endive, of each a dram and an half, Camphire a scruple, make them into powder according to art.
Culpeper : It is very profitable against the heat of the stomach and liver, besides, it wonderfully helps such as have the yellow jaundice, and consumptions of the lungs. You may safely take a dram of the powder, or two drams of the electuary in the morning fasting, for most of these powders will keep better by half in electuaries.
Pulvis Haly
College : Take of white Poppy seeds ten drams, white Starch, Gum Arabic and Tragacanth, of each three drams, the seeds of Purslain, Marsh-mallows, Mallows, of each five drams, Cucumbers, Melons, Gourds, Citruls, Quinces of each seven drams, Ivory, Liquorice, of each three drams, Penids the weight of them all, make them into powder according to art.
Culpeper : It is a gallant cool powder, fit for all hot imperfections of the breast and lungs, as consumptions, pleurisies, &c. Your best way is to make it into a soft electuary with Syrups of Violets, and take it as Diatragacanthum frigidum.
Lætificans
College : Take the flowers of Clove-bazil, or the seeds thereof, Saffron, Zedoary, Wood of Aloes, Cloves, Citron pills, Galanga, Mace, Nutmegs, Styrax Calamitis, of each two drams and an half, Ivory, Annis seeds, Thyme, Epithimum, of each one dram, bone of a Stag's heart, Pearls, Camphire, of each half a dram, leaves of Gold and Silver, of each half a scruple, make it into powder according to art.
Culpeper : It causes a merry heart, a good color, helps digestion, and keeps back old age. You may mix half a dram of it to take at one time, or less if you please, in any cordial Syrup, or cordial electuary appropriated to the same uses.
Pulvis Saxonicus
College : Take of the roots of both sorts of Angelica, Swallowwort, garden Valerian, Polipodium of the Oak, Marsh-mallows, Nettles, of each half an ounce, the bark of German Mezereon, two drams, twenty grains of herb True-love, the leaves of the same, roots and all, thirty six, the roots being steeped in vinegar and dried, beat it all into powder.
Culpeper : It seems to be as great an expeller of poison, and as great a preservative against it, and the pestilence, as one shall usually read of.
Rosate Novelle
College : Take of red Roses, Liquorice, of each one ounce, one dram, two scruples, and an half, Cinnamon two drams, two scruples, and two grains, Cloves, Indian Spikenard, Ginger, Galanga, Nutmegs, Zedoary, Styrax, Calamitis, Cardamoms, Parsley seeds, of each one scruple eight grains, beat them into powder.
Culpeper : It quenches thirst, and stays vomiting, and the author saith it helps hot and dry stomachs, as also heat and dryness of the heart, liver, and lungs, (yet is the powder itself hot,) it strengthens the vital spirits, takes away heart-qualms, it provokes sweat, and strengthens such as have laboured under long chronical diseases. You may take a dram of the electuary every morning, if with clarified Honey you please to make it into such a body.
Pulvus Thuraloes
College : Take of Frankincense one dram, Aloes half a dram, beat them into powder.
Culpeper : And when you have occasion to use it, mix so much of it with the white of an egg, (beat the white of the egg well first) as will make it of the thickness of Honey, then dip the wool of a Hare in it, and apply it to the sore or part that bleeds, binding it on.
Pulvis Hermidactylorum compositus
Or Powder of Hermodactils compound
College : Take of men's bones burnt, Scammony, Hermodactils, Turbith, Sena, Sugar, of each equal parts, beat them into powder.
Pulvis Senæ compositus major
Or Powder of Sena the greater composition
College : Take of the seeds of Annis, Carraway, Fennel, Cummin, Spikenard, Cinnamon, Galanga, of each half an ounce, Liquorice, Gromwell, of each an ounce, Sena, the weight of them all, beat it into powder.
Culpeper : That this receipt is gallantly composed none can deny, and is an excellent purge for such whose bodies as are troubled with the wind cholic, or stoppage either of guts or kidneys, two drams taken in white Wine will work sufficiently with any ordinary body. Let weak men and children take less, keeping within doors, and warm.
Pulvis Senæ compositus minor
Or Powder of Sena, the lesser composition
College : Take of Sena two ounces, Cremor Tartar half an ounce, Mace two scruples and an half, Ginger, Cinnamon, of each a dram and an half, Salgem one dram, beat it into powder according to art.
Culpeper : This powder purges melancholy, and cleanses the head.
Diasenæ
College : Take of Sena, Cremor Tartar, of each two ounces, Cloves, Cinnamon, Galanga, Ammi, of each two drams, Diacridium half an ounce, beat it into powder according to art.
Diaturbith with Rhubarb
College : Take of Turbith, Hermodactils, of each an ounce, Rhubarb ten drams, Diacrydium half an ounce, Sanders red and white, Violets, Ginger, of each a dram and an half, Mastich, Annis seeds, Cinnamon, Saffron, of each half a dram, make it into powder.
Culpeper : This also purges flegm and choler. Once more let me desire such as are unskilful in the rules of physic, not to meddle with purges of this nature (unless prescribed by a skilful Physician) lest they do themselves more mischief in half an hour, than they can remove in half a year.
The lesser cordial Powder. Fernelius
College : Take of Hart's-horn, Unicorn's horn, Pearls, Ivory, of each six grains beat them into fine powder. If you mean to keep it, you may encrease the quantity analogically.
The greater cordial Powder. Fern
College : Take of the roots of Tormentil, Dittany, Clove-gilliflowers, Scabious, the seed of Sorrel, Coriander prepared, Citron, Carduus Benedictus, Endive, Rue, of each one dram, of the three sorts of Sanders, (white, red, and yellow,) Been, white and red (or if you cannot get them, take the roots of Avens and Tormentil, in their stead) Roman Doronicum, (a kind of wolf-bane) Cinnamon, Cardamoms, Saffron, the flowers of both sorts of Bugloss, (viz. Borrage and Bugloss,) red Roses, and Water-Lilies, Wood of Aloes, Mace, of each two scruples, Ivory, Spodium, bone of a Stag's-heart, red Coral, Pearls, Emerald, Jacinth, Granite of each one scruple, raw Silk torrified, (dried or roasted by the fire,) Boleamoniac, Earth of Lemnos, of each half a dram, Camphire, Ambergris, Musk, of each six grains, beat them into powder according to art, and with eight times their weight in white sugar, dissolved in Rose-water, you may make them into Lozenges, if you please.
Culpeper : Both this and the former powder, are appropriated to the heart, (as the title shew) therefore they do strengthen that, and the vital spirit, and relieve languishing nature. All these are cordial Powders, and seldom above half a dram of them given at a time.
A Powder for such as are bruised by á fall
The Augustan Physicians
College : Take of Terra sigillata, Sanguis Draconis, Mummy of each two drams, Spermaceti one dram, beat them into powder according to art.
Culpeper : You must beat the rest into powder, and then add the Spermaceti to them afterwards, for if you put the Spermaceti and the rest all together and go to beat them in that fashion, you may as soon beat the mortar into powder, as the simples; indeed your best way is to beat them severally, and then mix them altogether, which being done, makes you a gallant medicine for the infirmities specified in the title, a dram of it taken in Muskadel and sweating after it.
Species Electuarii Dyacymini. Nicholaus
College : Take of Cummin seeds infused a natural day in Vinegar, one ounce and one scruple, Cinnamon, Cloves, of each two drams and an half, Galanga, Savory, Calaminth, of each one dram and two scruples, Ginger, black Pepper, of each two drams and five grains, the seeds of Lovage, and Ammi, (Bishop's-weed,) of each one dram and eighteen grains, long Pepper one dram, Spikenard, Nutmegs, Cardamoms, of each two scruples and an half, beat them and keep them diligently in powder for your use.
Culpeper : It heats the stomach and bowels, expels wind exceedingly, helps the wind cholic, helps digestion hindered by cold or wind, is an admirable remedy for wind in the bowels, and helps quartan agues. The powder is very hot, half a dram is enough to take at one time, and too much if the patient be feverish, you may take it in white Wine. It is in my opinion a fine composed powder.
Species Electuarii Diagalangæ. Mesue
College : Take of Galanga, wood of Aloes, of each six drams, Cloves, Mace, seeds of Lovage of each two drams, Ginger, long and white Pepper, Cinnamon, Calamus Aromaticus of each a dram and an half, Calaminth, and Mints dried, Cardamoms the greater, Indian Spikenard, the seeds of Smallage, Annis, Fennel, Caraway, of each one dram, beat them into powder according to art. Also it may be made into an electuary with white sugar dissolved in Malaga wine, or twelve times the weight of it of clarified Honey.
Culpeper : Mesue quotes it only as an electuary, which he saith prevails against wind, sour belchings, and indigestion, gross humours and cold afflictions of the stomach and liver. You may take half a dram of the powder at a time, or two of the electuary in the morning fasting, or an hour before meat. It helps digestion exceedingly, expels wind, and heats a cold stomach.
Species Electuarii Diamargariton Calidi. Avicenna
College : Take of Pearls and Pellitory of the Wall, of each one dram, Ginger, Mastich, of each half an ounce, Doronicum, Zedoary, Smallage seeds, both sorts of Cardamoms, Nutmegs, Mace, of each two drams, Been of both sorts, (if they cannot be procured take the roots of Avens and Tormentil) black and long Pepper of each three drams, beat them into powder and keep them for your use.
Culpeper : This (quoth Avicenna) is appropriated to women, and in them to diseases incident to their matrix; but his reasons I know not. It is cordial and heats the stomach.
Lithontribon Nicholaus, according to Fernelius
College : Take of Spikenard, Ginger, Cinnamon, black Pepper, Cardamoms, Cloves, Mace, of each half a dram, Costus, Liquorice, Cypress, Tragacanth, Germander, of each two scruples, the seeds of Bishop's-weed, (Ammi), Smallage, Sparagus, Bazil, Nettles, Citrons, Saxifrage, Burnet, Caraway, Carrots, Fennel, Bruscus, Parsley of Macedonia, Burs, Seseli, (or Hartwort), Asarabacca, of each one dram, Lapis Spongiæ, Lyncis, Cancri, Judaici, of each one dram and an half, Goat's blood prepared an ounce and half, beat them all into powder according to art.
Culpeper : It heats the stomach, and helps want of digestion coming through cold, it eases pains in the belly and loins, the Illiac passion, powerfully breaks the stone in the reins and bladder, it speedily helps the cholic, stranguary, and disury. The dose is from a dram to half a dram, take it either in white Wine, or decoction of herbs tending to the same purposes.
Pleres Arconticon. Nicholaus
College : Take of Cinnamon, Cloves, Galanga, Wood of Aloes, Indian Spikenard, Nutmegs, Ginger, Spodium, Schœnanthus, Cypress, Roses, Violets of each one dram, Indian Leaf or Mace, Liquorice, Mastich, Styrax Calamitis, Marjoram, Costmary, or Water-mints, Bazil, Cardamoms, long and white Pepper, Myrtle berries, and Citron pills, of each half a dram and six grains, Pearls, Been white and red, (or, if they be wanting, take the roots of Avens and Tormentil in their stead) red Coral, torrified Silk, of each eighteen grains, Musk six grains, Camphire four grains, beat them into powder according to art, and with ten times their weight in sugar dissolved in Bawm water, you may make them into an electuary.
Culpeper : It is exceedingly good for sad, melancholy, lumpish, pensive, grieving, vexing, pining, sighing, sobbing, fearful, careful spirits, it strengthens weak stomachs exceedingly, and help such as are prone to faintings and swoonings, it strengthens such as are weakened by violence of sickness, it helps bad memories, quickens all the senses, strengthens the brain and animal spirits, helps the falling-sickness, and succours such as are troubled with asthmas, or other cold afflictions of the lungs. It will keep best in an electuary, of which you may take a dram in the morning, or more, as age and strength requires.
A Preservative Powder against the Pestilence. Montagnam
College : Take of all the Sanders, (white, red, and yellow,) the seeds of Bazil, of each an ounce and an half, Bole Amoniac, Cinnamon, of each an ounce, the roots of Dittany, Gentian, and Tormentil, of each two drams and an half, the seeds of Citron and Sorrel, of each two drams, Pearls Saphire, bone of a Stag's heart, of each one dram, beat them into powder according to art.
Culpeper : The title tells you the virtue of it, besides, it cheers the vital spirits, and strengthens the heart. You may take half a dram every morning either by itself, or mixed with any other convenient composition, whether Syrup or Electuary.
Diaturbith the greater, without Rhubarb
College : Take of the best Turbith an ounce, Diagridium, Ginger, of each half an ounce, Cinnamon, Cloves, of each two drams, Galanga, long Pepper, Mace, of each one dram, beat them into powder, and with eight ounces and five drams of white sugar dissolved in Succory Water, it may be made into an electuary.
Culpeper : It purges flegm, being rightly administered by a skilful hand. I fancy it not.
A Powder for the Worms
College : Take of Wormseed, four ounces, Sena, one ounce, Coriander seeds prepared, Hart's-horn, of each half a dram, Rhubarb half an ounce, dried Rue, two drams, beat them into powder.
Culpeper : I like this powder very well; the quantity (or to write more scholastically, the dose) must be regulated according to the age of the patient, even from ten grains to a dram, and the manner of taking it by their palate. It is something purging.

ELECTUARIES
Antidotus Analeptica
College : Take of red Roses, Liquorice of each two drams and five grains, Gum Arabic and Tragacanth, of each two drams and two scruples, Sanders white and red, each four scruples, juice of Liquorice, white Starch, the seeds of white Poppies, Purslain, Lettuce, and Endive, of each three drams, the four greater cold seeds husked, of Quinces, Mallows, Cotton, Violets, Pine-nuts, fistic Nuts, sweet Almonds, pulp of Sebestens, of each two drams, Cloves, Spodium, Cinnamon, of each one dram, Saffron five grains, Penids half an ounce, being beaten, make them all into a soft electuary with three times their weight in Syrup of Violets.
Culpeper : It restores consumptions, and hectic fevers, lost strength, it nourishes much, and restores radical moisture, opens the pores, resists choler, takes away coughs, quenches thirst, and resists fevers. You may take an ounce in a day, by a dram at a time, if you please.
Confectio Alkermes
College : Take of the juice of Apples, Damask Rose-water, of each a pound and an half, in which infuse for twenty-four hours, raw Silk four ounces, strain it strongly, and add Syrup of the berries of Cherms brought over to us, two pounds, Sugar one pound, boil it to the thickness of Honey; then removing it from the fire whilst it is warm, add Ambergris cut small, half an ounce, which being well mingled, put in these things following in powder, Cinnamon, Wood of Aloes, of each six drams, Pearls prepared, two drams, Leaf-Gold a dram, Musk a scruple, make it up according to art.
Culpeper : Questionless this is a great cordial, and a mighty strengthener of the heart, and vital spirits, a restorer of such as are in consumptions, a resister of pestilences and poison, a relief to languishing nature, it is given with good success in fevers, but give not too much of it at a time, lest it prove too hot for the body, and too heavy for the purse. You may mix ten grains of it with other convenient cordials to children, twenty or thirty to men.
Electuarium e Sassaphras
College : Take of Sassafras two ounces, common Water three pounds, boil it to the consumption of the third part, adding, towards the end, Cinnamon bruised half an ounce, strain it, and with two pounds of white sugar, boil it to the thickness of a Syrup, putting in, in powder, Cinnamon, a dram, Nutmegs, half a scruple, Musk three grains, Ambergris, two and thirty grains, ten leaves of Gold, Spirit of Vitriol four drops, and so make it into an electuary according to art.
Culpeper : It opens obstruction of the liver and spleen, helps cold rheums or defluxions from the head to the lungs, or teeth, or eyes, it is excellent in coughs, and other cold afflictions of the lungs and breast, it helps digestion, expels wind and the gravel of the kidneys, it provokes the menses, warms and dries up the moisture of the womb, which is many times the cause of barrenness, and is generally a helper of all diseases coming of cold, raw thin humours, you may take half a dram at a time in the morning.
Electuarium de Baccis Lauri
Or Electuary of Bay-berries
College : Take of the leaves of dried Rue ten drams, the seeds of Ammi, Cummin, Lovage, Origanum, Nigella, Caraway, Carrots, Parsley, bitter Almonds, Pepper black and long, wild Mints, Calamus Aromaticus, Bay-berries, Castorium of each two drams, Sagapenum half an ounce, Opopanax three drams, clarified Honey a pound and an half, the things to be beaten; being beaten, and the Gums dissolved in Wine, make it into an electuary according to art.
Culpeper : It is exceeding good either in the cholic or Iliac passion, or any other disease of the bowels coming of cold or wind, it generally eases pains in the bowels. You may give a dram in the morning fasting, or half an ounce in a clyster, according as the disease is.
Diacapparit
College : Take of Capers four ounces, Agrimony Roots, Nigella seeds, Squils, Asarabacca, Centaury, black Pepper, Smallage, Thyme of each an ounce, Honey three times their weight, make it into an electuary according to art.
Culpeper : They say it helps infirmities of the spleen, and indeed the name seems to promise so much, it may be good for cold bodies, if they have strength of nature in them.
Diacinnamomum
College : Take of Cinnamon fifteen drams, Cassia Lignea, Elecampane roots, of each half an ounce, Galanga, seven drams, Cloves, long Pepper, both sorts of Cardamoms, Ginger, Mace, Nutmegs, Wood of Aloes, of each three drams, Saffron, one dram, Sugar five drams, Musk two scruples, adding according to the prescript of the Physician, and by adding three pounds eight ounces of clarified Honey, boil it and make it into an electuary according to art.
Culpeper : Diacinnamomum, or in plain English, A composition of Cinnamon, heats the stomach, causes digestion, provokes the menses, strengthens the stomach and other parts that distribute the nourishment of the body, a dram of it taken in the morning fasting, is good for ancient people and cold bodies, such as are subject to dropsies and diseases of flegm, or wind, for it comforts and strengthens nature much. If you take it to help digestion, take it an hour before meat, do so in all things of like quality.
Diacorallion
College : Take of Coral white and red, Bole-amoniac, Dragon's-blood, of each one dram, Pearls half a dram, Wood of Aloes, red Roses, Gum Tragacanth, Cinnamon, of each two scruples, Sanders white and red, of each one scruple, with four times its weight in sugar dissolved in small Cinnamon Water, make it into an electuary, according to art.
Culpeper : It comforts and strengthens the heart exceedingly, and restores such as are in consumptions, it is cooling, therefore good in hectic fevers, very binding, and therefore stops fluxes, neither do I know a better medicine in all the dispensatory for such as have a consumption accompanied with looseness. It stops the menses and Fluor Albus. Take but a dram at a time every morning, because of its binding quality, except you have a looseness, for then you may take so much two or three times a day.
Diacorum
College : Take of the roots of Cicers, Acorus, or Calamus Aromaticus, Pine-nuts, of each a pound and a half, let the Cicers roots, being cleansed, cut, boiled, and pulped, be added to ten pounds of clarified honey, and boiled, (stirring it) to its just thickness, then being removed from the fire, add the Acorus roots beaten, the Pine-nuts cut, and these following in powder. Take of black Pepper an ounce, long Pepper, Cloves, Ginger, Mace, of each half an ounce, Nutmegs, Galanga, Cardamons, of each three drams, mix them with the roots and Honey into an electuary according to art.
Culpeper : The electuary provokes lust, heats the brain, strengthens the nerves, quickens the senses, causes an acute wit, eases pains in the head, helps the falling-sickness and convulsions, coughs, catarrhs, and all diseases proceeding from coldness of the brain. Half a dram is enough to take at one time, because of its heat.
Peony is an herb of the sun, the roots of it cure the falling-sickness.
Diacydonium simple
College : Take of the flesh of Quinces cut and boiled in fair water to a thickness, eight pounds, white sugar six pounds, boil it to its just thickness.
Diacydonium with Species
College : Take of the juice of Quinces, Sugar, of each two pounds, white Wine Vinegar half a pound, added at the end of the decoction, it being gently boiled, and the scum taken away, add Ginger two ounces, white Pepper ten drams and two scruples, bruise them grossly, and boil it again to the thickness of Honey.
Diacydonium compound, Magisterial
College : Take of white Sugar six pounds, Spring Water four pounds, clarify them well with the white of an egg, scumming them, then take of ripe Quinces cleansed from the rind and seeds, and cut in four quarters, eight pounds, boil them in the foregoing Syrup till they be tender, then strain the Syrup through a linen cloth, vocata Anglice, Boulter; boil them again to a jelly, adding four ounces of white wine Vinegar towards the end; remove it from the fire, and whilst it is warm put in these following species in powder, Ginger an ounce, white Pepper, Cinnamon, Nutmegs, of each two drams, keep it for use.
Culpeper : The virtues of all these three are, they comfort the stomach, help digestion, stays vomiting, belchings, &c. stop fluxes and the menses. They are all harmless, you may take the quantity of a nutmeg of them at a time, before meat to help digestion and fluxes, after meat to stay vomiting, in the morning for the rest.
Confectio de Hyacintho
College : Take of Jacinth, red Coral, Bole-amoniac, Earth of Lemnos, of each half an ounce, the berries of Chermes, the Roots of Tormentil and Dittany, the seeds of Citrons, Sorrel, and Purslain, Saffron, Myrrh, red Roses exungulated, all the sorts of Sanders, bone of a Stag's heart, Hart's-horn, Ivory prepared, of each four scruples, Samphire, Emerald, Topaz, Pearls, raw Silk, leaves of Gold and Silver, of each two scruples, Camphire, Musk, Ambergris, of each five grains, with Syrup of Lemons make it into a confection according to art.
Culpeper : It is a great cordial and cool, exceeding good in acute fevers and pestilences, it mightily strengthens and cherishes the heart. Never above half a dram is given at a time.
Antidotum Hæmagogum
College : Take of Lupines husked two drams, black Pepper five scruples and six grains, Liquorice four scruples, long Birthwort, Mugwort, Cassia Lignea, Macedonian Parsley seed, Pellitory of Spain, Rue seed, Spikenard, Myrrh, Pennyroyal, of each two scruples and fourteen grains, the seeds of Smallage, Savin, of each two scruples and thirteen grains, Centaury the greater, Cretish Carrots, Nigella, Caraway, Annis, Cloves, Alum, of each two scruples, Bay leaves one scruple, one half scruple, and three grains, Schænanth one scruple and thirteen grains, Asarabacca, Calamus Aromaticus, Amomum, Centaury the less, the seed of Orrach, Peony, Fennel, of each one scruple and six grains, wood of Aloes, a scruple and fourteen grains, Cypress, Elecampane, Ginger, Cappar roots, Cummin, Orobus, of each one scruple, all of them being beaten into very fine powder, let them be made into an electuary according to art, with four times their weight in sugar, let it stand one month before you use it.
Culpeper : It provokes the menses, brings away both birth and after-birth, the dead child, purges such as are not sufficiently purged after travail, it provokes urine, breaks the stone in the bladder, helps the stranguary, disury, iskury, &c. helps indigestion, the cholic, opens any stoppings in the body, it heats the stomach, purges the liver and spleen, consumes wind, stays vomiting, but let it not be taken by pregnant women, nor such people as have the hemorrhoids. The dose is from one dram to two drams.
Diasatyrion
College : Take of Satyrion roots three ounces, Dates, bitter Almonds, Indian Nuts, Pine nuts, Festick nuts, green Ginger, Eringo roots preserved, of each one ounce, Ginger, Cloves, Galanga, Pepper long and black, of each three drams, Ambergris one scruple, Musk two scruples, Penins four ounces, Cinnamon, Saffron, of each half an ounce, Malaga Wine three ounces, Nutmegs, Mace, Grains of Paradise, of each two drams, Ash-tree keys, the belly and loins of Scinks, Borax, Benjamin, of each three drams, wood of Aloes, Cardamoms, of each two drams, the seeds of Nettles and Onions, the roots of Avens, of each a dram and a half, with two pounds and an half of Syrup of green Ginger, make them into an electuary according to art.
Electuarium Diaspermaton
College : Take of the four greater and lesser cold seeds, the seeds of Asparagus, Burnet, Bazil, Parsley, Winter Cherries, of each two drams, Gromwell, Juice of Liquorice, of each three drams, Cinnamon, Mace, of each one dram, with eight times their weight in white Sugar dissolved in Marsh-mallows water, make it into an electuary according to art.
Culpeper : It breaks the stone, and provokes urine. Men may take half an ounce at a time, and children half so much, in water of any herb or roots, &c. (or decoction of them) that break the stone.
Micleta
College : Take of the barks of all the Myrobalans torrified, of each two drams and an half, the seeds of Water-cresses, Cummin, Annis, Fennel, Ammi, Caraway, of each a dram and an half, bruise the seeds and sprinkle them with sharp white wine Vinegar, then beat them into powder, and add the Mirobalans, and these things that follow, Spodium, Balaustines, Sumach, Mastich, Gum Arabic, of each one dram and fifteen grains, mix them together, and with ten ounces of Syrup of Myrtles, make them into an electuary according to art.
Culpeper : It gently eases the bowels of the wind cholic, wringing of the bowels, infirmities of the spleen, it stops fluxes, the hemorrhoids, as also the menses.
Electuarium Pectorale
Or a Pectoral Electuary
College : Take of the juice of Liquorice, sweet Almonds, Hazel-Nuts, of each half an ounce, Pine-nuts an ounce, Hysop, Maiden-hair, Orris, Nettle seeds, round Birthwort, of each a dram and an half, black Pepper, the seeds of Water-cresses, the roots of Elecampane, of each half a dram, Honey fourteen ounces, make them into an electuary according to art.
Culpeper : It strengthens the stomach and lungs, and helps the vices thereof. Take it with a Liquorice stick.
Theriaca Diatessaron
College : Take of Gentain, Bay-berries, Myrrh, round Birth-wort, of each two ounces, Honey two pounds, make them into an electuary according to art.
Culpeper : This is a gallant electuary. It wonderfully helps cold infirmities of the brain, as convulsions, falling-sickness, dead palsies, shaking palsies, &c. As also the stomach, as pains there, wind, want of digestion, as also stoppings of the liver, dropsies, it resists the pestilence and poison, and helps the bitings of venomous beasts. The dose is from half a dram to two drams, according to the age and strength of the patient, as also the strength of the diseases: you may take it either in the morning, or when urgent occasion calls for it.
Diascordium
College : Take of Cinnamon, Cassia Lignea, of each half an ounce, Scordium, an ounce, Dittany of Crete, Tormentil, Bistort, Galbanum, Gum Arabic, of each half an ounce, Opium one dram and an half, Sorrel seeds one dram and a half, Gentain half an ounce, Bole-amoniac an ounce and an half, Earth of Lemnos half an ounce, long Pepper, Ginger, of each two drams, clarified Honey two pounds and an half, Sugar of Roses one pound, Canary Wine ten ounces, make them into an electuary according to art.
Culpeper : It is a well composed electuary, something appropriated to the nature of women, for it provokes the menses, hastens labour, helps their usual sickness at the time of their lying in; I know nothing better, it stops fluxes, mightily strengthens the heart and stomach, neither is so hot but it may safely be given to weak people, and besides provokes sleep. It may safely be given to young children ten grains at a time, ancient people may take a dram or more. It is given as an excellent cordial in such fevers as are accompanied with want of sleep.
Mithridate
College : Take of Myrrh, Saffron, Agarick, Ginger, Cinnamon, Spikenard, Frankincense, Treacle, Mustard seeds, of each ten drams, the seeds of Hartwort, Opobalsamum, or oil of Nutmegs by expression, Schenanth, Stœchas, Costus, Galbanum, Turpentine, long Pepper, Castorium, juice of Hypocistis, Styrax, Calamitis, Opopanax, Indian leaf, or for want of it Mace, of each an ounce, Cassia Lignea, Poley Mountain, white Pepper, Scordium, the seeds of Carrots of Crete, Carpobalsamum or Cubebs, Troch, Cypheos, Bdelium, of each seven drams, Celtic Spikenard, Gum Arabic, Macedonian Parsley seeds, Opium, Cardamoms the less, Fennel seed, Gentian, red Rose leaves, Dittany of Crete, of each five drams, Annis seeds, Asarabacca, Orris Acorus, the greater Valerian, Sagapen, of each three drams, Meum Acacia, the bellies of Scinks, the tops of St. John's Wort, of each two drams and an half, Malaga Wine, so much as is sufficient to dissolve the juices and gums, clarified Honey the treble weight of all, the wine excepted, make them into an electuary according to art.
Culpeper : It is good against poison and such as have done themselves wrong by taking filthy medicines, it provokes sweat, it helps continual waterings of the stomach, ulcers in the body, consumptions, weakness of the limbs, rids the body of cold humours, and diseases coming of cold, it remedies cold infirmities of the brain, and stopping of the passage of the senses, (viz. hearing, seeing, smelling, &c.) by cold, it expels wind, helps the cholic, provokes appetite to one's victuals, it helps ulcers in the bladder, if Galen say true, as also difficulty of urine, it casts out the dead child, and helps such women as cannot conceive by reason of cold, it is an admirable remedy for melancholy, and all diseases of the body coming through cold, it would fill a whole sheet of paper to reckon them all up particularly. You may take a scruple or half a dram in the morning, and follow your business, two drams will make you sweat, yea one dram if your body be weak, for then two drams may be dangerous because of its heat.
Phylonium Persicum
College : Take of white Pepper, the seeds of white Henbane, of each two drams, Opium, Earth of Lemnos, of each ten drams, Lap, Hematitus, Saffron, of each five drams, Castorium, Indian Spikenard, Euphorbium prepared, Pellitory of Spain, Pearls, Amber, Zedoary, Elecampane, Troch, Ramach, of each a dram, Camphire a scruple, with their treble weight in Honey of Roses, make it into an electuary according to art.
Culpeper : It stops blood flowing from any part of the body, the immoderate flowing of the menses, the hemorrhoids in men, spitting of blood, bloody fluxes, and is profitable for such women as are subject to miscarry. See the next receipt.
Phylonium Romanum
College : Take of white Pepper, white Henbane seeds, of each five drams, Opium two drams and an half, Cassia Lignea a dram and an half, the seeds of Smallage a dram, Parsley of Macedonia, Fennel, Carrots of Crete, of each two scruples and five grains, Saffron a scruple and an half, Indian Spikenard, Pellitory of Spain, Zedoary fifteen grains, Cinnamon a dram and an half, Euphorbium prepared, Myrtle Castorium, of each a dram with their treble weight in clarified Honey, make it into an electuary.
Electuarium de Ovo
Or electuary of Eggs
College : Take a Hen's Egg new laid, and the white being taken out by a small hole, fill up the void place with Saffron, leaving the yolk in, then the hole being stopped, roast it in ashes till the shell begin to look black, take diligent heed the Saffron burn not, for then is the whole medicine spoiled, then the matter being taken out dry, if so that it may be beaten into powder and add to it as much powder of white Mustard seed as it weighs. Then take the roots of white Dittany and Tormentil, of each two drams, Myrrh, Hart's-horn, Petasitis roots, of each one dram, the roots of Angelica and Burnet, Juniper Berries, Zedoary, Camphire of each half an ounce, mix them all together in a mortar, then add Venice Treacle the weight of them all, stir them about with a pestle three hours together, putting in so much Syrup of Lemons, as is enough to make it into an electuary according to art.
Culpeper : A dram of it given at a time, is as great a help in a pestilential fever as a man shall usually read of in a Galenist. It provokes sweat, and then you shall be taught how to use yourself. If years do not permit, give not so much.
Theriaca Andromachi
Or Venice Treacle
College : Take of Troches of Squils forty-eight drams, Troches of Vipers, long Pepper, Opium of Thebes, Magma, Hedycroi dried, of each twenty-four drams, red Roses exungulated, Orris, Illirick, juice of Liquorice, the seeds of sweet Navew, Scordium, Opobalsamum, Cinnamon, Agerick, of each twelve drams, Myrrh, Costus, or Zedoary, Saffron, Cassia Lignea, Indian Spikenard, Schenanth, Pepper white and black, Olibanum, Dittany of Crete, Rhapontic, Stœchas, Horehound, Macedonian Parsley seed, Calaminth, Cypress, Turpentine, the roots of Cinquefoyl and Ginger, of each six drams, Poley Mountain, Chamepitis, Celtic Spikenard, Amomus, Styrax Calamitis, the roots of Meum, the tops of Germander, the roots of Rhapontic Earth of Lemnos, Indian Leaf, Chalcitis burnt, or instead thereof Roman Vitriol burnt, Gentian roots, Gum Arabic, the juice of Hypositis, Carpobalsamum or Nutmegs, or Cubebs, the seeds of Annis, Cardamoms, Fennel, Hartwort, Acacia, or instead thereof the juice of Sloes made thick, the seeds of Treacle Mustard, and Ammi, the tops of St. John's Wort, Sagapen, of each four drams, Castorium, the roots of long Birthwort, Bitumen, Judaicum, Carrot seed, Opopanax, Centaury the less, Galbanum, of each two drams, Canary Wine enough to dissolve what is to be dissolved, Honey the treble weight of the dry species, make them into an Electuary according to art.
Culpeper : It resists poison, and the bitings of venomous beasts, inveterate headaches, vertigo, deafness, the falling-sickness, astonishment, apoplexies, dulness of sight, want of voice, asthmaes, old and new coughs, such as spit or vomit blood, such as can hardly spit or breathe, coldness of the stomach, wind, the cholic, and illiac passion, the yellow jaundice, hardness of the spleen, stone in the reins and bladder, difficulty of urine, ulcers in the bladder, fevers, dropsies, leprosies, it provokes the menses, brings forth birth and after-birth, helps pains in the joints, it helps not only the body, but also the mind, as vain fears, melancholy, &c. and is a good remedy in pestilential fevers. You may take half a dram and go about your business, and it will do you good if you have occasion to go in ill airs, or in pestilent times, if you shall sweat under it, as your best way is, if your body be not in health, then take one dram, or between one and two, or less than one, according as age and strength is, if you cannot take this or any other sweating medicine by itself, mix it with a little Carduus or Dragon's water, or Angelica water, which in my opinion is the best of the three.
Theriacca Londinensis
Or London Treacle
College : Take of Hart's-horn two ounces, the seeds of Citrons, Sorrel, Peony, Bazil, of each one ounce, Scordium, Coralliana, of each six drams, the roots of Angelica, Tormentil, Peony, the leaves of Dittany, Bay-berries, Juniper-berries, of each half an ounce, the flowers of Rosemary, Marigolds, Clove Gilliflowers, the tops of Saint John's Wort, Nutmegs, Saffron, of each three drams, the Roots of Gentian, Zedoary, Ginger, Mace, Myrrh, the leaves of Scabious, Devil's-bit, Carduus, of each two drams, Cloves, Opium, of each a dram, Malaga Wine as much as is sufficient, with their treble weight in Honey, mix them according to art.
Culpeper : The receipt is a pretty cordial, resists the pestilence, and is a good antidote in pestilential times, it resists poison, strengthens cold stomachs, helps digestion, crudities of the stomach. A man may safely take two drams of it in a morning, and let him fear no harm.
Diacrocuma
College : Take of Saffron, Asarabacca roots, the seeds of Parsley, Carrots, Annis, Smallage, of each half an ounce, Rhubarb, the roots of Meum, Indian Spikenard, of each six drams, Cassia Lignea, Costus, Myrrh, Schenanth, Cubebs, Madder roots, the juices of Maudlin, and Wormwood made thick, Opobalsamum, or oil of Nutmegs, of each two drams, Cinnamon, Calamus Aromaticus, of each a dram and an half, Scordium, Cetrach, juice of Liquorice, of each two drams and an half, Tragacanth a dram, with eight times their weight in white sugar, dissolved in Endive water, and clarified, make it into an electuary, according to art.
Culpeper : It is exceeding good against cold diseases of the stomach, liver, or spleen, corruption of humours and putrefaction of meat in the stomach, ill favoured color of the body, dropsies, cold faults in the reins and bladder, provokes urine. Take a dram in the morning.

PURGING ELECTUARIES
Benedicta Laxativa
College : Take of choice Turbith ten drams, Diacridium, bark of Spurge Roots prepared, Hermodactils, Red Roses, of each five drams, Cloves, Spikenard, Ginger, Saffron, long Pepper, Amomus, or for want of it Calamus Aromaticus, Cardamoms the less, the seeds of Smallage, Parsley, Fennel, Asparagus, Bruscus, Saxifrage, Gromwell, Caraway, sal. gem. Galanga, Mace, of each a dram, with their treble weight of clarified Honey: make them into an electuary according to art. Also you may keep the species itself in your shops.

Culpeper : It purges flegm, chiefly from the joints, also it purges the reins and bladder.
Caryocostinum
College : Take of Cloves, Costus, or Zedoary, Ginger, Cummin, of each two drams, Hermodactils, Diacridium, of each half an ounce: with their double weight of Honey clarified in white wine, make them into an electuary according to art.

Culpeper : Authors say it purges hot rheums, and takes away inflammations in wounds. I assure you the electuary works violently, and may safely be given in clysters, and so you may give two or three drams at a time, if the patient be strong. For taken otherwise it would kill a horse cum privilegio.
Cassia Extracta pro Clysteribus
Or Cassia extracted for Clysters
College : Take of the leaves of Violets, Mallows, Beets, Mercury, Pellitory of the Wall, Violet flowers, of each a handful, boil them in a sufficient quantity of water, the benefit of which let the Cassia be extracted, and the canes washed; then take of this Cassia so drawn, and boil it to its consistence, a pound, Sugar a pound and a half, boil them to the form of an electuary according to art.

Culpeper : You may take it in white Wine; it is good for gentle bodies, for if your body be hard to work upon, perhaps it will not work at all; it purges the reins gallantly, and cools them, thereby preventing the stone, and other diseases caused by their heat.
Electuarium Amarum Magistrale majus
Or the greater bitter Electuary
College : Take of Agarick, Turbith, Species Hiera Simplex, Rhubarb, of each one dram, choice Aloes unwashed two drams, Ginger, Crystal of Tartar, of each two scruples, Orris, Florentine, sweet Fennel seeds, of each a scruple, Syrup of Roses solutive as much as is sufficient to make it into an electuary according to art.
Electuarium Amarum minus
Or the lesser bitter Electuary
College : Take of Epithimum half an ounce, the roots of Angelica three drams, of Gentian, Zedoary, Acorus, of each two drams, Cinnamon one dram and an half, Cloves, Mace, Nutmegs, Saffron, of each one dram, Aloes six ounces, with Syrup of Fumitory, Scabious and Sugar so much as is sufficient to make it into a soft electuary.

Culpeper : Both these purge choler, the former flegm, and this melancholy, the former works strongest, and this strengthens most, and is good for such whose brains are annoyed. You may take half an ounce of the former, if your body be any thing strong, in white Wine, if very strong an ounce, a reasonable body may take an ounce of the latter, the weak less. I would not have the unskilful too busy about purges without advice of a physician.
Diacassia with Manna
College : Take of Damask Prunes two ounces, Violet flowers a handful and an half, Spring Water a pound and an half, boil it according to art till half be consumed, strain it, and dissolve in the decoction six ounces of Cassia newly drawn, sugar of Violets, Syrup of Violets, of each four ounces, Pulp of Tamarinds an ounce, Sugar Candy an ounce and an half, Manna two ounces, mix them, and make them into an electuary according to art.

Culpeper : It is a fine cool purge for such as are bound in the body, for it works gently, and without trouble, it purges choler, and may safely be given in fevers coming of choler: but in such cases, if the body be much bound, the best way is first to administer a clyster, and then the next morning an ounce of this will cool the body, and keep it in due temper.
Cassia extracta sine soliis Senæ
Or Cassia extracted without the leaves of Sena
College : Take twelve Prunes, Violet flowers a handful, French Barley, the seed of Annis, and bastard Saffron, Polypodium of the Oak, of each five drams, Maiden-hair, Thyme, Epithimum, of each half a handful, Raisins of the Sun stoned half an ounce, sweet Fennel seeds two drams, the seeds of Purslain, and Mallows, of each three drams, Liquorice half an ounce, boil them in a sufficient quantity of water, strain them and dissolve in the decoction, pulp of Cassia two pounds, of Tamarinds an ounce, Cinnamon three drams, Sugar a pound, boil it into the form of an electuary.
Cassia extracta cum soliis Senæ
Or Cassia extracted with the leaves of Sena
College : Take of the former receipt two pounds, Sena in powder two ounces, mix them according to art.

Culpeper : This is also a fine cool gentle purge, cleansing the bowels of choler and melancholy without any griping, very fit for feverish bodies, and yet the former is gentler than this. They both cleanse and cool the reins; a reasonable body may take an ounce and an half of the former, and an ounce of the latter in white Wine, if they keep the house, or their bodies be oppressed with melancholy, let them take half the quantity in four ounces of decoction of Epithimum.
Diacarthamum
College : Take of Diatragacanthum frigidum, half an ounce, pulp of preserved Quinces an ounce, the inside of the seeds of Bastard Saffron half an ounce, Ginger two drams, Diacrydium beaten by itself three drams, Turbith, six drams, Manna two ounces, Honey of Roses solutive, Sugar Candy, of each an ounce, Hermodactils half an ounce, Sugar ten ounces and an half, make of them a liquid electuary according to art.
Diaphœnicon
College : Take of the pulp of Dates boiled in Hydromel, Penids, of each half a pound, sweet Almonds blanched, three ounces and an half, to all of them being bruised and mixed, add clarified Honey two pounds, boil them a little, and then strew in Ginger, long Pepper, Mace, Cinnamon, Rue leaves, the seeds of Fennel and Carrots, of each two drams, Turbith four ounces, Diacridium an ounce and an half, make of them an electuary according to art.

Culpeper : I cannot believe this is so profitable in fevers taken downwards as authors say, for it is a very violent purge.
Diaprunum Lenitive
College : Take one hundred Damask Prunes, boil them in water till they be soft, then pulp them, and in the liquor they were boiled in, boil gently one of Violet flowers, strain it, and with two pounds of sugar boil it to a Syrup, then add half a pound of the aforesaid pulp, the pulp of Cassia, and Tamarinds, of each one ounce, then mix with it these powders following: Sanders white and red, Spodium, Rhubarb, of each three drams, red Roses, Violets, the seeds of Purslain, Succory, Barberries, Gum Tragacanth, Liquorice, Cinnamon, of each two drams, the four greater cold seeds, of each one dram, make it into an electuary according to art.

Culpeper : It may safely, and is with good success, given in acute, burning, and all other fevers, for it cools much, and loosens the body gently: it is good in agues, hectic fevers, and Mirasmos. You may take an ounce of it at a time, at night when you go to bed, three hours after a light supper, neither need you keep your chamber next day, unless the weather be very cold, or your body very tender.
Diaprunum solutive
College : Take of Diaprunum Lenitive whilst it is warm, four pounds, Scammony prepared two ounce and five drams, mix them into an electuary according to art. Seeing the dose of Scammony is increased according to the author in this medicine, you may use a less weight of Scammony if you please.
Catholicon
College : Take of the pulp of Cassia and Tamarinds, the leaves of Sena, of each two ounces, Polypodium, Violets, Rhubarb, of each one ounce, Annis seeds, Penids, Sugar Candy, Liquorice, the seeds of Gourds, Citruls, Cucumbers, Melons, of each two drams, the things to be bruised being bruised, take of fresh Polypodium three ounces, sweet Fennel seeds six drams, boil them in four pounds of water till the third part be consumed, strain it, and with two pounds of sugar, boil the decoction to the thickness of a Syrup; then with the pulps and powder make it into an electuary according to art.

Culpeper : It is a fine cooling purge for any part of the body, and very gentle, it may be given (an ounce, or half an ounce at a time, according to the strength of the patient) in acute, or peracute diseases, for it gently loosens the belly, and adds strength, it helps infirmities of the liver and spleen, gouts of all sorts, quotidian, tertian, and quartan agues, as also head-aches. It is usually given in clysters. If you like to take it inwardly, you may take an ounce at night going to bed; in the morning drink a draught of hot posset drink and go about your business.
Electuarium de Citro Solutivum
Or Electuary of Citrons, solutive
College : Take of Citron pills preserved, conserves of the flowers of Violets and Bugloss, Diatragacanthum frigidum, Diacrydium, of each half an ounce, Turbith five drams, Ginger half a dram, Sena six drams, sweet Fennel seeds one dram, white sugar dissolved in Rose-water, and boiled according to art, ten ounces, make a solid electuary according to art.

Culpeper : Here are some things very cordial, others purge violently, both put together, make a composition no way pleasing to me; therefore I account it a pretty receipt, good for nothing.
Electuarium Elescoph
College : Take of Diacrydium, Turbith, of each six drams, Cloves, Cinnamon, Ginger, Myrobalans, Emblicks, Nutmegs, Polypodium, of each two drams and an half, Sugar six ounces, clarified Honey ten ounces, make it into an electuary according to art.

Culpeper : It purges choler and flegm, and wind from all parts of the body, helps pains of the joints and sides, the cholic, it cleanses the reins and bladder, yet I advise you not to take too much of it at a time, for it works pretty violently, let half an ounce be the most, for such whose bodies are strong, always remembering that you had better ten times take too little, than once too much; you may take it in white wine, and keep yourself warm. If you would have my opinion of it, I do not like it.
Confectio Hamech
College : Take of the bark of Citron, Myrobalans two ounces, Myrobalans, Chebs and blacks, Violets, Colocynthis, Polypodium of the Oak, of each one ounce and an half, Wormwood, Thyme, of each half an ounce, the seeds of Annis, and Fennel, the flowers of red Roses of each three drams, let all of them being bruised, be infused one day in six pounds of Whey, then boiled till half be consumed, rubbed with your hands and pressed out: to the decoction add juice of Fumitory, pulp of Prunes, and Raisins of the Sun, of each half a pound, white Sugar, clarified Honey, of each one pound, boil it to the thickness of Honey, strewing in towards the end. Agarick trochiscated, Sena of each two ounces, Rhubarb one ounce and an half, Epithimum one ounce, Diacrydium six drams, Cinnamon half an ounce, Ginger two drams, the seeds of Fumitory and Annis, Spikenard, of each one dram, make it into an electuary according to art.

Culpeper : The receipt is chiefly appropriated as a purge for melancholy and salt flegm, and diseases thence arising, as scabs, itch, leprosies, cancers, infirmities of the skin, it purges adust humours, and is good against madness, melancholy, forgetfulness, vertigo. It purges very violently, and is not safe given alone. I would advise the unskilful not to meddle with it inwardly. You may give half an ounce of it in clysters, in melancholy diseases, which commonly have astringency a constant companion with them.
Electuarium Lenitivum
Or Lenitive Electuary
College : Take of Raisins of the Sun stoned, Polypodium of the Oak, Sena, of each two ounces, Mercury one handful and an half, Jujubes, Sebestens, of each twenty, Maidenhair, Violets, French Barley, of each one handful, Damask Prunes stoned, Tamarinds of each six drams, Liquorice half an ounce, boil them in ten pounds of water till two parts of the three be consumed; strain it, and dissolve in the decoction, pulp of Cassia, Tamarinds, and fresh Prunes, Sugar of Violets, of each six ounces, Sugar two pounds, at last add powder of Sena leaves, one ounce and an half, Annis seeds in powder, two drams to each pound of electuary, and so bring it into the form of an electuary according to art.

Culpeper : It gently opens and molifies the bowels, brings forth choler, flegm, and melancholy, and that without trouble, it is cooling, and therefore is profitable in pleurisies, and for wounded people. A man of reasonable strength may take an ounce of it going to bed, which will work next morning.
Electuarium Passulatum
College : Take of fresh Polypodium roots three ounces, fresh Marsh-mallow roots, Sena, of each two ounces, Annis seeds two drams, steep them in a glazed vessel, in a sufficient quantity of spring water, boil them according to art; strain it and with pulp of Raisins of the Sun half a pound, white Sugar, Manna, of each four ounces, boil it to the thickness of a Cydoniate, and renew it four times a year.

Culpeper : It gently purges both choler and melancholy, cleanses the reins and bladder, and therefore is good for the stone and gravel in the kidneys.
Electuarium e succo Rosarum
Or Electuary of the Juice of Roses
College : Take of Sugar, the juice of red Roses clarified, of each a pound and four ounces, the three sorts of Sanders of each six drams, Spodium three drams, Diacydonium twelve drams, Camphire a scruple, let the juice be boiled with the sugar to its just thickness, then add the rest in powder, and so make it into an electuary according to art.

Culpeper : It purges choler, and is good in tertian agues, and diseases of the joints, it purges violently, therefore let it be warily given.
Hiera Picra simple
College : Take of Cinnamon, Xylobalsamum, or wood of Aloes, the roots of Asarabacca, Spikenard, Mastich, Saffron, of each six drams, Aloes not washed twelve ounces and an half, clarified Honey four pounds and three ounces, mix them into an electuary according to art. Also you may keep the species by itself in your shops.

Culpeper : It is an excellent remedy for vicious juices which lie furring the tunicle of the stomach, and such idle fancies and symptoms which the brain suffers thereby, whereby some think they see, others that they hear strange things, especially when they are in bed, and between sleeping and waking; besides this, it very gently purges the belly, and helps such women as are not sufficiently purged after their travail.
Hiera with Agarick
College : Take of species Hiera, simple without Aloes, Agarick trochiscated, of each half an ounce, Aloes not washed one ounce, clarified Honey six ounces, mix it, and make it into an electuary according to art.

Culpeper : Look but to the virtues of Agarick and add them to the virtues of the former receipt, so is the business done without any further trouble.
Hiera Logadii
College : Take of Coloquintida, Polypodium, of each two drams, Euphorbium, Poley mountain, the seeds of Spurge, of each one dram and an half, and six grains, Wormwood, Myrrh, of each one dram and twelve grains, Centaury the less, Agarick, Gum Ammoniacum, Indian leaf or Mace, Spikenard, Squills prepared, Diacrydium of each one dram, Aloes, Thyme Hermander, Cassia Lignea, Bdellum, Horehound, of each one scruple and fourteen grains, Cinnamon, Oppopanax, Castorium, long Birthwort, the three sorts of Pepper, Sagapen, Saffron, Parsley of each two drams, Hellebore black and white, of each six grains, clarified Honey a pound and a half, mix them, and make of them an electuary according to art. Let the species be kept dry in your shops.

Culpeper : It takes away by the roots daily evils coming of melancholy, falling-sickness, vertigo, convulsions, megrim, leprosies, and many other infirmities; for my part I should be loth to take it inwardly unless upon desperate occasions, or in clysters. It may well take away diseases by the roots, if it takes away life and all.
Hiera Diacolocynthidos
College : Take of Colocynthis, Agarick, Germander, white Horehound, Stœchas, of each ten drams, Opopanax, Sagapen, Parsley seeds, round Birthwort roots, white Pepper of each five drams, Spikenard, Cinnamon, Myrrh, Indian leaf or Mace, Saffron, of each four drams, bruise the Gums in a mortar, sift the rest, and with three pounds of clarified honey, three ounces, and five drams, make it into an electuary according to art.

Culpeper : It helps the falling-sickness, madness, and the pain in the head called Kephalalgia, pains in the breast and stomach whether they come by sickness or bruises, pains in the loins or back-bone, hardness of womens breasts, putrefaction of meat in the stomach, and sour belchings. It is but used seldom and therefore hard to be gotten.
Triphera the greater
College : Take of Myrobalans, Chebs, Bellericks, Inds and Emblicks, Nutmegs, of each five drams, Water-cress seeds, Asarabacca roots, Persian Origanum, or else Dittany of Crete, black Pepper, Olibanum, Ammi, Ginger, Tamarisk, Indian Nard, Squinanth, Cypress roots of each half an ounce, filings of steel prepared with Vinegar twenty drams, let the Myrobalans be roasted with fresh butter, let the rest, being powdered, be sprinkled with oil of sweet Almonds, then add Musk one dram, and with their treble weight in Honey, make it into an electuary according to art.
Culpeper : It helps the immoderate flowing of the menses in women, and the hæmorrhoids in men, it helps weakness of the stomach, and restores color lost, it frees the body from crude humours, and strengthens the bladder, helps melancholy, and rectifies the distempers of the spleen. You may take a dram in the morning, or two if your body be any thing strong.
Triphera solutive
College : Take of Diacrydium, ten drams, Turbith, an ounce and an half, Cardamoms the less, Cloves, Cinnamon, Honey, of each three drams, yellow Sanders, Liquorice, sweet Fennel seeds, of each half an ounce, Acorns, Schœnanth, of each a dram, red Roses, Citron pills preserved, of each three drams, Violets two drams, Penids four ounces, white Sugar half a pound, Honey clarified in juice of Apples one pound, make an electuary according to art.

Culpeper : The Diacrydium and Turbith, are a couple of untoward purges, the rest are all cordials.
Athanasia Mithridatis. Galen
College : Take of Cinnamon, Cassia, Schœnanth, of each an ounce and an half, Saffron, Myrrh, of each one ounce, Costus, Spignel, (Meum,) Acorus, (Water-flag perhaps they mean. See the root in the Catalogue of Simples,) Agarick, Scordium, Carrots, Parsley, of each half an ounce, white Pepper eleven grains, Honey so much as is sufficient to make it into an electuary according to art.

Culpeper : It prevails against poison, and the bitings of venomous beasts, and helps such whose meat putrifies in their stomach, stays vomiting of blood, helps old coughs, and cold diseases in the liver, spleen, bladder, and matrix. The dose is half a dram.
Electuarium scoriaferri. Rhasis
College : Take of the flakes of Iron infused in Vinegar seven days and dried, three drams, Indian Spikenard, Schœnanth, Cypress, Ginger, Pepper, Bishop's weed, Frankincense, of each half an ounce, Myrobalans, Indian Bellericks, and Emblicks, Honey boiled with the decoction of Emblicks, sixteen ounces, mix them together, and make of them an electuary.

Culpeper : The medicine heats the spleen gently, purges melancholy, eases pains in the stomach and spleen, and strengthens digestion. People that are strong may take half an ounce in the morning fasting, and weak people three drams. It is a good remedy for pains and hardness of the spleen.
Confectio Humain. Mesua
College : Take of Eyebright two ounces, Fennel seeds five drams, Cloves, Cinnamon, Cubebs, long Pepper, Mace, of each one dram, beat them all into powder, and with clarified Honey one pound, in which boil juice of Fennel one ounce, juice of Celandine and Rue, of each half an ounce, and with the powders make it up into an electuary.

Culpeper : It is chiefly appropriated to the brain and heart, quickens the senses, especially the sight, and resists the pestilence. You may take half a dram if your body be hot, a dram if cold, in the morning fasting.
Diaireos Solomonis. Nich.
College : Take of Orris roots one ounce, Pennyroyal, Hyssop, Liquorice, of each six drams, Tragacanth, white Starch, bitter Almonds, Pine-nuts, Cinnamon, Ginger, Pepper, of each three drams, fat Figs, the pulp of Raisins of the Sun, and Dates, of each three drams and an half, Styrax, Calamitis two drams and an half, Sugar dissolved in Hyssop water, and clarified Honey, of each twice the weight of all the rest, make them into an electuary according to art.

Culpeper : The electuary is chiefly appropriated to the lungs, and helps cold infirmities of them, as asthmaes, coughs, difficulty of breathing, &c. You may take it with a Liquorice stick, or on the point of a knife, a little of it at a time, and often.
Diasaiyrion. Nich.
College : Take of the roots of Satyrion fresh and sound, garden Parsnips, Eringo, Pine-nuts, Indian Nuts, or, if Indian Nuts be wanting, take the double quantity of Pine-nuts, Fistic-nuts, of each one ounce and an half, Cloves, Ginger, the seeds of Annis, Rocket, Ash Keys, of each five drams, Cinnamon, the tails and loins of Scincus, the seeds of Bulbus Nettles, of each two drams and an half, Musk seven grains, of the best sugar dissolved in Malaga Wine, three pounds, make it into an electuary according to art. Culpeper : It helps weakness of the reins and bladder, and such as make water with difficulty, it provokes lust exceedingly, and speedily helps such as are impotent in the acts of Venus. You may take two drams or more at a time.
Matthiolus's great antidote against Poison and Pestilence
College : Take of Rhubarb, Rhapontic, Valerian roots, the roots of Acorus, or Calamus Aromaticus, Cypress, Cinquefoyl, Tormentil, round Birthwort, male Peony, Elecampane, Costus, Illirick, Orris, white Chamelion, or Avens, of each three drams, the Roots of Galanga, Masterwort, white Dictamni, Angelica, Yarrow, Fillipendula or Dropwort, Zedoary, Ginger, of each two drams, Rosemary, Gentian, Devil's-bit, of each two drams and an half, the seeds of Citrons, and Agnus Castus, the berries of Kermes, the seeds of Ash-tree, Sorrel, wild Parsnips, Navew, Nigella, Peony the male, Bazil, Hedge Mustard, (Irio) Treacle Mustard, Fennel, Bishop's-weed, of each two drams, the berries of Bay, Juniper, and Ivy, Sarsaparilla, (or for want of it the double weight of Cubebs,) Cubebs, of each one dram and an half, the leaves of Scordium, Germander, Chamepitys, Centaury the less, Stœchas, Celtic Spikenard, Calaminth, Rue, Mints, Betony, Vervain, Scabious, Carduus Benedictus, Bawm, of each one dram and an half, Dittany of Crete three drams, Marjoram, St. John's Wort, Schœnanth, Horehound, Goats Rue, Savin, Burnet, of each two drams, Figs, Walnuts, Fistic-nuts, of each three ounces, Emblicks, Myrobalans half an ounce, the flowers of Violets, Borrage, Bugloss, Roses, Lavender, Sage, Rosemary, of each four scruples, Saffron three drams, Cassia Lignea, ten drams, Cloves, Nutmegs, Mace, of each two drams and an half, black Pepper, long Pepper, all the three sorts of Sanders, wood of Aloes, of each one dram and an half, Hart's-horn half an ounce, Unicorn's-horn, or in its stead, Bezoar stone, one dram, bone in a Stag's heart, Ivory, Stag's pizzle, Castoreum, of each four scruples, Earth of Lemnos three drams, Opium one dram and an half, Orient Pearls, Emeralds, Jacinth, red Coral, of each one dram and an half, Camphire two drams, Gum Arabic, Mastich, Frankincense, Styrax, Turpentine, Sagapenum, Opopanax, Laserpitium, or Myrrh, of each two drams and an half, Musk, Ambergris, of each one dram, oil of Vitriol half an ounce, species cordiales temperatæ, Diamargariton, Diamoscu, Diambra, Electuarij de Gemmis, Troches of Camphire, of Squills, of each two drams and an half, Troches of Vipers two ounces, the juice of Sorrel, Sow Thistles, Scordium, Vipers Bugloss, Borrage, Bawm, of each half a pound, Hypocistis two drams, of the best Treacle and Mithridate, of each six ounces, old Wine three pounds, of the best Sugar, or choice Honey eight pounds six ounces. These being all chosen and prepared with diligence and art, let them be made into an electuary just as Treacle or Mithridate is.
Culpeper : The title shews you the scope of the author in compiling it. I believe it is excellent for those uses. The dose of this is from a scruple to four scruples, or a dram and an half. It provokes sweating abundantly, and in this or any other sweating medicine, order your body thus: Take it in bed, and cover yourself warm, in your sweating, drink posset-drink as hot as you can, if it be for a fever, boil Sorrel and red Sage in posset-drink, sweat an hour or two if your strength will bear it, then the chamber being kept very warm, shift yourself all but your head, about which (your cap which you sweat in being kept on) wrap a hot napkin, which will be a means to repel the vapours back. This I hold the best method for sweating in fevers and pestilences, in which this electuary is very good. I am very loth to leave out this medicine, which if it were stretched out, and cut in thongs, would reach round the world.
Requies. Nicholaus
College : Take of red Rose leaves, the whites being cut off, blue Violets, of each three drams, Opium of Thebes, dissolved in Wine, the seeds of white Henbane, Poppies white and black, the roots of Mandrakes, the seeds of Endive, Purslain, garden Lettuce, Psyllium, Spodium, Gum Tragacanth, of each two scruples and five grains, Nutmegs, Cinnamon, Ginger, of each a dram and an half, Sanders, yellow, white, and red, of each a dram and an half, Sugar three times their weight, dissolved in Rose-water: mix them together, and make of them an electuary according to art.

Culpeper : I like not the receipt taken inwardly.
Electuarium Reginæ Coloniens
College : Take of the seeds of Saxifrage and Gromwell, juice of Liquorice, of each half an ounce, the seeds of Caraway, Annis, Smallage, Fennel, Parsley of Macedonia, Broom, Carrots, Bruscus, Asparagus, Lovage, Cummin, Juniper, Rue, Siler Mountain, the seeds of Acorus, Pennyroyal, Cinquefoyl, Bayberries, of each two drams, Indian Spikenard, Schœnanth, Amber, Valerian, Hog's Fennel, Lapis Lincis, of each a dram and an half, Galanga, Ginger, Turbith, of each two drams, Sena an ounce, Goat's blood prepared half an ounce, mix them together: first beat them into powder, then make them into an electuary according to art, with three times their weight in Sugar dissolved in white Wine.

Culpeper : It is an excellent remedy for the stone and wind cholic, a dram of it taken every morning. I assure such as are troubled with such diseases, I commend it to them as a jewel.

PILLS

Culpeper : Pills in Greek are called, Katopotia, in Latin, Pilulæ: which signifies little balls, because they are made up in such a form, that they may be the better swallowed down, by reason of the offensiveness of their taste.
Pilulæ de Agarico
Or Pills of Agarick
College : Take of Agarick three drams, our own blue Orris roots, Mastich, Horehound, of each one dram, Turbith five drams, Species Hiera Picra half an ounce, Colocynthis, Sarcocol, of each two drams, Myrrh one dram, Sapa as much as is sufficient to make it into a mass according to art.
Culpeper : It was invented to cleanse the breast and lungs of flegm, it works pretty strongly. Half a dram at a time (keeping yourself warm,) cannot well do you harm, unless your body be very weak.
Pilulæ Aggregativæ
College : Take of Citron, Myrobalans, Rhubarb, of each half an ounce, juice of Agrimony and Wormwood made thick, of each two drams, Diagridium five drams, Agarick, Colocynthis, Polypodium of each two drams, Turbith, Aloes, of each six drams, Mastich, red Roses, Sal. Gem. Epithymum, Annis, Ginger, of each a dram, with Syrup of Damask Roses, make it into a mass according to art.
Culpeper : It purges the head of choler, flegm and melancholy, and that stoutly: it is good against quotidian agues, and faults in the stomach and liver, yet because it is well corrected if you take but half a dram at a time, and keep yourself warm, I suppose you may take it without danger.
Pilulæ Alæphanginæ
College : Take of Cinnamon, Cloves, Cardamoms the less, Nutmegs, Mace, Calamus Aromaticus, Carpobalsamum, or Juniper berries, Squinanth, Wood of Aloes, yellow Sanders, red Roses dried, Wormwood, of each half an ounce, let the tincture be taken out of these, being grossly bruised in spirit of Wine, the vessel being close stopped; in three pounds of this tincture, being strained, dissolve Aloes one pound, which being dissolved, add Mastich, Myrrh, of each half an ounce, Saffron two drams, Balsam of Peru one dram, the superfluous liquor being consumed, either over hot ashes, or a bath, bring it into a mass of pills.
Culpeper : It cleanses both stomach and brain of gross and putrified humours, and sets the senses free when they are thereby troubled, it cleanses the brain offended by ill humours, wind, &c. helps vertigo and head-aches, and strengthens the brain exceedingly, helps concoction, and strengthens the stomach, one dram taken at night going to bed, will work gently next day: if the party be weak, you may give less, if strong more. If you take but half a dram, you may go abroad the next day: but if you take a dram, you may keep the house; there can be no harm in that.
Pilulæ de Aloe Lota
Or Pills of washed Aloes
College : Take of Aloes washed with juice of red Roses, one ounce, Agarick three drams, Mastich two drams, Diamoscu Dulce half a dram, Syrup of Damask-roses, so much as is sufficient to make it into a mass according to art.
Culpeper : It purges both brain, stomach, bowels, and eyes of putrified humours, and also strengthens them. Use these as the succeeding.
Aloe Rosata
College : Take of Aloes in powder four ounces, juice of Damask Roses clarified one pound, mix them and digest them in the sun, or in a bath, till the superfluous liquor be drawn off, digest it, and evaporate it four times over, and keep the mass.
Culpeper : It is a gallant gentle purger of choler, frees the stomach from superfluous humours, opens stoppings, and other infirmities of the body proceeding from choler and flegm, as yellow jaundice, &c. and strengthens the body exceedingly. Take a scruple, or half a dram at night going to bed, you may walk abroad, for it will hardly work till next day in the afternoon.
Pilulæ Aureæ
College : Take of Aloes, Diacrydium, of each five drams, red Roses, Smallage seeds, of each two drams and an half, the seeds of Annis and Fennel, of each one dram and an half, Mastich, Saffron, Troch, Alhandal, of each one dram, with a sufficient quantity of Honey Roses, make it into a mass according to art.
Culpeper : They are held to purge the head, to quicken the senses, especially the sight, and to expel wind from the bowels, but works something harshly. Half a dram is the utmost does, keep the fire, take them in the morning, and sleep after them, they will work before noon.
Pilulæ Cochiæ, the greater
College : Take of Species, Hiera Picra, ten drams, Troch, Alhandal, three drams and an half, Diacrydium two drams and an half, Turbith, Stœchas, of each five drams, with a sufficient quantity of Syrup of Stœchas, make it into a mass, according to art.
Culpeper : It is held to purge the head, but it is but a dogged purge at best, and must be given only to strong bodies, and but half a dram at a time, and yet with great care.
Pilulæ Cochiæ, the less
College : Take of Aloes, Scammony, Colocynthis, of each one ounce, with equal parts of Syrup of Wormwood, and of purging thorn, make it into a mass according to art.
Pilulæ de Cynoglosso
Or Pills of Hound's-tongue
College : Take of the Roots of Hound's-tongue dried, white Henbane seed, Opium prepared, of each half an ounce, Myrrh six drams, Olibanum five drams, Saffron, Castoreum, Styrax, Calamitis, of each one dram and an half, with Syrup of Stœchas, make it into a mass.
Culpeper : It stays hot rheums that fall down upon the lungs, therefore is good in phthisics, also it mitigates pain, a scruple is enough to take at a time going to bed, and too much if your body be weak: have a care of opiates for fear they make you sleep your last.
Pilulæ ex Duobus
Or Pills of two things
College : Take of Colocynthis, and Scamony, of each one ounce, oil of Cloves as much as is sufficient to malax them well, then with a little Syrup of purging Thorn, make it into a mass.
Pilulæ de Eupatorio
Or Pills of Eupatorium
College : Take of the juice of Maudlin, and Wormwood made thick, Citron, Myrobalans, of each three drams, Rhubarb three drams and an half, Mastich one dram, Aloes five drams, Saffron half a dram, Syrup of the juice of Endive, as much as is sufficient to make it into a mass.
Culpeper : It is a gallant gentle purge, and strengthening, fitted for such bodies as are much weakened by disease or choler. The author appropriates it to such as have tertian agues, the yellow jaundice, obstructions or stoppings of the liver; half a dram taken at night going to bed, will work with an ordinary body, the next day by noon.
Pilulæ Fætidæ
Or Stinking Pills
College : Take of Aloes, Colocynthis, Ammoniacum, Sagapen, Myrrh, Rue-seeds, Epithymum, of each five drams, Scamony three drams, the roots of Turbith half an ounce, the roots of Spurge the less prepared, Hermodactils of each two drams, Ginger one dram and an half, Spikenard, Cinnamon, Saffron, Castoreum, of each one dram, Euphorbium prepared two scruples, dissolve the Gums in juice of Leeks, and with Syrup made with the juice of Leeks and Sugar, make it into a mass.
Culpeper : They purge gross and raw flegm, and diseases thereof arising; gouts of all sorts, pains in the back-bone, and other joints: it is good against leprosies, and other such like infirmities of the skin. I fancy not the receipt much.
Pilulæ de Hermodactilis
Or Pills of Hermodactils
College : Take of Sagapen six drams, Opopanax three drams, melt them in warm juice of Coleworts, so much as is sufficient, then strain it through a convenient rag, afterwards boil it to a mean thickness, then take of Hermodactils, Aloes, Citron, Myrobalans, Turbith, Coloquintida, soft Bdellium, of each six drams, Euphorbium prepared, the seeds of Rue and Smallage, Castoreum, Sarcocol of each three drams, Saffron one dram and an half, with the Syrup of the juice of Coleworts made with honey, make it into a mass according to art.
Culpeper : They are good against the gout, and other cold afflictions of the joints. These are more moderate by half than Pilulæ Fœtidæ, and appropriated to the same diseases.
Pilulæ de Hiera cum Agarico
Or Pills of Hiera with Agarick
College : Take of Species Hiera Picra, Agarick, of each half an ounce, Aloes one ounce, Honey Roses so much as is sufficient to make it into a mass according to art.
Pilulæ Imperiales
Or Imperial Pills
College : Take of Aloes two ounces, Rhubarb one ounce and an half, Agarick, Sena, of each one ounce, Cinnamon three drams, Ginger two drams, Nutmegs, Cloves, Spikenard, Mastich, of each one dram, with Syrup of Violets, make it into a mass according to art.
Culpeper : It cleanses the body of mixt humours, and strengthens the stomach exceedingly, as also the bowels, liver, and natural spirits: it is good for cold natures, and cheers the spirits. The dose is a scruple or half a dram, taken at night.
Pilulæ de Lapide Lazuli
Or Pills of Lapis Lazuli
College : Take of Lapis Lazuli in powder and well washed, five drams, Epithymum, Polypodium, Agarick, of each an ounce, Scamony, black Hellebore roots, Sal. Gem. of each two drams and an half, Cloves, Annis seeds, of each half an ounce, Species Hiera simple fifteen drams, with Syrup of the juice of Fumitory, make it into a mass according to art.
Culpeper : It purges melancholy very violently.
Pilulæ Macri
College : Take of Aloes two ounces, Mastich half an ounce, dried Marjoram two drams, Salt of Wormwood one dram, make them all, being in powder, into a mass according to art with juice of Coleworts and Sugar, so much as is sufficient.
Culpeper : It strengthens both stomach and brain, especially the nerves and muscles, and eases them of such humours as afflict them, and hinder the motion of the body, they open obstructions of the liver and spleen, and takes away diseases thence coming.
Pilulæ Mastichinæ
Or Mastich Pills
College : Take of Mastich two ounces, Aloes four ounces, Agarick, Species Hiera simple, of each one ounce and an half, with Syrup of Wormwood, make it into a mass according to art.
Culpeper : They purge very gently, but strengthen much, both head, brain, eyes, belly, and reins.
Pilulæ Mechoacanæ
Or Pills of Mechoacan
College : Take of Mechoacan roots half an ounce, Turbith three drams, the leaves of Spurge steeped in Vinegar and dried, the seeds of Walwort, Agarick trochiscated, of each two drams, Spurge roots prepared, Mastich, of each one dram and an half, Mace, Cinnamon, Sal. Gem. of each two scruples, beat them into powder, and with white Wine, bring them into a mass. When it is dry, beat it into powder, and with Syrup made with the juice of Orris roots and sugar, make it the second time into a mass for pills.
Culpeper : They purge flegm very violently.
Pilulæ de Opopanace
Or Pills of Opopanax
College : Take of Opopanax, Sagapen, Bdellium, Ammoniacum, Hermodactils, Coloquintida, of each five drams, Saffron, Castoreum, Myrrh, Ginger, white Pepper, Cassia Lignea, Citron, Myrobalans, of each one dram, Scamony two drams, Turbith half an ounce, Aloes an ounce and an half, the Gums being dissolved in clarified juice of Coleworts, with Syrup of the juice of Coleworts, make them into a mass according to art.
Culpeper : It helps tremblings, palsies, gouts of all sorts, cleanses the joints, and is helpful for such as are troubled with cold afflictions of the nerves. It works violently.
Pilulæ Rudii
College : Take of Coloquintida six drams, Agarick, Scamony, the roots of black Hellebore, and Turbith, of each half an ounce, Aloes one ounce, Diarrhodon Abbatis half an ounce, let all of them (the Diarrh. Abbatis excepted) be grossly bruised, and infused eight days in the best spirits of Wine in a vessel close stopped, in the sun, so that the liquor may swim at top the breadth of six fingers: afterwards infuse the Diarrhodon Abbatis in the same manner four days in Aqua vitæ, then having strained and pressed them hard, mix them both together, casting the dross away, and draw off the moisture in a glass Alembick, and let the thick matter remain in a mass. Culpeper : It cleanses both head and body of choler, flegm, and melancholy: it must not be taken in any great quantity, half a dram is sufficient for the strongest body.
Pilulæ Russi
College : Take of Aloes two ounces, Myrrh one ounce, Saffron half an ounce, with Syrup of the juice of Lemons, make it into a mass according to art.
Culpeper : A scruple taken at night going to bed, is an excellent preservative in pestilential times; also they cleanse the body of such humours as are gotten by surfeits, they strengthen the heart, and weak stomachs, and work so easily that you need not fear following your business the next day.
Pilulæ sine Quibus
Or Pills without which--
College : Take of washed Aloes fourteen drams, Scammony prepared six drams, Agarick, Rhubarb, Sena, of each half an ounce, Wormwood, red Roses exungulated, Violet flowers, Dodder, Mastich, of each one dram, salt of Wormwood, of each half a dram, with Syrup of the juice of Fennel made with Honey, make it into a mass according to art.
Culpeper : It purges flegm, choler, and melancholy from the head, makes the sight and hearing good, and gives ease to a burdened brain.
Pilulæ Stomachiæ
Or Stomach Pills
College : Take of Aloes six drams, Mastich, red Roses, of each two drams, with Syrup of Wormwood, make it into a mass according to art.
Culpeper : They cleanse and strengthen the stomach, they cleanse but gently, strengthen much, help digestion.
Pilulæ Stomachiœ cum Gummi Or Stomach Pills with Gums
College : Take of Aloes an ounce, Sena five drams, Gum Amoniacum dissolved in Elder-flower Vinegar half an ounce, Mastich, Myrrh, of each a dram and an half, Saffron, salt of Wormwood, of each half a dram, with Syrup of purging Thorn, make it into a mass according to art.
Culpeper : They work more strongly than the former.
Pilulæ e Styrace
Or Pills of Styrax
College : Take of Styrax Calamitis, Olibanum, Myrrh, juice of Liquorice, Opium, of each half an ounce, with Syrup of white Poppies, make it into a mass according to art.
Culpeper : They help such as are troubled with defluxion of rheum, coughs, and provoke sleep to such as cannot sleep for coughing.
Pilulæ de Succino
Or Pills of Amber
College : Take of white Amber, Mastich, of each two drams, Aloes five drams, Agaric a dram and an half, long Birthwort half a dram, with Syrup of Wormwood make it into a mass.
Culpeper : It amends the evil state of a woman's body, strengthens conception, and takes away what hinders it; it gently purges choler and flegm, and leaves a binding, strengthening quality behind it.
Pilulæ ex Tribus
Or Pills of three things
College : Take of Mastich two ounces, Aloes four ounces, Agarick, Hiera simple, of each an ounce and an half, Rhubarb two ounces, Cinnamon two drams, with Syrup of Succory, make it into a mass according to art.
Culpeper : They gently purge choler, and help diseases thence arising, as itch, scabs, wheals, &c. They strengthen the stomach and liver, and open obstructions, as also help the yellow jaundice.
Pilulæ Turpeti Aureæ
College : Take of Turbith two ounces, Aloes an ounce and an half, Citron Myrobalans ten drams, red Roses, Mastich, of each six drams, Saffron three drams, beat them all into powder, and with Syrup of Wormwood bring them into a mass.
Culpeper : They purge choler and flegm, and that with as much gentleness as can be desired; also they strengthen the stomach and liver, and help digestion.
Laudanum
College : Take of Thebane Opium extracted in spirit of Wine, one ounce, Saffron alike extracted, a dram and an half, Castorium one dram: let them be taken in tincture of half an ounce of species Diambræ newly made in spirit of Wine, add to them Ambergris, Musk, of each six grains, oil of Nutmegs ten drops, evaporate the moisture away in a bath, and leave the mass.
Culpeper : It was invented (and a gallant invention it is) to mitigate violent pains, stop the fumes that trouble the brain in fevers, (but beware of Opiates in the beginning of fevers) to provoke sleep, take not above two grains of it at a time, going to bed; if that provoke not sleep, the next night you may make bold with three. Have a care how you be too busy with such medicines, lest you make a man sleep to doom's-day.
Nepenthes Opiatum
College : Take of tincture of Opium made first with distilled Vinegar, then with spirit of Wine, Saffron extracted in spirit of Wine, of each an ounce, salt of Pearl and Coral, of each half an ounce, tincture of species Diambræ seven drams, Ambergris one dram: bring them into the form of Pills by the gentle heat of a bath.
Culpeper : The operation is like the former.
Pilulæ Assaireth. Avicenna
College : Take of Species Hiera Picra Galeni one ounce, Mastich, Citron, Myrobalans, of each half an ounce, Aloes two ounces, the Syrup of Stœchas as much as is sufficient, make of them a mass according to art.
Culpeper : It purges choler and flegm, and strengthens the whole body exceedingly, being very precious for such whose bodies are weakened by surfeits, or ill diet, to take half a dram or a scruple at night going to bed.
Pills of Bdellium. Mesue
College : Take of Bdellium ten drams, Myrobalans, Bellericks, Emblicks, and Blacks, of each five drams, flakes of Iron, Leek seeds, of each three drams, Choncula Veneris burnt, Coral burnt, Amber, of each a dram and an half, Pearls half an ounce, dissolve the Bdellium in juice of Leeks and with so much Syrup of juice of Leeks as is sufficient, make it into a mass according to art.
Culpeper : Both this and the former are seldom used, and therefore are hardly to be had.
Pills of Rhubarb. Mesue
College : Take of choice Rhubarb three drams, Citron Myrobalans, Trochisci Diarrhodon, of each three drams and an half, juice of Liquorice, and juice of Wormwood, Mastich, of each one dram, the seeds of Smallage and Fennel, of each half a dram, Species Hiera Picra simp. Galeni, ten drams, with juice of Fennel not clarified, and Honey so much as is sufficient, make it into a mass.
Culpeper : It purges choler, opens obstructions of the liver, helps the yellow jaundice, and dropsies in the beginning, strengthens the stomach and lungs.
Pilulæ Arabica. Nicholaus
College : Take of the best Aloes four ounces, Briony roots, Myrobalans, Citrons, Chebs, Indian Bellerick, and Emblick, Mastich, Diagrydium, Asarabacca, Roses, of each an ounce, Castorium three drams, Saffron one dram, with Syrup of Wormwood, make it into a mass according to art.
Culpeper : It helps such women as are not sufficiently purged in their labour, helps to bring away what a careless midwife hath left behind, purges the head, helps headache, megrim, vertigo, and purges the stomach of vicious humours.
Pilulæ Arthriticæ. Nicholaus
College : Take of Hermodactils, Turbith, Agarick, of each half an ounce, Cassia Lignea, Indian Spikenard, Cloves, Xylobalsamum, or Wood of Aloes, Carpobalsamum or Cubebs, Mace, Galanga, Ginger, Mastich, Assafœtida, the seeds of Annis, Fennel, Saxifrage, Sparagus, Bruscus, Roses, Gromwell, Sal. Gem. of each two drams, Scammony one ounce, of the best Aloes, the weight of them all, juice of Chamepitys made thick with sugar, so much as is sufficient: or Syrup of the juice of the same, so much as is sufficient to make it into a mass.
Culpeper : It helps the gout, and other pains in the joints, comforts and strengthens both brain and stomach, and consumes diseases whose original comes of flegm.
Pilulæ Cochiæ with Helebore
College : Take of the powder of the Pills before prescribed, the powder of the bark of the roots of black Hellebore, one ounce: make it into a mass with Syrup of Stœchas according to art.
Pills of Fumitory. Avicenna
College : Take of Myrobalans, Citrons, Chebs, and Indian Diagrydium, of each five drams, Aloes seven drams; let all of them being bruised, be thrice moistened with juice of Fumitory, and thrice suffered to dry, then brought into a mass with Syrup of Fumitory.
Culpeper : It purges melancholy. Be not too busy with it I beseech you.
Pilulæ Indæ. Mesue out of Haly
College : Take of Indian Myrobalans, black Hellebore, Polypodium of the Oak, of each five drams, Epithymum, Stœchas, of each six drams, Agarick, Lapis Lazuli often washed troches Alhandal, Sal Indi, of each half an ounce, juice of Maudlin made thick, Indian Spikenard, of each two drams, Cloves one dram, Species Hiera Picra simplex Galeni, twelve drams, with juice of Smallage make it into a mass according to art.
Culpeper : It wonderfully prevails against afflictions coming of melancholy, cancers which are not ulcerated, leprosy, evils of the mind coming of melancholy, as sadness, fear, & c. quartan agues, jaundice, pains and infirmities of the spleen.
Pilulæ Lucis Majores. Mesue
College : Take of Roses, Violets, Wormwood, Colocynthis, Turbith, Cubebs, Calamus Aromaticus, Nutmegs, Indian Spikenard, Epithimum, Carpobalsamum, or instead thereof, Cardamoms, Xylabalsamum, or Wood of Aloes, the seeds of Seseli or Hartwort, Rue, Annis, Fennel and Smallage, Schænanthus, Mastich, Asarabacca roots, Cloves, Cinnamon, Cassia Lignea, Saffron, Mace, of each two drams, Myrobalans, Citrons, Chebuls, Indian Bellerick, and Emblick, Rhubarb, of each half an ounce, Agarick, Sena, of each five drams, Aloes Succotrina, the weight of them all: with Syrup of the juice of Fennel make it into a mass according to art.
Culpeper : It purges mixt humours from the head, and clears it of such excrements as hinder the sight.
Pills of Spurge. Fernelius
College : Take of the bark of the roots of Spurge the less, steeped twenty-four hours in Vinegar and juice of Purslain, two drams, grains of Palma Christi torrified, by number, forty, Citron Myrobalans one dram and an half, Germander, Chamepitys, Spikenard, Cinnamon, of each two scruples, being beaten into fine powder with an ounce of Gum Tragacanth dissolved in Rose Water, and Syrup of Roses so much as is sufficient, let it be made into a mass.
Pills of Euphorbium. Mesue
College : Take of Euphorbium, Colocynthis, Agarick, Bdellium, Sagapenum, of each two drams, Aloes five drams, with Syrup made of the juice of Leeks, make it into a mass.
Culpeper : The Pills are exceeding good for dropsies, pains in the loins, and gouts coming of a moist cause. Take not above half a dram at a time and keep the house.
Pilulæ Scribonii
College : Take of Sagapen, and Myrrh, of each two drams, Opium, Cardamoms, Castorium, of each one dram, white Pepper half a dram, Sapa so much as is sufficient to make it into a mass according to art.
Culpeper : It is appropriated to such as have phthisicks, and such as spit blood, but ought to be newly made, a scruple is sufficient taken going to bed.

TROCHES
Trochisci de Absinthio
Or Troches of Wormwood
College : Take of red Roses, Wormwood leaves, Annis seeds, of each two drams, juice of Maudlin made thick, the roots of Asarabacca, Rhubarb, Spikenard, Smallage seeds, bitter Almonds, Mastich, Mace, of each one dram, juice of Succory so much as is sufficient to make it into troches according to art.
Culpeper : They strengthen the stomach exceedingly, open obstructions, or stoppings of the belly and bowels: strengthen digestion, open the passages of the liver, help the yellow jaundice, and consume watery superfluities of the body. They are somewhat bitter, and seldom taken alone; if your pallate affect bitter things, you may take a dram of them in the morning. They cleanse the body of choler, but purge not, or not to any purpose.
Agaricus Trochiscatus
Or Agarick Trochiscated
College : Take of Agarick sifted and powdered, three ounces, steep it in a sufficient quantity of white Wine, in which two drams of ginger have been infused, and make it into troches.
Trochisci Albi. Rhasis
Or white Troches
College : Take of Ceruss washed in Rosewater ten drams, Sarcocol three drams, white Starch two drams, Gum Arabic and Tragacanth, of each one dram, Camphire half a dram, either with Rosewater, or women's milk, or make it into troches according to art.
Trochisci Alexiterii
College : Take of Zedoary roots, powder of Crab's Claws, of each one dram, and an half, the outward Citron preserved and dried, Angelica seeds, Pills, of each one dram, Bole-amoniac half a dram, with their treble weight in sugar make them into powder, and with a sufficient quantity of Mussilage of Gum Tragacanth, made into treacle water distilled, make it into paste, of which make troches.
Culpeper : This preserves the body from ill airs, and epidemical diseases, as the pestilence, small pox, & c. and strengthens the heart exceedingly, eating now and then a little: you may safely keep any troches in your pocket, for the drier you keep them, the better they are.
Trochisci Alhandal
College : Take of Coloquintida freed from the seeds and cut small, and rubbed with an ounce of oil of Roses, then beaten into fine powder, ten ounces, Gum Arabic, Tragacanth, Bdellium, of each six drams. Steep the Gums three or four days in a sufficient quantity of Rose-water till they be melted, then with the aforesaid pulp, and part of the said mussilage, let them be dried in the shadow, then beaten again, and with the rest of the mussilage, make it up again, dry them and keep them for use.
Culpeper : They are too violent for a vulgar use.
Trochisci Aliptæ Moschatæ
College : Take of Labdanum bruised three ounces, Styrax Calamitis one ounce and an half, Benjamin one ounce, Wood of Aloes two drams, Ambergris one dram, Camphire half a dram, Musk half a scruple, with a sufficient quantity of Rose-water, make it into troches according to art.
Culpeper : It is singularly good for such as are asthmatic, and can hardly fetch their breath; as also for young children, whose throat is so narrow that they can hardly swallow down their milk.
Trochisci Alkekengi
Or Troches of Winter-cherries
College : Take of Winter Cherries three drams, Gum Arabic, Tragacanth, Olibanum, Dragon's-blood, Pine-nuts, bitter Almonds, white Styrax, juice of Liquorice, Bole ammoniac, white Poppy seeds, of each six drams, the seeds of Melons, Cucumbers, Citruls, Gourds, of each three drams and an half, the seeds of Smallage and white Henbane, Amber, Earth of Lemnos, Opium, of each two drams, with juice of fresh Winter-Cherries, make them into troches according to art.
Culpeper : They potently provoke urine, and break the stone. Mix them with other medicine of that nature, half a dram at a time, or a dram if age permit.
Trochisci Bechici aloi, vel, Rotulæ pectorales
Or, Pectoral Rolls
College : Take of white Sugar one pound, white Sugar Candy, Penids, of each four ounces, Orris Florentine one ounce, Liquorice six drams, white Starch one ounce and an half, with a sufficient quantity of mussilage of Gum Tragacanth made in Rose Water, make them into small troches. You may add four grains of Ambergris, and three grains of Musk to them, if occasion serve.
Trochisci Bechici nigri
College : Take of juice of Liquorice, white Sugar, of each one dram, Gum Tragacanth, sweet Almonds blanched, of each six drams, with a sufficient quantity of mussilage of Quince seeds, made thick with Rose Water. Make them into troches according to art.
Culpeper : Both this and the former will melt in ones mouth, and in that manner to be used by such as are troubled with coughs, cold, hoarseness, or want of voice. The former is most in use, but in my opinion, the latter is most effectual.
Trochisci de Barberis
Or, Troches of Barberries
College : Take of juice of Barberries, and Liquorice made thick, Spodium, Purslain seeds, of each three drams, red Roses, six drams, Indian Spikenard, Saffron, white Starch, Gum Tragacanth, of each a dram, Citrul seeds cleansed three drams and an half, Camphire half a dram; with Manna dissolved in juice of Barberries, make them into troches according to art.
Culpeper : They wonderfully cool the heat of the liver, reins, and bladder, breast, and stomach, and stop looseness, cools the heat of fevers.
Trochisci de Camphora
Or, Troches of Camphire
College : Take of Camphire half a dram, Saffron two drams, white Starch three drams, red Roses, Gum Arabic, and Tragacanth, Ivory, of each half an ounce, the seeds of Cucumbers husked, of Purslain, Liquorice, of each an ounce, with mussilage of the seeds of Fleawort, drawn in Rose-water, make them into troches.
Culpeper : It is exceeding good in burning fevers, heat of blood and choler, together with hot distempers of the stomach and liver, and extreme thirst coming thereby, also it is good against the yellow jaundice phthisics, and hectic fevers.
Trochisci de Capparibus
Or, Troches of Capers
College : Take of the bark of Caper roots, the seeds of Agnus Castus, of each six drams, Ammoniacum half an ounce, the seeds of Water Cresses and Nigella, the leaves of Calaminth and Rue, the roots of Acorus and long Birthwort, the juice of Maudlin made thick, bitter Almonds, of each two drams, Hart's-tongue, the roots of round Cypress, Madder, Gum Lac. of each one dram: being bruised let them be made into troches according to art, with Ammoniacum dissolved in Vinegar, and boiled to the thickness of Honey.
Culpeper : They open stoppings of the liver and spleen, and help diseases thereof coming; as rickets, hypochondriac melancholy, & c. Men may take a dram, children a scruple in the morning.
Trochisci de Carabe
Or, Troches of Amber
College : Take of Amber an ounce, Hart's-horn burnt, Gum Arabic burnt, red Coral burnt, Tragacanth, Acacia, Hypocistis, Balaustines, Mastich, Gum Lacca washed, black Poppy seeds roasted, of each two drams and two scruples, Frankincense, Saffron, Opium, of each two drams, with a sufficient quantity of mussilage of the seeds of Fleawort drawn in Plantain Water, make them into troches according to art.
Culpeper : They were invented to stop fluxes of blood in any part of the body, the menses, the hæmorrhoids or piles; they also help ulcers in the breast and lungs. The dose is from ten grains to a scruple.
Trochisci Cypheos, for Mithridate
College : Take of pulp of Raisins of the Sun, Cypress, Turpentine, of each three ounces, Myrrh, Squinanth, of each an ounce and an half, Cinnamon half an ounce, Calamus Aromaticus nine drams, the roots of round Cypress, and Indian Spikenard, Cassia Lignea, Juniper berries, Bdellium, Aspalthus or Wood of Aloes, two drams and an half, Saffron one dram, clarified Honey as much as is sufficient, Canary Wine a little: let the Myrrh and Bdellium be ground in a mortar with the wine, to the thickness of liquid Honey, then add the Turpentine, then the pulp of Raisins, then the powders: at last with the Honey, let them all be made into troches.
Culpeper : It is excellently good against inward ulcers in what part of the body soever they be. It is chiefly used in compositions, as Treacle and Mithridate.
Trochisci de Eupatorio
Or Troches of Maudlin
College : Take of the juice of Maudlin made thick, Manna, of each an ounce, red Roses half an ounce, Spodium three drams and an half, Spikenard three drams, Rhubarb, Asarabacca roots, Annis seeds, of each two drams. Let the Nard, Annis seeds, and Roses be beaten together, the Spodium, Asarabacca, and Rhubarb by themselves, then mix the Manna and juice of Maudlin in a mortar, add the powders, and with new juice make it into troches.
Culpeper : Obstructions, or stoppings, and swelling above nature, both of the liver and spleen, are cured by the inward taking of these troches, and diseases thereof coming, as yellow and black jaundice, the beginning of dropsies, & c.
Troches of Gallia Moschata
College : Take of Wood of Aloes five drams, Ambergris three drams, Musk one dram, with mussilage of Gum Tragacanth made in Rose Water, make it into troches according to art.
Culpeper : They strengthen the brain and heart, and by consequence both vital and animal spirits, and cause a sweet breath. They are of an extreme price, therefore I pass by the dose.
Trochisci Gordonii
College : Take of the four greater cold seeds husked, the seeds of white Poppies, Mallows, Cotton, Purslain, Quinces, Mirtles, Gum Tragacanth, and Arabic, Fistic-nuts, Pine-nuts, Sugar-candy, Penids, Liquorice, French-barley, mussilage of Fleawort seeds, sweet Almonds blanched, of each two drams, Bole-ammoniac, Dragon's-blood, Spodium, red Roses, Myrrh, of each half an ounce, with a sufficient quantity of Hydromel, make it into troches according to art.
Culpeper : They are held to be very good in ulcers of the bladder, and all other inward ulcers whatsoever, and ease fevers coming thereby, being of a fine cooling, slippery heating nature.
Trochisci Hedichroi (Galen) for Treacle
College : Take of Aspalthus, or yellow Sanders, the leaves of Mastich, the roots of Asarabacca, of each two drams, Rhupontic, Castus, Calamus Aromaticus, Wood of Aloes, Cinnamon, Squinanth, Opobalsamum or oil of Nutmegs by expression, of each three drams, Cassia Lignea, Indian Leaf or Mace, Indian Spikenard, Myrrh, Saffron, of each six drams, Amomus, or Cardamoms the less, an ounce and an half, Mastich a dram, Canary Wine as much as is sufficient. Let the Myrrh be dissolved in the wine, then add the Mastich and Saffron well beaten, then the Opobalsamum, then the rest in powder, and with the wine, make them up into troches, and dry them gently.
Culpeper : They are very seldom or never used but in other compositions, yet naturally they heat cold stomachs, help digestion, strengthen the heart and brain.
Trochisci Hysterici
College : Take of Asafœtida, Galbanum, of each two drams and an half, Myrrh two drams, Castoreum a dram and an half, the roots of Asarabacca and long Birthwort, the leaves of Savin, Featherfew, Nep, of each one dram, Dittany half a dram, with either the juice or decoction of Rue, make it into troches according to art.
Culpeper : These are applied to the fœminine gender, help fits of the mother, expel both birth and after-birth, cleanse women after labour, and expel the relics of a careless midwife.
Trochisci de Ligno Aloes
Or Troches of Wood of Aloes
College : Take of Wood of Aloes, red Roses, of each two drams, Mastich, Cinnamon, Cloves, Indian Spikenard, Nutmegs, Parsnip seed, Cardamoms the greater and lesser, Cubebs, Gallia Moschata, Citron Pills, Mace, of each one dram and an half, Ambergris, Musk, of each half a scruple, with Honey of Raisins make it into troches.
Culpeper : It strengthens the heart, stomach, and liver, takes away heart-qualms, faintings, and stinking breath, and resists the dropsy.
Trochisci e Mirrha
Or Troches of Myrrh
College : Take of Myrrh three drams, the Meal of Lupines five drams, Madder roots, the leaves of Rue, wild Mints, Dittany of Crete, Cummin seeds, Asafœtida, Sagapen, Opopanax, of each two drams, dissolve the Gums in Wine wherein Mugwort hath been boiled, or else Juniper-berries, then add the rest, and with juice of Mugwort, make it into troches according to art.
Culpeper : They provoke the menses, and that with great ease to such as have them come down with pain. Take a dram of them beaten into powder, in a spoonful or two of Syrup of Mugwort, or any other composition tending to the same purpose.
Sief de Plumbo
Or Sief of Lead
College : Take of Lead burnt and washed, Brass burnt, Antimony, Tutty washed, Gum Arabic and Tragacanth of each an ounce, Opium half a dram, with Rose-water, make them, being beaten and sifted, into troches.
Trochisci Polyidœ Androm
College : Take of Pomegranate flowers twelve drams, Roach Album three drams, Frankincense, Myrrh, of each half an ounce, Chalcanthum two drams, Bull's gall six drams, Aloes an ounce, with austere Wine, or juice of Nightshade or Plantain, make them into troches according to art.
Culpeper : They are very good they say, being outwardly applied, both in green wounds and ulcers. I fancy them not.
Trochisci de Rhubarbaro
Or Troches of Rhubarb
College : Take of Rhubarb ten drams, juice of Maudlin made thick, bitter Almonds, of each half an ounce, red Roses three drams, the roots of Asarabacca, Madder, Indian Spikenard, the leaves of Wormwood, the seeds of Annis and Smallage, of each one dram, with Wine in which Wormwood hath been boiled, make them into troches according to art.
Culpeper : They gently cleanse the liver, help the yellow jaundice, and other diseases coming of choler and stoppage of the liver.
Trochisci de Santalis
Or Troches of Sanders
College : Take of the three Sanders, of each one ounce, the seeds of Cucumbers, Gourds, Citruls, Purslain, Spodium, of each half an ounce, red Roses seven drams, juice of Barberries six drams, Bole-ammoniac half an ounce, Camphire one dram, with Purslain Water make it into troches.
Culpeper : The virtues are the same with troches of Spodium, both of them harmless.
Trochisci da Scilla ad Theriacam
Or Troches of Squils, for Treacle
College : Take a Squil gathered about the beginning of July, of a middle bigness, and the hard part to which the small roots stick, wrap it up in paste, and bake it in an oven, till the paste be dry, and the Squil tender, which you may know by piercing it with a wooden skewer, or a bodkin, then take it out and bruise it in a mortar, adding to every pound of the Squil, eight ounces of white Orobus, or red Cicers in powder, then make it into troches, of the weight of two drams a piece, (your hands being anointed with Oil of Roses) dry them on the top of the house, opening towards the South, in the shadow, often turning them till they be well dry, then keep them in a pewter or glass vessel.
Troches of Spodium
College : Take of red Roses twelve drams, Spodium ten drams, Sorrel seed six drams, the seeds of Purslain and Coriander, steeped in Vinegar and dried, pulp of Sumach, of each two drams and an half, white Starch roasted, Balaustines, Barberries, of each two drams, Gum Arabic, roasted one dram and an half, with juice of unripe Grapes, make it into troches.
Culpeper : They are of a fine cooling binding nature, excellent in fevers coming of choler, especially if they be accompanied with a looseness, they also quench thirst.
Trochisci de terra Lemnia
Or Troches of Earth of Lemnos
College : Take of Earth of Lemnos, Bole-ammoniac, Acacia, Hypocystis, Gum Arabic toasted, Dragon's blood, white Starch, red Roses, Rose seeds, Lap. Hematitis, red Coral, Amber, Balaustines, Spodium, Purslain seeds a little toasted, Olibanum, Hart's-horn burnt, Cypress Nuts, Saffron of each two drams, black Poppy seeds, Tragacanth, Pearls, of each one dram and an half, Opium prepared one dram, with juice of Plantain, make it into troches.
Sief de Thure
Or Sief of Frankincense
College : Take of Frankincense, Lap. Calaminaris, Pompholix, of each ten drams, Cyrus forty drams, Gum Arabic, Opium, of each six drams, with fair water make it into balls: dry them and keep them for use.
Trochisci e Violis solutivi
Or Troches of Violets solutive
College : Take of Violet flowers meanly dry, six drams, Turbith one ounce and an half, juice of Liquorice, Scammony, Manna, of each two drams, with Syrup of Violets, make it into troches.
Culpeper : They are not worth talking of, much less worth cost, the cost and labour of making.
Trochisci de Vipera ad Theriacum
Or Troches of Vipers, for Treacle
College : Take of the flesh of Vipers, the skin, entrails, head, fat, and tail being taken away, boiled in water with Dill, and a little salt, eight ounces, white bread twice baked, grated and sifted, two ounces, make it into troches, your hands being anointed with Opobalsamum, or Oil of Nutmegs by expression, dry them upon a sieve turned the bottom upwards in an open place, often turning them till they are well dried, then put them in a glass or stone pot glazed, stopped close, they will keep a year, yet is it far better to make Treacle, not long after you have made them.
Culpeper : They expel poison, and are excellently good, by a certain sympathetical virtue, for such as are bitten by an adder.
Trochisci de Agno Casto
Or Troches of Agnus Castus
College : Take of the seeds of Agnus Castus, Lettuce, red Rose flowers, Balaustins, of each a dram, Ivory, white Amber, Boleammoniac washed in Knotgrass Water two drams, Plantain seeds four scruples, Sassafras two scruples, with mussilage of Quince seeds, extracted in water of Water-lily flowers, let them be made into troches.
Culpeper : Very pretty troches and good for little.
Trochisci Alexiterii. Renodæus
College : Take of the roots of Gentian, Tormentil, Orris Florentine, Zedoary, of each two drams, Cinnamon, Cloves, Mace, of each half a dram, Angelica roots three drams, Coriander seeds prepared, Roses, of each one dram, dried Citron pills two drams, beat them all into powder, and with juice of Liquorice softened in Hippocras, six ounces, make them into soft paste, which you may form into either troches or small rolls, which you please.
Culpeper : It preserves and strengthens the heart exceedingly, helps faintings and failings of the vital spirits, resists poison and the pestilence, and is an excellent medicine for such to carry about them whose occasions are to travel in pestilential places and corrupt air, only taking a very small quantity now and then.
Troches of Annis seed. Mesue
College : Take of Annis seeds, the juice of Maudlin made thick, of each two drams, the seeds of Dill, Spikenard, Mastich, Indian leaf or Mace, the leaves of Wormwood, Asarabacca, Smallage, bitter Almonds, of each half a dram, Aloes two drams, juice of Wormwood so much as is sufficient to make it into troches according to art.
Culpeper : They open obstructions of the liver, and that very gently, and therefore diseases coming thereof, help quartan agues. You can scarce do amiss in taking them if they please but your palate.
Trochisci Diarhodon. Mesue
College : Take of the flowers of red Roses six drams, Spikenard, Wood of Aloes, of each two drams, Liquorice three drams, Spodium one dram, Saffron half a dram, Mastich two drams, make them up into troches with white Wine according to art.
Culpeper : They wonderfully ease fevers coming of flegm, as quotidian fevers, agues, epiatos, &c. pains in the belly.
Trochisci de Lacca. Mesue
College : Take of Gum Lacca cleansed, the juice of Liquorice, Maudlin, Wormwood, and Barberries, all made thick, Rhubarb, long Birthwort, Costus, Asarabacca, bitter Almonds, Madder, Annis, Smallage, Schænanth, of each one dram, with the decoction of Birthwort, Schænanth, or the juice of Maudlin, or Wormwood, make them into troches according to art.
Culpeper : It helps stoppings of the liver and spleen, and fevers thence coming, it expels wind, purges by urine, and resists dropsies.
Pastilli Adronis. Galen
College : Take of Pomegranate flowers ten drams, Copperas twelve drams, unripe Galls, Birthwort, Frankincense, of each an ounce, Alum, Myrrh, of each half an ounce, Misy two drams, with eighteen ounces of austere Wine, make it into troches according to art.
Culpeper : This also is appropriated to wounds, ulcers, and fistulas, it clears the ears, and represses all excressences of flesh, cleanses the filth of the bones.
Trochisci Musæ. Galen
College : Take of Alum, Aloes, Copperas, Myrrh, of each six drams, Crocomagma, Saffron, of each three drams, Pomegranate flowers half an ounce, Wine and Honey, of each so much as is sufficient to make it up into troches according to art.
Culpeper : Their use is the same with the former.
Crocomagma of Damocrates. Galen
College : Take of Saffron an hundred drams, red Roses, Myrrh, of each fifty drams, white Starch, Gum, of each thirty drams, Wine, so much as is sufficient to make it into troches.
Culpeper : It is very expulsive, heats and strengthens the heart and stomach.
Trochisci Ramich. Mesue
College : Take of the juice of Sorrel sixteen ounces, red Rose Leaves, an ounce, Myrtle Berries two ounces, boil them a little together, and strain them, add to the decoction, Galls well beaten, three ounces, boil them again a little, then put in these following things, in fine powder: take of red Roses an ounce, yellow Sanders, ten drams, Gum Arabic an ounce and an half, Sumach, Spodium, of each an ounce, Myrtle berries four ounces, Wood of Aloes, Cloves, Mace, Nutmegs, of each half an ounce, sour Grapes seven drams, mix them all together, and let them dry upon a stone, and grind them again into powder, and make them into small troches with one dram of Camphire, and so much Rose Water as is sufficient, and perfume them with fifteen grams of Musk.
Culpeper. They strengthen the stomach, heart, and liver, as also the bowels, they help the cholic, and fluxes of blood, as also bleeding at the nose if you snuff up the powder of them, disburden the body of salt, fretting, choleric humours. You may carry them about you, and take them at your pleasure.
Troches of Roses. Mesue
College : Take of red Roses half an ounce, Wood of Aloes two drams, Mastich, a dram and an half, Roman Wormwood, Cinnamon, Indian Spikenard, Cassia Lignea, Schœnanth, of each one dram, old Wine, and decoction of the five opening roots, so much as is sufficient to make it into troches according to art.
Culpeper : They help pains in the stomach, and indigestion, the illiac passion, hectic fevers, and dropsies, in the beginning, and cause a good color.
Trochisci Diacorallion. Galen
College : Take of Bole-ammoniac, red Coral, of each an ounce, Balaustines, Terra Lemnia, white Starch, of each half an ounce, Hypocistis, the seeds of Henbane, Opium, of each two drams, juice of Plantain so much as is sufficient to make them into troches according to art.
Culpeper : These also stop blood, help the bloody flux, stop the menses, and are a great help to such whose stomachs loath their victuals. I fancy them not.
Trochisci Diaspermaton. Galen
College : Take of the seeds of Smallage, and Bishop's weed, of each an ounce, Annis and Fennel seeds, of each half an ounce, Opium, Cassia Lignea, of each two drams, with rain water, make it into troches according to art.
Culpeper : These also bind, ease pain, help the pleurisy.
Hæmoptoici Pastilli. Galen
College : Take of white Starch, Balaustines, Earth of Samos, juice of Hypocystis, Gum, Saffron, Opium, of each two drams, with juice of Plantain, make them into troches according to art.
Culpeper : The operation of this is like the former.
Troches of Agarick
College : Take of choice Agarick three ounces, Sal. Gem. six drams, Ginger two drams, with Oxymel simplex, so much as is sufficient, make it into troches according to art.

OILS
SIMPLE OILS BY EXPRESSION
Oil of Sweet Almonds
College : Take of Sweet Almonds not corrupted, as many as you will, cast the shells away, and blanch them, beat them in a stone mortar, beat them in a double vessel, and press out the oil without heat.

Culpeper : It helps roughness and soreness of the throat and stomach, helps pleurisies, encreases seed, eases coughs and hectic fevers, by injection it helps such whose water scalds them; ulcers in the bladder, reins, and matrix. You may either take half an ounce of it by itself, or mix it with half an ounce of Syrup of Violets, and so take a spoonful at a time, still shaking them together when you take them: only take notice of this, if you take it inwardly, let it be new drawn, for it will be sour in three or four days.
Oil of bitter Almonds
College : It is made like Oil of sweet Almonds, but that you need not blanch them, nor have such a care of heat in pressing out the oil.

Culpeper : It opens stoppings, helps such as are deaf, being dropped into their ears, it helps the hardness of the nerves, and takes away spots in the face. It is seldom or never taken inwardly.
Oil of Hazel Nuts
College : It is made of the Kernels, cleansed, bruised, and beat, and pressed like Oil of sweet Almonds.

Culpeper. : You must put them in a vessel (viz. a glass, or some such thing) and stop them close that the water come not to them when you put them into the bath. The oil is good for cold afflictions of the nerves, the gout in the joints, &c.

College : So is Oil of Been, Oil of Nutmegs, and Oil of Mace drawn.
Oleum Caryinum
College : Is prepared of Walnut Kernels, in like manner, save only that in the making of this sometimes is required dried, old, and rank Nuts.
Oleum Chrysomelinum
College : Is prepared in the same manner of Apricots, so is also Oils of the Kernels of Cherry stones, Peaches, Pine-nuts, Fistic Nuts, Prunes, the seeds of Oranges, Hemp, Bastard Saffron, Citrons, Cucumbers, Gourds, Citruls, Dwarf Elder, Henbane, Lettuce, Flax, Melons, Poppy, Parsley, Radishes, Rape, Ricinum, Sesani, Mustard seed, and Grape stones.

Culpeper : Because most of these Oils are out of use, I took not the pains to quote the virtues of them; if any wish to make them, let them look to the simples, and there they have them; if the simples be not to be found in this book, there are other plentiful medicines conducing to the cure of all usual diseases; which are--
Oil of Bays
College : Take of Bay-berries, fresh and ripe, so many as you please, bruise them sufficiently, then boil them in a sufficient quantity of water till the Oil swim at top, which separate from the water, and keep for your use.

Culpeper : It helps the cholic, and is a sovereign remedy for any diseases in any part of the body coming either of wind or cold.

College : Common Oil of Olives, is pressed out of ripe olives, not out of the stones. Oil of Olives omphacine, is pressed out of unripe olives.
Oil of Yolks of Eggs
College : Boil the yolks till they be hard, and bruise them with your hand or with a pestle and mortar; beat them in an earthen vessel glazed until they begin to froth, stirring them diligently that they burn not, begin hot, put them in a linen bag, and sprinkle them with Aromatic Wine, and press out the oil according to art.

Culpeper : It is profitable in fistulas, and malignant ulcers, it causes the hair to grow, it clears the skin, and takes away deformities thereof, viz. tetters, ringworms, morphew, scabs.
SIMPLE OILS BY INFUSION AND DECOCTION
Oil of Roses omphacine
College : Take of red Roses before they be ripe, bruised in a stone mortar, four ounces, oil Omphacine one pound, set them in a hot sun, in a glass close stopped, a whole week, shaking them every day, then boil them gently in a bath, press them out, and put in others, use them in like manner, do so a third time: then keep the Oil upon a pound of juice of Roses.
Oil of Roses complete
Is made in the same manner, with sweet and ripe oil, often washed, and red Roses fully open, bruised, set in the sun, and boiled gently in a double vessel, only let the third infusion stand in the sun forty days, then keep the roses and oil together.
In the same manner is made Oil of Wormwood, of the tops of common Wormwood thrice repeated, four ounces, and three pounds of ripe oil; only, the last time put in four ounces of the juice of Wormwood, which evaporate away by gentle boiling.

Oil of Dill. Of the flowers and leaves of Dill four ounces, complete oil, one pound, thrice repeated.

Oil of Castoreum. Of one ounce of Castoreum oil one pound, Wine four ounces, which must be consumed with the heat of a bath.

Oil of Chamomel (which more than one call Holy) of complete oil, and fresh Chamomel flowers, the little white leaves taken away, cut, bruised, and the vessel covered with a thin linen cloth, set in the sun, pressed out, and three times repeated.

Oil of Wall-flowers, as oil of Dill.

Oil of Quinces. Of six parts of oil Omphacine, the meat and juice of Quinces one part, set them in the sun fifteen days in a glass, and afterwards boil them four hours in a double vessel, press them out, and renew them three times.

Oil of Elecampane. Of ripe oil, and the roots of Elecampane bruised, and their juice, of each one part, and of generous Wine half a part, which is to be evaporated away.

Oil of Euphorbium. Of six drams of Euphorbium, Oil of Wallflowers, and sweet Wine, of each five ounces, boiling it in a double vessel till the Wine be consumed.

Oil of Ants. Of winged Ants infused in four times their weight of sweet oil, set in the sun in a glass forty days, and then strain it out.

Oil, or Balsam of St. John's Wort simple, is made of the oil of seeds beaten and pressed, and the flowers being added, and rightly set in the sun.

Oil of Jesmine, is made of the flowers of Jesmine, put in clear oil, and set in the sun and afterwards pressed out.

Oil of Orris, made of the roots of Orris Florentine one pound, purple Orris flowers half a pound: boil them in a double vessel in a sufficient quantity of decoction of Orris Florentine, and six pounds of sweet oil, putting fresh roots and flowers again and again; the former being cast away as in oil of Roses.

Oil of Earthworms, is made of half a pound of Earthworms washed in white Wine, ripe Oil two pounds, boiled in a double vessel with eight ounces of good white Wine till the Wine be consumed.

Oil of Marjoram is made with four ounces of the herb a little bruised, white Wine six ounces, ripe oil a pound, mixed together, let them be set in the sun repeated three times; at last boiled to the consumption of the Wine.

Oil of Mastich, is made of oil of Roses omphacine one pound, Mastich three ounces, Wine four ounces: boil them in a double vessel to the consumption of the Wine.

Oil of Melilot is made with the tops of the herb like oil of Chamomel.

Oil of Mints is made of the herb and oil omphacine, as oil of Roses.

Oil of Mirtles, is made of Mirtle berries bruised and sprinkled with sharp Wine one part, oil omphacine three parts; set it in the sun twenty-four days, and in the interim thrice renewed, boiled, and the berries pressed out.

Oil of Daffodils is made as oil of Roses.

Nard Oil is made of three ounces of Spikenard, sweet oil one pound and an half, sweet white Wine and clear water, of each two ounces and an half, boiled to the consumption of the moisture.

Oil of Water-lilies, is made of fresh white Water-lily flowers, one part, oil omphacine three parts, repeating the flowers as in oil of Roses.

Oil of Tobacco is made of the juice of Tobacco, and common oil, of each equal parts boiled in a bath.

Oil of Poppies, is made of the flowers, heads, and leaves of garden Poppies, and oil omphacine, as oil of Dill.

Oil of Poplars, is made of the buds of the Poplar tree three parts, rich white Wine four parts, sweet oil seven parts; first let the buds be bruised, then infused in the Wine and oil seven days, then boiled, then pressed out.

Oil of Rue, is made of the herb bruised, and ripe oil, like oil of Roses.

Oil of Savin is made in the same manner.
So also is Oil of Elder flowers made.

Oil of Scorpions, is made of thirty live Scorpions, caught when the sun is in the lion; oil of bitter Almonds two pounds, let them be set in the sun, and after forty days strained.

Oleum Cicyonium, is made of wild Cucumber roots, and their juice, of each equal parts; with twice as much ripe oil, boil it to the consumption of the juice.

Oil of Nightshade, is made of the berries of Nightshade ripe, and one part boiled in ripe oil, or oil of Roses three parts.

Oil of Styrax, is made of Styrax and sweet white Wine, of each one part, ripe oil four parts gently boiled till the Wine be consumed.

Oil of Violets, is made of oil omphacine, and Violet flowers, as oil of Roses.

Oil of Vervain, is made of the herb and oil, as oil of Mints.

Culpeper : That most of these oils, if not all of them, are used only externally, is certain; and as certain that they retain the virtues of the simples whereof they are made, therefore the ingenious might help themselves.

COMPOUND OILS BY INFUSION AND DECOCTION
Oleum Benedictum
Or Blessed Oil
College : Take of the roots of Carduus and Valerian, of each one ounce, the flowers of St. John's Wort two ounces, Wheat one ounce and an half, old Oil four ounces, Cypress Turpentine eight ounces, Frankincense in powder two ounces, infuse the roots and flowers, being bruised, in so much white Wine as is sufficient to cover them, after two days' infusion put in the Oil with the Wheat, bruised, boil them together till the Wine be consumed; then press it out, and add the Frankincense and Turpentine, then boil them a little, and keep it.
Culpeper : It is appropriated to cleanse and consolidate wounds, especially in the head.
Oleum de Capparibus
Or, Oil of Capers
College : Take of the bark of Caper roots an ounce, bark of Tamarisk, the leaves of the same, the seeds of Agnus Castus, Cetrach, or Spleenwort, Cypress roots, of each two drams, Rue one dram, oil of ripe Olives one pound, white Wine Vinegar, and white Wine, of each two ounces, cut them and steep them, and boil them (two days being elapsed) gently in a bath, then the Wine and Vinegar being consumed, strain it, and keep it.
Culpeper : The oil is opening, and heating, absolutely appropriated to the spleen, hardness and pains thereof, and diseases coming of stoppings there, as hypocondriac melancholy, the rickets, &c.
Oil of Castoreum compound
College : Take of Castoreum, Styrax Calamitis, Galbanum, Euphorbium, Opopanax, Cassia Lignea, Saffron, Carpobalsamum or Cubebs, Spikenard, Costus, of each two drams, Cypress, Squinanth, Pepper long and black, Savin, Pellitory of Spain, of each two drams and an half, ripe Oil four pounds, Spanish Wine two pounds, the five first excepted, let the rest be prepared as they ought to be, and gently boiled in the Oil and Wine, until the Wine be consumed, mean time the Galbanum, Opopanax, and Euphorbium beaten in fine powder, being dissolved in part of the Wine, and strained, let them be exquisitely mixed with it (while the oil is warm) by often stirring; the boiling being finished, put in the Styrax and Castoreum.
Culpeper : The virtues are the same with the simple.
Oleum Castinum
College : Take of the roots of bitter Castus two ounces, Cassia Lignea one ounce, the tops of Marjoram eight ounces, being bruised, steep them two days in twelve ounces of sweet white Wine; then with three pounds of sallad oil washed in white Wine, boil it in Balneo Mariæ till the Wine be consumed.
Culpeper : It heats, opens obstructions, strengthens the nerves, and all nervous parts, as muscles, tendons, ligaments, the ventricle; besides these, it strengthens the liver, it keeps the hairs from turning grey, and gives a good color to the body. I pray you take notice that this and the following oils, (till I give you warning to the contrary) are not made to eat.
Oleum Crocinum
Or, Oil of Saffron
College : Take of Saffron, Calamus Aromaticus, of each one ounce, Myrrh, half an ounce, Cardamoms nine drams, steep them six days, (the Cardomoms excepted, which are not to be put in till the last day,) in nine ounces of Vinegar, the day after put in a pound and an half of washed oil, boil it gently according to art, till the Vinegar be consumed, then strain it.
Culpeper : It helps pains in the nerves, and strengthens them, mollifies their hardness, helps pains in the matrix, and causes a good color.
Oil of Euphorbium
College : Take of Stavesacre, Sopewort, of each half an ounce, Pellitory of Spain six drams, dried Mountain Calamint one ounce and an half, Castus two drams, Castoreum five drams, being bruised, let them be three days steeped in three pounds and an half of Wine, boil them with a pound and an half of Oil of Wallflowers, adding half an ounce of Euphorbium, before the Wine be quite consumed, and so boil it according to art.
Culpeper : It hath the same virtue, only something more effectual than the simple.
Oleum Excestrense
Or, Oil of Exeter
College : Take of the leaves of Wormwood, Centaury the less, Eupatorium, Fennel, Hyssop, Bays, Marjoram, Bawm, Nep, Pennyroyal, Savin, Sage, Thyme, of each four ounces, Southernwood, Betony, Chamepitys, Lavender, of each six ounces, Rosemary one pound, the flowers of Chamomel, Broom, white Lilies, Elders, the seeds of Cummin, and Fenugreek, the roots of Hellebore black and white, the bark of Ash and Lemons, of each four ounces, Euphorbium, Mustard, Castoreum, Pellitory of Spain, of each an ounce, Oil sixteen pounds, Wine three pounds, the herbs, flowers, seeds, and Euphorbium being bruised, the roots, barks, and Castoreum cut, all of them infused twelve hours in the Wine and Oil, in a warm bath, then boiled with a gentle fire, to the consumption of the Wine and moisture, strain the Oil and keep it.
Culpeper : Many people by catching bruises when they are young, come to feel it when they are old: others by catching cold, catch a lameness in their limbs, to both which I commend this sovereign oil to bathe their grieved members with.
Oleum Hirundinum
Or, Oil of Swallows
College : Take of whole Swallows sixteen, Chamomel, Rue, Plantain the greater and lesser, Bay leaves, Pennyroyal, Dill, Hyssop, Rosemary, Sage, Saint John's Wort, Costmary, of each one handful, common Oil four pounds, Spanish Wine one pound, make it up according to art.
Culpeper : Both this and the former are appropriated to old bruises and pains thereof coming, as also to sprains.

Oleum Hyperici compositum
Or, Oil of St. John's Wort compound
College : Take of the tops of St. John's Wort four ounces, steep them three whole days in a pound of old Sallad Oil, in the heat either of a bath, or of the sun, then press them out, repeat the infusion the second or third time, then boil them till the wine be almost consumed, press them out, and by adding three ounces of Turpentine, and one scruple of Saffron, boil it a little and keep it.
Culpeper : See the simple oil of St. John's Wort, than which this is stronger.
Oleum Hyperici magis compositum
Or, Oil of St. John's Wort more compound
College : Take of white Wine three pounds, tops of St. John's Wort ripe and gently bruised, four handfuls, steep them two days in a glass, close stopped, boil them in a bath, and strain them strongly, repeat the infusion three times, having strained it the third time, add to every pound of decoction, old Oil four pounds, Turpentine six ounces, oil of Wormwood three ounces, Dittany, Gentian, Carduus, Tormentil, Carline, or Cordus Maria, Calamus Aromaticus, all of them bruised, of each two drams, Earth-worms often washed in white Wine two ounces, set it in the sun five or six weeks, then keep it close stopped.
Culpeper : Besides the virtue of the simple oil of St. John's Wort, which this performs more effectually, it is an excellent remedy for old bruises, aches, and sprains.
Oleum Irinum
Or, Oil of Orris
College : Take of the roots of Orris Florentine, three pounds four ounces, the flowers of purple Orris fifteen ounces, Cypress roots six ounces, of Elecampane three ounces, of Alkanet two ounces, Cinnamon, Spikenard, Benjamin, of each one ounce; let all of them, being bruised as they ought to be, be steeped in the sun, or other hot place, in fifteen pounds of old oil, and four pounds and an half of clear water, after the fourth day, boil them in Balneo Mariæ, the water being consumed, when it is cold, strain it and keep it.
Culpeper : The effects are the same with the simple, only 'tis stronger.
Oleum Marjoranæ
Or, Oil of Marjoram
College : Take of Marjoram four handfuls, Mother of Thyme two handfuls, the leaves and berries of Myrtles one handful, Southernwood, Water Mints, of each half an handful, being cut, bruised, and put in a glass, three pounds of Oil Omphacine being put to it, let it stand eight days in the Sun, or in a bath, close stopped, then strain it out, in the oil put in fresh simples, do so the third time, the oil may be perfected according to art.
Culpeper : It helps weariness and diseases of the brain and nerves, coming of cold; it helps the dead palsy, the back (viz. the region along the back bone) being anointed with it; being snuffed up in the nose, it helps Spasmus cynicus, which is a wrying the mouth aside; it helps noise in the ears being dropped into them, it provokes the menses, and helps the biting of venomous beasts; it is a most gallant oil to strengthen the body, the back being anointed with it; strengthens the muscles, they being chafed with it; helps head-ache, the forehead being rubbed with it.
Moscholæum
Or, Oil of Musk
College : Take two Nutmegs, Musk one dram, Indian leaf or Mace, Spikenard, Costus, Mastich, of each six drams, Styrax Calamitis, Cassia Lignea, Myrrh, Saffron, Cinnamon, Cloves, Carpobalsamum or Cubebs, Bdellium, of each two drams, pure Oil three pounds, Wine three ounces, bruise them as you ought to do, mix them, and let them boil easily, till the Wine be consumed, the Musk being mixed according to art after it is strained.
Culpeper : It is exceeding good against all diseases of cold, especially those of the stomach, it helps diseases of the sides, they being anointed with it, the stranguary, cholic, and vices of the nerves, and afflictions of the reins.
Oleum Nardinum
Or, Oil of Nard
College : Take of Spikenard three ounces, Marjoram two ounces, Wood of Aloes, Calamus Aromaticus, Elecampane, Cypress, Bay leaves, Indian leaf or Mace, Squinanth, Cardamoms, of each one ounce and a half, bruise them all grossly, and steep them in water and wine, of each fourteen ounces, Oil of Sesamin, or oil of Olives, four pounds and an half, for one day: then perfect the oil by boiling it gently in a double vessel.
Oleum Populeum. Nicholaus
College : Take of fresh Poplar buds three pounds, Wine four pounds, common Oil seven pounds two ounces, beat the Poplar buds very well, then steep them seven days in the oil and wine, then boil them in a double vessel till the wine be consumed, (if you infuse fresh buds once or twice before you boil it, the medicine will be the stronger,) then press out the oil and keep it.
Culpeper : It is a fine cool oil, but the ointment called by that name which follows hereafter is far better.

OINTMENTS MORE SIMPLE
Unguentum album
Or, white Ointment
College : Take of Oil of Roses nine ounces, Ceruss washed in Rose-water and diligently sifted, three ounces, white Wax two ounces, after the wax is melted in the oil, put in the Ceruss, and make it into an ointment according to art, add two drams of Camphire, made into powder with a few drops of oil of sweet Almonds, so will it be camphorated.
Culpeper : It is a fine cooling, drying ointment, eases pains, and itching in wounds and ulcers, and is an hundred times better with Camphire than without it.
Unguentum Egyptiacum
College : Take of Verdigris finely powdered, five parts, Honey fourteen parts, sharp Vinegar seven parts, boil them to a just thickness, and a reddish color.
Culpeper : It cleanses filthy ulcers and fistulas forcibly, and not without pain, it takes away dead and proud flesh, and dries.
Unguentum Anodynum
Or, an Ointment to ease pain
College : Take of Oil of white Lilies, six ounces, Oil of Dill, and Chamomel, of each two ounces, Oil of sweet Almonds one ounce, Duck's grease, and Hen's grease, of each two ounces, white Wax three ounces, mix them according to art.
Culpeper : Its use is to assuage pains in any part of the body, especially such as come by inflammations, whether in wounds or tumours, and for that it is admirable.
Unguentum ex Apio
Or, Ointment of Smallage
College : Take of the juice of Smallage one pound, Honey nine ounces, Wheat flower three ounces, boil them to a just thickness.
Culpeper : It is a very fine, and very gentle cleanser of wounds and ulcers.
Liniment of Gum Elemi
College : Take of Gum Elemi, Turpentine of the Fir-tree, of each one ounce and an half, old Sheep's Suet cleansed two ounces, old Hog's grease cleansed one ounce: mix them, and make them into an ointment according to art.
Culpeper : It gently cleanses and fills up an ulcer with flesh, it being of a mild nature, and friendly to the body.
Unguentum Aureum
College : Take of yellow Wax half a pound, common Oil two pounds, Turpentine two ounces, Pine Rozin, Colophonia, of each one ounce and an half, Frankincense, Mastich, of each one ounce, Saffron one dram, first melt the wax in the oil, then the Turpentine being added, let them boil together; having done boiling, put in the rest in fine powder, (let the Saffron be the last) and by diligent stirring, make them into an ointment according to art.
Basilicon, the greater
College : Take of white Wax, Pine Rozin, Heifer's Suet, Greek Pitch, Turpentine, Olibanum, Myrrh, of each one ounce, Oil five ounces, powder the Olibanum and Myrrh, and the rest being melted, make it into an ointment according to art.
Basilicon, the less
College : Take of yellow Wax, fat Rozin, Greek Pitch, of each half a pound, Oil nine ounces: mix them together, by melting them according to art.
Culpeper : Both this and the former, heat, moisten, and digest, procure matter in wounds, I mean brings the filth or corrupted blood from green wounds: they cleanse and ease pain.
Ointment of Bdellium
College : Take of Bdellium six drams, Euphorbium, Sagapen, of each four drams, Castoreum three drams, Wax fifteen drams, Oil of Elder or Wall-flowers, ten drams, the Bdellium, and Sagapen being dissolved in water of wild Rue, let the rest be united by the heat of a bath.
Unguentum de Calce
Or, Ointment of Chalk
College : Take of Chalk washed, seven times at least, half a pound, Wax three ounces, Oil of Roses one pound, stir them all together diligently in a leaden mortar, the wax being first melted by a gentle fire in a sufficient quantity of the prescribed oil.
Culpeper : It is exceeding good in burnings and scaldings.
Unguentum Dialthæ
Or, Ointment of Marsh-mallows
College : Take of common Oil four pounds, mussilage of Marsh-mallow roots, Linseed, and Fenugreek seed two pounds: boil them together till the watry part of the mussilage be consumed, then add Wax half a pound, Rozin three ounces, Turpentine an ounce, boil them to the consistence of an ointment, but let the mussilage be prepared of a pound of fresh roots bruised, and half a pound of each of the seeds steeped, and boiled in eight pounds of spring water, and then pressed out. See the compound.
Unguentum Diapompholygos
College : Take of Oil of Nightshade sixteen ounces, white Wax, washed, Ceruss, of each four drams, Lead burnt and washed, Pompholix prepared, of each two ounces, pure Frankincense one ounce: bring them into the form of an ointment according to art.
Culpeper : This much differing from the former, you shall have that inserted at latter end, and then you may use which you please.
Unguentum Enulatum
Or, Ointment of Elecampane
College : Take of Elecampane roots boiled in Vinegar, bruised and pulped, one pound, Turpentine washed in their decoction, new Wax, of each two ounces, old Hog's grease salted ten ounces, old oil four ounces, common salt one ounce, add the Turpentine to the grease, wax, and oil, being melted, as also the pulp and salt being finely powdered, and so make it into an ointment according to art.
Unguentum Enulatum cum Mercurio
Or, Ointment of Elecampane with Quicksilver
College : Is made of the former ointment, by adding two ounces of Quick-silver, killed by continual stirring, not only with spittle, or juice of Lemons, but with all the Turpentine kept for that intent, and part of the grease, in a stone mortar.
Culpeper : My opinion of this ointment, is (briefly) this: It was invented for the itch, without quick-silver it will do no good, with quick-silver it may do harm.
Unguentum Laurinum commune
Or, Ointment of Bays common
College : Take of Bay leaves bruised one pound, Bay berries bruised half a pound, Cabbage leaves four ounces, Neat's-foot Oil five pounds, Bullock's suet, two pounds, boil them together, and strain them, that so it may be made into an ointment according to art.
Unguentum de minie sive rubrum Camphora
Or, Ointment of red Lead
College : Take of Oil of Roses one pound and an half, red Lead three ounces, Litharge two ounces, Ceruss one ounce and an half, Tutty three drams, Camphire two drams, Wax one ounce and an half, make it into an ointment according to art, in a pestle and mortar made of Lead.
Culpeper : This ointment is as drying as a man shall usually read of one, and withal cooling, therefore good for sores, and such as are troubled with defluctions.
Unguentum e Nicotiona, seu Peto
Or, Ointment of Tobacco
College : Take of Tobacco leaves bruised, two pounds, steep them a whole night in red Wine, in the morning boil it in fresh Hog's grease, diligently washed, one pound, till the Wine be consumed, strain it, and add half a pound of juice of Tobacco, Rozin four ounces, boil it to the consumption of the juice, adding towards the end, round Birthwort roots in powder, two ounces, new Wax as much as is sufficient to make it into an ointment according to art.
Culpeper : It would take a whole summer's day to write the particular virtues of this ointment, and my poor Genius is too weak to give it the hundredth part of its due praise. It cures tumours, imposthumes, wounds, ulcers, gun-shot, stinging with nettles, bees, wasps, hornets, venomous beasts, wounds made with poisoned arrows, &c.
Unguentum Nutritum, seu Trifarmacum
College : Take of Litharge of Gold finely powdered, half a pound, Vinegar one pound, Oil of Roses two pounds, grind the Litharge in a mortar, pouring to it sometimes Oil, sometimes Vinegar, till by continual stirring, the Vinegar do no more appear, and it come to a whitish ointment.
Culpeper : It is of a cooling, drying nature, good for itching of wounds, and such like deformities of the skin.
Unguentum Ophthalmicum
Or, An Ointment for the Eyes
College : Take of Bole-ammoniac washed in Rose water, one ounce, Lapis Calaminaris washed in Eyebright Water, Tutty prepared, of each two drams, Pearls in very fine powder half a dram, Camphire half a scruple, Opium five grains, fresh Butter washed in Plantain Water, as much as is sufficient to make it into an ointment according to art.
Culpeper : It is exceeding good to stop hot rheums that fall down into the eyes, the eyelids being but anointed with it.
Unguentum ex Oxylapatho
Or, Ointment of sharp-pointed Dock
College : Take of the roots of sharp-pointed Dock boiled in Vinegar until they be soft, and then pulped, Brimstone washed in juice of Lemons, of each one ounce and an half, Hog's grease often washed in juice of Scabious, half a pound, Unguentum Populeon washed in juice of Elecampane, half an ounce: make them into an ointment in a mortar.
Culpeper : It is a wholesome, though troublesome medicine for scabs and itch.
Unguentum e Plumbo
Or, Ointment of Lead
College : Take of Lead burnt according to art, Litharge, of each two ounces, Ceruss, Antimony, of each one ounce, Oil of Roses as much as is sufficient: make it into an ointment according to art.
Culpeper : Take it one time with another, it will go neer to do more harm than good.
Unguentum Pomatum
College : Take of fresh Hog's grease three pounds, fresh Sheep's suet nine ounces, Pomewater pared and cut, one pound and nine ounces, Damask Rose-water six ounces, the roots of Orris Florentine grossly bruised six drams, boil them in Balneo Mariæ till the Apples be soft, then strain it, but press it not and keep it for use; then warm it a little again and wash it with fresh Rose-water, adding to each pound twelve drops of oil of Lignum Rhodium.
Culpeper : Its general use is, to soften and supple the roughness of the skin, and take away the chops of the lips, hands, face, or other parts.
Unguentum Potabile
College : Take of Butter without salt, a pound and an half, Spermaceti, Madder, Tormentil roots, Castoreum, of each half an ounce: boil them as you ought in a sufficient quantity of Wine, till the Wine be consumed, and become an ointment.
Culpeper : I know not what to make of it.
Unguentum Resinum
College : Take of Pine Rozin, or Rozin of the Pine-tree, of the purest Turpentine, yellow Wax washed, pure Oil, of each equal parts: melt them into an ointment according to art.
Culpeper : It is as pretty a Cerecloth for a new sprain as most is, and cheap.
Unguentum Rosatum
Or, Ointment of Roses
College : Take of fresh Hog's grease cleansed a pound, fresh red Roses half a pound, juice of the same three ounces, make it into an ointment according to art.
Culpeper : It is of a fine cooling nature, exceeding useful in all gallings of the skin, and frettings, accompanied with choleric humours, angry pushes, tetters, ringworms, it mitigates diseases in the head coming of heat, as also the intemperate heat of the stomach and liver.
Desiccativum Rubrum
Or, a drying Red Ointment
College : Take of the oil of Roses omphacine a pound, white Wax five ounces, which being melted and put in a leaden mortar, put in the Earth of Lemnos or Bole-ammoniac, Lapis Calaminaris, of each four ounces, Litharge of Gold, Ceruss, of each three ounces, Camphire one dram, make it into an ointment according to art.
Culpeper : It binds and restrains fluxes of humours.
Unguentum e Solano
Or, Ointment of Nightshade
College : Take of juice of Nightshade, Litharge washed, of each five ounces, Ceruss washed eight ounces, white Wax seven ounces, Frankincense in powder ten drams, oil of Roses often washed in water two pounds, make it into an ointment according to art.
Culpeper : It was invented to take away inflammations from wounds, and to keep people from scratching of them when they are almost well.
Or, Ointment of Tutty
College : Take of Tutty prepared two ounces, Lapis Calaminaris often burnt and quenched in Plantain Water an ounce, make them, being finely powdered, into an ointment, with a pound and an half of ointment of Roses.
Culpeper : It is a cooling, drying ointment, appropriated to the eyes, to dry up hot and salt humours that flow down thither, the eyelids being anointed with it.
Valentia Scabiosæ
College : Take of the juice of green Scabious, pressed out with a screw, and strained through a cloth, Hog's grease, of each as much as you will, heat the Hog's grease in a stone mortar, not grind it, putting in the juice by degrees for the more commodious mixture and tincture, afterwards set it in the sun in a convenient vessel, so as the juice may overtop the grease, nine days being passed, pour off the discolored juice, and beat it again as before, putting in fresh juice, set it in the sun again five days, which being elapsed, beat it again, put in more juice, after fifteen days more, do so again, do so five times, after which, keep it in a glass, or glazed vessel.
Tapsivalentia
College : Take of the juice of Mullen, Hog's grease, of each as much as you will, let the grease be cleansed and cut in pieces, and beat it with the juice, pressed and strained as you did the former ointment, then keep it in a convenient vessel nine or ten days, then beat it twice, once with fresh juice, until it be green, and the second time without juice beaten well, pouring off what is discolored, and keep it for use.
Tapsimel
College : Take of the juice of Celandine and Mullen, of each one part, clarified Honey, two parts, boil them by degrees till the juice be consumed, adding (the physician prescribing) Vitriol, burnt Alum, burnt Ink, and boil it again to an ointment according to art.

OINTMENTS MORE COMPOUND
Unguentum Agrippa
College : Take of Briony roots two pounds, the roots of wild Cucumbers one pound, Squills half a pound, fresh English Orris roots, three ounces, the roots of male Fern, dwarf Elder, water Caltrops, or Aaron, of each two ounces, bruise them all, being fresh, and steep them six or seven days in four pounds of old oil, the whitest, not rank, then boil them and press them out, and in the oil melt fifteen ounces of white Wax, and make it into an ointment according to art.
Culpeper : It purges exceedingly, and is good to anoint the bellies of such as have dropsies, and if there be any humour or flegm in any part of the body that you know not how to remove (provided the part be not too tender) you may anoint it with this; but yet be not too busy with it, for I tell you plainly it is not very safe.
Unguentum Amarum
Or, A bitter Ointment
College : Take of Oil of Rue, Savin, Mints, Wormwood, bitter Almonds, of each one ounce and an half, juice of Peach flowers and leaves, and Wormwood, of each half an ounce, powder of Rue, Mints, Centaury the less, Gentian, Tormentil, of each one dram, the seeds of Coleworts, the pulp of Colocynthis, of each two drams, Aloes Hepatic, three drams, meal of Lupines half an ounce, Myrrh washed in Grass water a dram and an half, Bull's Gall an ounce and an half, with a sufficient quantity of juice of Lemons, and an ounce and an half of Wax, make it into an ointment according to art.
Unguentum Apostolorum
Or, Ointment of the Apostles
College : Take of Turpentine, yellow Wax, Ammoniacum, of each fourteen drams, long Birthwort roots, Olibanum, Bdellium, of each six drams, Myrrh, Gilbanum, of each half an ounce, Opopanax, Verdigris, of each two drams, Litharge nine drams, Oil two pounds, Vinegar enough to dissolve the Gums, make it into an ointment according to art.
Culpeper : It consumes corrupt and dead flesh, and makes flesh soft which is hard, it cleanses wounds, ulcers, and fistulas, and restores flesh where it is wanting.
Unguentum Catapsoras
College : Take of Ceruss washed in Purslain water, then in Vinegar wherein wild Rhadish roots have been steeped and pressed out, Lapis Calaminaris, Chalcitis, of each six drams, burnt Lead, Goat's blood, of each half an ounce, Quick-silver sublimated an ounce, the juice of Houseleek, Nightshade, Plantain, of each two ounces, Hog's grease cleansed three pounds, Oil of Violets, Poppies, Mandrakes, of each an ounce: first let the sublimate and exungia, then the oils, juices, and powders, be mixed, and so made into an ointment according to art.
Unguentum Citrinum
Or, A Citron Ointment
College : Take of Borax an ounce, Camphire a dram, white Coral half an ounce, Alum Plume an ounce, Umbilicus Marinus, Tragacanth, white Starch, of each three drams, Crystal, Dentalis Utalis, Olibanum, Niter, white Marble, of each two drams, Gersa Serpentaria an ounce, Ceruss six ounces, Hog's grease not salted, a pound and an half, Goat's suet prepared, an ounce and an half, Hen's fat two ounces and an half. Powder the things as you ought to do both together, and by themselves, melt the fats being cleansed in a stone vessel, and steep in them two Citrons of a mean bigness cut in bits, in a warm bath, after a whole week strain it, and put in the powders by degrees, amongst which let the Camphire and Borax be the last, stir them, and bring them into the form of an ointment.
Unguentum Martiatum
College : Take of fresh Bay leaves three pounds, Garden Rue two pounds and an half, Marjoram two pounds, Mints a pound, Sage, Wormwood, Costmary, Bazil, of each half a pound, Sallad Oil twenty pounds, yellow Wax four pounds, Malaga Wine two pounds, of all of them being bruised, boiled, and pressed out as they ought, make an ointment according to art.
Culpeper : It is a great strengthener of the head, it being anointed with it; as also of all the parts of the body, especially the nerves, muscles, and arteries.
Unguentum Mastichinum
Or, An Ointment of Mastich
College : Take of the Oil of Mastich, Wormwood, and Nard, of each an ounce, Mastich, Mints, red Roses, red Coral, Cloves, Cinnamon, Wood of Aloes, Squinanth, of each a dram, wax as much as is sufficient to make it into an ointment according to art.
Culpeper : This is like the former, and not a whit inferior to it; it strengthens the stomach being anointed with it, restores appetite and digestion. Before it was called a stomach ointment.
Unguentum Neapolitanum
College : Take of Hog's grease washed in juice of Sage a pound, Quick-silver strained through leather, four ounces, oil of Bays, Chamomel, and Earthworms, of each two ounces, Spirit of Wine an ounce, yellow Wax two ounces, Turpentine washed in juice of Elecampane three ounces, powder of Chamepitys and Sage, of each two drams, make them into an ointment according to art.
Culpeper : A learned art to spoil people: hundreds are bound to curse such ointments, and those that appoint them.
Unguentum Nervinum
College : Take of Cowslips with the flowers, Sage, Chamepitys, Rosemary, Lavender, Bay with the berries, Chamomel, Rue, Smallage, Melilot with the flowers, Wormwood, of each a handful, Mints, Betony, Pennyroyal, Parsley, Centaury the less, St. John's Wort, of each a handful, oil of Sheep's or Bullock's feet, five pounds, oil of Spike half an ounce, Sheep's or Bullock's Suet, or the Marrow of either, two pounds: the herbs being bruised and boiled with the oil and suet, make it into an ointment according to art.
Culpeper : It is appropriated to the nerves, and helps their infirmities coming of cold, as also old bruised, make use of it in dead palsies, chilliness or coldness of particular members, such as the arteries perform not their office to as they ought; for wind anoint your belly with it; for want of digestion, your stomach; for the cholic, your belly; for whatever disease in any part of the body comes of cold, esteem this as a jewel.
Unguentum Pectorale
Or, A Pectoral Ointment
College : Take of fresh Butter washed in Violet Water six ounces, oil of Sweet Almonds four ounces, oil of Chamomel and Violets, white Wax, of each three ounces, Hen's and Duck's greese, of each two ounces, Orris roots two drams, Saffron half a dram. The two last being finely powdered, the rest melted and often washed in Barley or Hyssop water, make an ointment of them according to art.
Culpeper : It strengthens the breast and stomach, eases the pains thereof, helps pleurises and consumptions of the lungs, the breast being anointed with it.
Unguentum Resumptivum
College : Take of Hog's grease three ounces, the grease of Hens, Geese, and Ducks, of each two ounces, Oesipus half an ounce, oil of Violets, Chamomel, and Dill, fresh Butter a pound, white Wax six ounces, mussilage of Gum Tragacanth, Arabic, Quince seeds, Lin-seeds, Marsh-mallow roots, of each half an ounce. Let the mussilages be made in Rose water, and adding the rest, make it into an ointment according to art.
Culpeper : It mightily molifies without any manifest heat, and is therefore a fit ointment for such as have agues, asthmas, hectic fevers, or consumptions. It is a good ointment to ease pains coming by inflammations of wounds or aposthumes, especially such as dryness accompanies, an infirmity wounded people are many times troubled with. In inward aposthumes, as pleurises, one of them to anoint the external region of the part, is very beneficial.
Unguentum Splanchnicum
College : Take of Oil of Capers an ounce, oil of white Lillies, Chamomel, fresh Butter, juice of Briony and Sowbread, of each half an ounce, boil it to the consumption of the juice, add Ammoniacum dissolved in Vinegar, two drams and an half, Hen's grease, Oesypus, Marrow of a Calf's Leg, of each half an ounce, powder of the bark of the roots of Tamaris and Capers, Fern roots, Cetrach, of each a dram, the seeds of Agnus Castuus, and Broom, of each a scruple, with a sufficient quantity of Wax, make it into an ointment according to art.
Unguentum Splanchnicum Magistrale
College : Take of the bark of Caper roots six drams, Briony roots, Orris Florentine, powder of sweet Fennel seeds, Ammoniacum dissolved in Vinegar, of each half an ounce, tops of Wormwood, Chamomel flowers, of each a dram, ointment of the juice and of flowers of Oranges, of each six drams, oil of Orris and Capers, of each an ounce and an half: the things which ought being powdered and sifted, the rest diligently mixed in a hot mortar, make it into an ointment according to art.
Culpeper : Both these ointments are appropriated to the spleen, and eases the pains thereof, the sides being anointed with them. I fancy not the former.
Unguentum e Succis
Or, Ointment of Juices
College : Take of the juice of Dwarf-Elder eight ounces, of Smallage and Parsley, of each four ounces, Wormwood and Orris, of each five ounces, common Oil half a pound, oil of white Lilies ten ounces, of Wormwood and Chamomel, of each six ounces, the fat of Ducks and Hens, of each two ounces, boil them together with a gentle fire till the juice be consumed, then strain it, and with seven ounces of white Wax, and a little white Wine Vinegar, make it into an ointment according to art. See Unguentum ex Succis Aperitivis.
Unguentum Sumach
College : Take of Sumach, unripe Galls, Myrtle berries, Balaustines, Pomegranate Pills, Acorn Cups, Cypress Nuts, Acacia, Mastich, of each ten drams, white Wax five ounces, oil of Roses often washed in Alum water, a pound and ten ounces, make a fine powder of the things you can, and steep them four whole days in juice of Medlars and Services, of each a sufficient quantity, then dry them by a gentle fire, and with the oil and wax boil it into an ointment.
Culpeper : It is a gallant drying and binding ointment. Besides, the stomach anointed with it, stays vomiting, and the belly anointed with it stays looseness, if the fundament fall out, when you have put it up again anoint it with this ointment, and it will fall out no more. Do the like by the womb if that fall out.
Ointment of Marsh-mallows, compound. Nicholaus
College : Take of Marsh-mallow roots two pounds, the seeds of Flax and Fœnugreek, of each one pound, pulp of Squills half a pound, Oil four pounds, Wax one pound, Turpentine, Gum of Ivy, Galbanum, of each two ounces, Colophonia, Rozin, of each half a pound. Let the roots be well washed and bruised, as also the Linseed, Fœnugreek seed, and Squills, then steep them three days in eight pints of water, the fourth day boil them a little upon the fire, and draw out the mussilage, of which take two pounds, and boil it with the oil to the consumption of the juice, afterwards add the Wax, Rozin, and Colophonia, when they are melted, add the Turpentine, afterwards the Galbanum and Gum of Ivy, dissolved in Vinegar, boil them a little, and having removed them from the fire, stir them till they are cold, that so they may be well incorporated.
Culpeper : It heats and moistens, helps pains of the breast coming of cold and pleurises, old aches, and stitches, and softens hard swellings.
Unguentum Diapompholigos nihili. Nicholaus
College : Take of Oil of Roses sixteen ounces, juice of Nightshade six ounces, let them boil to the consumption of the juice, then add white Wax five ounces, Ceruss washed two ounces, Lead burnt and washed, Pompholix prepared, pure Frankincense, of each an ounce, let them be brought into the form of an ointment according to art.
Culpeper : It cools and binds, drys, and stays fluxes, either of blood or humours in wounds, and fills hollow ulcers with flesh.
Unguentum Refrigerans. Galenus
It is also called a Cerecloath
College : Take of white Wax four ounces, Oil of Roses omphacine one pound, melt it in a double vessel, then pour it out into another, by degrees putting in cold water, and often pouring it out of one vessel into another, stirring it till it be white, last of all wash it in Rose water, adding a little Rose Water, and Rose Vinegar.
Culpeper : It is a fine cooling thing, to cure inflammations in wounds or tumours.
Unguentum e Succis Aperitivis primum. Fœsius
College : Take of the juice of Smallage, Endive, Mints, Wormwood, common Parsley, Valerian, of each three ounces, oil of Wormwood and Mints, of each half a pound, yellow Wax three ounces, mix them together over the fire, and make of them an ointment.
Culpeper : It opens stoppages of the stomach and spleen, cases the rickets, the breast and sides being anointed with it.
An Ointment for the Worms. Fœsius
College : Take of oil of Rue, Savin, Mints, Wormwood, and bitter Almonds, of each an ounce and an half, juice of the flowers or leaves of Peaches, and Wormwood, of each half an ounce, powder of Rue, Mints, Gentian, Centaury the less, Tormentil, of each one dram, the seeds of Coleworts, the pulp of Colocynthis, of each two drams, Aloes Hepatic, three drams, the meal of Lupines half an ounce, Myrrh washed in grass water a dram and an half, Bull's Galls an ounce and an half, with juice of Lemons, so much as is sufficient, and an ounce and an half of Wax, make it into an ointment according to art.
Culpeper : The belly being anointed with it kills the worms.

CERECLOATHS
Ceratum de Galbano
Or, Cerecloath of Galbanum
College : Take of Galbanum prepared, an ounce and an half, Assafœtida half an ounce, Bdellium a dram, Myrrh two drams, Wax two ounces, Carrot seeds a scruple, Featherfew, Mugwort, of each half a dram, dissolve the Gums in Vinegar, and make it a cerecloath according to art.
Culpeper : Being applied to the belly of a woman after labour, it cleanses her of any relicts accidently left behind, helps the fits of the mother, and other accidents incident to women in that case.
Ceratum Oesypatum
College : Take of Oesypus ten ounces, Oil of Chamomel, and Orris, of each half a pound, yellow Wax two pounds, Rozin a pound, Mastich, Ammoniacum, Turpentine, of each an ounce, Spikenard two drams and an half, Saffron a dram and an half, Styrax Calamitis half an ounce, make them into a cerecloath according to art.
Culpeper : It molifies and digests hard swellings of the liver, spleen, womb, nerves, joints, and other parts of the body, and is a great easer of pain.
Ceratum Santalinum
College : Take of red Sanders, ten drams, white and yellow Sanders, of each six drams, red Roses twelve drams, Bole-ammoniac seven drams, Spodium four drams, Camphire two drams, white Wax washed thirty drams, Oil of Roses omphacine six ounces: make it into a cerecloath according to art.
Culpeper : It wonderfully helps hot infirmities of the stomach, liver, and other parts, being but applied to them.

PLAISTERS
Emplastrum ex Ammoniaco
Or, A Plaister of Ammoniacum
College : Take of Ammoniacum, Bran well sifted, of each an ounce, Ointment of Marsh-mallows, Melilot plaister compound, roots of Briony, and Orris in powder, of each half an ounce, the fat of Ducks, Geese, and Hens, of each three drams, Bdellium, Galbanum, of each one dram and an half, Per-Rozin, Wax, of each five ounces, oil of Orris, Turpentine, of each half an ounce, boil the fats and oils with mussilage of Lin-seed, and Fenugreek seed, of each three ounces, to the consumption of the mussilage, strain it, and add the Wax, Rozin, and Turpentine, the ointment of Marshmallows with the plaister of Melilot; when it begins to be cold, put in the Ammoniacum, dissolved in Vinegar, then the Bdellium in powder, with the rest of the powders, and make it into a plaister according to art.
Culpeper : It softens and assuages hard swellings, and scatters the humours offending, applied to the side it softens the hardness of the spleen, assuages pains thence arising.
Emplastrum e Baccus Lauri
Or, A Plaister of Bay-berries
College : Take of Bay-berries husked, Turpentine, of each two ounces, Frankincense, Mastich, Myrrh, of each an ounce, Cypress, Costus, of each half an ounce, Honey warmed and not scummed, four ounces: make it into a plaister according to art.
Culpeper : It is an excellent plaister to ease any pains coming of cold or wind, in any part of the body, whether stomach, liver, belly, reins, or bladder. It is an excellent remedy for the cholic and wind in the bowels.
Emplastrum Barbarum Magnum
College : Take of dry Pitch eight pounds, yellow Wax six pounds and eight ounces, Per-Rozin five pounds and four ounces, Bitumen, Judaicum, or Mummy, four pounds, Oil one pound and an half, Verdigris, Litharge, Ceruss, of each three ounces, Frankincense half a pound, Roach Alum not burnt, an ounce and an half, burnt, four ounces, Opopanax, scales of Brass, Galbanum, of each twelve drams, Aloes, Opium, Myrrh, of each half an ounce, Turpentine two pounds, juice of Mandrakes, or else dried bark of the root, six drams, Vinegar five pounds. Let the Litharge, Ceruss, and Oil, boil to the thickness of Honey, then incorporate with them the Pitch, being melted with Bitumen in powder; then add the rest, and boil them according to art, till the vinegar be consumed, and it stick not to your hands.
Culpeper : It helps the bitings of men and beasts, eases inflammations of wounds, and helps infirmities of the joints, and gouts in the beginning.
Emplastrum de Betonica
Or, A Plaister of Betony
College : Take of Betony, Burnet, Agrimony, Sage, Pennyroyal, Yarrow, Comfrey the greater, Clary, of each six ounces, Frankincense, Mastich, of each three drams, Orris, round Birthwort, of each six drams, white Wax, Turpentine, of each eight ounces, PerRozin six ounces, Gum Elemi, Oil of Fir, of each two ounces, white Wine three pounds: bruise the herbs, boil them in the Wine, then strain them, and add the rest, and make them into a plaister according to art.
Culpeper : It is a good plaister to unite the skull when it is cracked, to draw out pieces of broken bones, and cover the bones with flesh. It draws filth from the bottom of deep ulcers, restores flesh lost, cleanses, digests, and drys.
Emplastrum Cæsarus
College : Take of red Roses one ounce and an half, Bistort roots, Cypress Nuts, all the Sanders, Mints, Coriander seeds, of each three drams, Mastich half an ounce, Hypocistis, Acacia, Dragon's blood, Earth of Lemnos, Bole-ammoniac, red Coral, of each two drams, Turpentine washed in Plantain water four ounces, Oil of Roses three ounces, white Wax twelve ounces, Per-Rozin ten ounces, Pitch six ounces, the juice of Plantain, Houseleek, and Orpine, of each an ounce, the Wax, Rozin, and Pitch being melted together, add the Turpentine and Oil, then the Hypocistis and Acacia dissolved in the juices, at last the powders, and make it into a plaister according to art.
Culpeper : It is of a fine, cool, binding, strengthening nature, excellently good to repel hot rheums or vapours that ascend up to the head, the hair being shaved off, and it applied to the crown.
Emplastrum Catagmaticum the first
College : Take of juice of Marsh-mallow roots six ounces, bark of Ashtree roots, and their leaves, the roots of Comfrey the greater and smaller with their leaves, of each two ounces, Myrtle Berries an ounce and an half, the leaves of Willow, the tops of St. John's Wort, of each an handful and an half, having bruised them, boil them together in red Wine, and Smith's Water, of each two pound, till half be consumed, strain it, and add Oil of Myrtles, and Roses omphacine, of each one pound and an half, Goat's suet eight ounces, boil it again to the consumption of the decoction, strain it again, and add Litharge of Gold and Silver, red Lead, of each four ounces, yellow Wax one pound, Colophonia half a pound, boil it to the consistance of a plaister, then add Turpentine two ounces, Myrrh, Frankincense, Mastich, of each half an ounce, Bole-ammoniac, Earth of Lemnos, of each one ounce, stir them about well till they be boiled, and made into an emplaister according to art.
Catagmaticum the second
College : Take of the roots of Comfrey the greater, Marshmallows, Misselto of the Oak, of each two ounces, Plantain, Chamepitys, St. John's Wort, of each a handful, boil them in equal parts of black Wine, and Smith's Water till half be consumed, strain it, and add mussilage of Quince seeds made in Tripe water, Oil of Mastich and Roses, of each four ounces, boil it to the consumption of the humidity, and having strained it, add Litharge of Gold four ounces, boil it to the consistence of an emplaister, then add yellow Wax four ounces, Turpentine three ounces, Colophonia six drams, Ship Pitch ten ounces, powders of Balaustines, Roses, Myrtles, Acacia, of each half an ounce, Mummy, Androsamum, Mastich, Amber, of each six drams, Bole-ammoniac fine flowers, Frankincense, of each twelve drams, Dragon's blood two ounces: make it into a plaister according to art.
Culpeper : Both this and the former are binding and drying, the former rules will instruct you in the use.
Emplastrum Cephalicum
Or, A Cephalic Plaister
College : Take of Rozin two ounces, black Pitch one ounce, Labdanum, Turpentine, flower of Beans, and Orobus, Dove's dung, of each half an ounce, Myrrh, Mastich, of each one dram and an half, Gum of Juniper, Nutmegs, of each two drams, dissolve the Myrrh and Labdanum in a hot mortar, and adding the rest, make it into a plaister according to art. If you will have it stronger, add the powders, Euphorbium, Pellitory of Spain, and black Pepper, of each two scruples.
Culpeper : It is proper to strengthen the brain, and repel such vapours as annoy it, and those powders being added, it dries up the superfluous moisture thereof, and eases the eyes of hot scalding vapours that annoy them.
Emplastrum de Cerussa
Or, A Plaister of Ceruss
College : Take of Ceruss in fine powder, white Wax, Sallad Oil, of each three ounces, add the Oil by degrees to the Ceruss, and boil it by continual stirring over a gentle fire, till it begin to swell, then add the Wax cut small by degrees, and boil it to its just consistence.
Culpeper : It helps burns, dry scabs, and hot ulcers, and in general whatever sores abound with moisture.
Emplastrum ex Cicuta cum Ammoniaco
Or, A Plaister of Hemlock with Ammoniacum
College : Take of the juice of Hemlock four ounces, Vinegar, of Squills, and Ammoniacum, of each eight ounces, dissolve the Gum in the juice and Vinegar, after a due infusion, then strain it into its just consistence according to art.
Culpeper : I suppose it was invented to mitigate the extreme pains, and allay the inflammations of wounds, for which it is very good: let it not be applied to any principal part.
Emplastrum e crusta Panis
Or, A Plaister of a crust of Bread
College : Take of Mastich, Mints, Spodium, red Coral, all the Sanders, of each one dram, Oil of Mastich and Quinces, of each one dram and an half, a crust of Bread toasted, and three times steeped in red Rose Vinegar, and as often dried, Labdanum, of each two ounces, Rozin four ounces, Styrax Calamitis half an ounce, Barley meal five drams: make them into a plaister according to art.
Culpeper : I shall commend this for a good plaister to strengthen the brain as any is in the Dispensatory, the hair being shaved off, and it applied to the crown; also being applied to the stomach, it strengthens it, helps digestion, stays vomiting and putrefaction of the meat there.
Emplastrum e Cymino
Or, A Plaister of Cummin
College : Take of Cummin-seed, Bay-berries, yellow Wax, of each one pound, Per-Rozin two pounds, common Rozin three pounds, Oil of Dill half a pound, mix them, and make them into a plaister.
Culpeper : It assuages swellings, takes away old aches coming of bruises, and applied to the belly, is an excellent remedy for the wind cholic. This I have often proved, and always with good success.
Emplastrum Diacalciteos
College : Take of Hog's grease fresh and purged from the skins two pounds, oil of Olives omphacine, Litharge of Gold beaten and sifted, of each three pounds, white Vitriol burnt and purged four ounces: let the Litharge, grease, and oil boil together with a gentle fire, with a little Plantain water, always stirring it, to the consistence of a plaister, into which (being removed from the fire) put in the Vitriol and make it into a plaister according to art.
Culpeper : It is a very drying, binding plaister, profitable in green wounds to hinder putrefaction, as also in pestilential sores after they are broken, and ruptures, and also in burnings and scaldings.
Diachylon simple
College : Take of mussilage of Linseed, Fenugreek seed, Marsh-mallow roots, of each one pound, old Oil three pounds: boil it to the consumption of the mussilage, strain it, and add Litharge of Gold in fine powder, one pound and an half: boil them with a little water over a gentle fire always stirring them to a just thickness.
Culpeper : It is an exceeding good remedy for all swellings without pain, it softens hardness of the liver and spleen, it is very gentle.
Diachylon Ireatum
College : Add one ounce of Orris in powder to every pound of Diachylon simple.
Diachylon Magnum
College : Take of mussilage of Raisins, fat Figs, Mastich, Mallow-roots, Linseeds, and Fenugreek-seeds, Bird-lime, the juice of Orris and Squills, of each twelve drams and an half, œsypus or oil of Sheep's feet an ounce and an half, Oil of Orris, Chamomel, Dill, of each eight ounces, litharge of Gold in fine powder one pound, Turpentine three ounces, Per-Rozin, yellow Wax, of each two ounces, boil the oil with the mussilages and juices to the consumption of the humidity, strain the oil from the faces, and by adding the Litharge boil it to its consistence; then add the Rozin and Wax; lastly, it being removed from the fire, add the Turpentine, œsypus and Birdlime, make of them a plaister by melting them according to art.
Culpeper : It dissolves hardness and inflammations.
Diachylon magnum cum Gummi
College : Take of Bdellium, Sagapenum, Amoniacum, of each two ounces, dissolved in Wine, and added to the mass of Diachylon magnum: first boil the gums being dissolved, to the thickness of Honey.
Culpeper : This is the best to dissolve hard swellings of all the three.
Diachylon compositum, sive Emplaistrum e Mussilaginibus
Or, A Plaister of Mussilages
College : Take of mussilages of the middle bark of Elm, Marsh-mallow roots, Linseed, and Fenugreek seed, of each four ounces and an half, oil of Chamomel, Lilies, and Dill, of each an ounce and an half, Ammoniacum, Galbanum, Sagapen, Opopanax, of each half an ounce, new Wax twenty ounces, Turpentine two ounces, Saffron two drams, dissolve the Gums in Wine, and make it into a plaister according to art.
Culpeper : It ripens swellings, and breaks them, and cleanses them when they are broken. It is of a most excellent ripening nature.
Emplaistrum Diaphœnicon hot
College : Take of yellow Wax two ounces, Per-Rozin, Pitch, of each four ounces, Oil of Roses and Nard, of each one ounce, melt them together, and add pulp of Dates made in Wine four ounces, flesh of Quinces boiled in red Wine an ounce, then the powders following: take of Bread twice baked, steeped in Wine and dried, two ounces, Mastich an ounce, Frankincense Wormwood, red Roses, Spikenard, of each two drams and an half, Wood of Aloes, Mace, Myrrh, washed Aloes, Acacia, Troches of Gallia Moschata, and Earth of Lemnos, Calamus Aromaticus, of each one dram, Labdanum three ounces, mix them and make them into a plaister according to art.
Culpeper : It strengthens the stomach and liver exceedingly, helps fluxes, apply it to the places grieved.
Diaphœnicon cold
College : Take of Wax four ounces, Ship Pitch five ounces, Labdanum three ounces and an half, Turpentine an ounce and an half, Oil of Roses one ounce, melt these, and add pulp of Dates almost ripe, boiled in austere Wine four ounces, flesh of Quinces in like manner boiled, Bread twice baked often steeped in red Wine and dried, of each an ounce, Styrax Calamitis, Acacia, unripe Grapes, Balaustines, yellow Sanders, troches of Terra Lemnia, Myrrh, Wood of Aloes, of each half an ounce, Mastich, red Roses, of each an ounce and an half, austere Wine as much as is sufficient to dissolve the juices, make it into a plaister according to art.
Culpeper : It strengthens the belly and liver, helps concoction in those parts, and distribution of humours, stays vomiting and fluxes.
Emplastrum Divinum
Or, A Divine Plaster
College : Take of Loadstone four ounces, Ammoniacum three ounces and three drams, Bdellium two ounces, Galbanum, Myrrh, of each ten drams, Olibanum nine drams, Opopanax, Mastich, long Birthwort, Verdigris, of each an ounce, Litharge, common Oil, of each a pound and an half, new Wax eight ounces: let the Litharge in fine powder be boiled with the oil to a thickness, then add the Wax, which being melted, take it from the fire, add the Gums dissolved in Wine and Vinegar, strain it, then add the Myrrh, Mastich, Frankincense, Birthwort, and Loadstone in powder, last of all the Verdigris in powder, and make it into a plaster according to art.
Culpeper : It is of a cleansing nature, exceeding good against malignant ulcers, it consumes corruption, engenders new flesh, and brings them to a scar.
Emplastrum Epispasticum
College : Take of Mustard seed, Euphorbium, long Pepper, of each one dram and an half, Stavesacre, Pellitory of Spain of each two drams, Ammoniacum, Galbanum, Phellium, Sagapen, of each three drams, whole Cantharides five drams, Ship Pitch, Rozin, yellow Wax, of each six drams, Turpentine as much as is sufficient to make it into a plaster.
Culpeper : Many people use to draw blisters in their necks for the tooth ache, or for rheums in their eyes; if they please to lay a plaster of this there, it will do it.
Emplastrum a nostratibus, Flos Unguentorum Dictum
Or, Flower of Ointments
College : Take of Rozin, Per Rozin, yellow Wax, Sheep's Suet, of each half a pound, Olibanum four ounces, Turpentine two ounces and an half, Myrrh, Mastich, of each an ounce, Camphire two drams, white Wine half a pound, boil them into a plaster.
Culpeper : I found this receipt in an old manuscript written in the year 1513, the quantity of the ingredients very little altered.
A Plaster of Gum Elemi
College : Take of Gum Elemi three ounces, Per Rozin, Wax, Ammoniacum, of each two ounces, Turpentine three ounces and an half, Mallaga Wine so much as is sufficient: boil it to the consumption of the Wine, then add the Ammoniacum dissolved in Vinegar.
Culpeper : The operation is the same with Arceus Liniment.
A Plaister of Lapis Calaminaris
College : Take of Lapis Calaminaris prepared an ounce, Litharge two ounces, Ceruss half an ounce, Tutty a dram, Turpentine six drams, white Wax an ounce and an half, Stag's Suet two ounces, Frankincense five drams, Mastich three drams, Myrrh two drams, Camphire a dram and an half, make it up according to art.
Emplastrum ad Herniam
College : Take of Galls, Cypress Nuts, Pomegranate Pills, Balaustines, Acacia, the seeds of Plantain, Fleawort, Watercresses, Acorn Cups, Beans torrified, Birthwort long and round, Myrtles of each half an ounce. Let these be powdered, and steeped in Rose Vinegar four days, then torrified and dried, then take of Comfrey the greater and lesser, Horsetail, Woad, Cetrach, the roots of Osmond Royal, Fearn, of each an ounce, Frankincense, Myrrh, Aloes, Mastich, Mummy, of each two ounces, Bole-ammoniac washed in Vinegar, Lap, Calaminaris prepared, Litharge of Gold, Dragon's blood, of each three ounces, Ship Pitch two pounds, Turpentine six ounces, or as much as is sufficient to make it into a plaster according to art.
Culpeper : The plaster is very binding and knitting, appropriated to ruptures or burstens, as the title of it specifies, it strengthens the reins and womb, stays abortion, it consolidates wounds, and helps all diseases coming of cold and moisture.
Emplastrum Hystericum
College : Take of Bistort roots one pound, Wood of Aloes, yellow Sanders, Nutmegs, Barberry Kernels, Rose seeds, of each one ounce, Cinnamon, Cloves, Squinanth, Chamomel flowers, of each half an ounce, Frankincense, Mastich, Alipta Moschata, Gallia Moschata, Styrax Calamitis, of each one dram, Mosch half a dram, yellow Wax one pound and an half, Turpentine half a pound, Moschæleum four ounces, Labdanum four pounds, Ship Pitch three pounds: let the Labdanum and Turpentine be added to the Pitch and Wax, being melted, then the Styrax, lastly the rest in powder, and sifted, that they may be made into a plaster according to art.
Culpeper : The plaster being applied to the navel, is a means to withstand the fits of the mother in such women as are subject to them, by retaining the womb in its place.
Emplastrum de Mastich
Or, A Plaster of Mastich
College : Take of Mastich three ounces, Bole-ammoniac washed in black Wine, an ounce and an half, red Roses six drams, Ivory, Myrtle Berries, red Coral, of each half an ounce, Turpentine, Colophonia, Tachamahacca, Labdanum, of each two ounces, yellow Wax half a pound, Oil of Myrtles four ounces: make it into a plaster according to art.
Culpeper : It is a binding plaster, strengthens the stomach being applied to it, and helps such as loath their victuals, or cannot digest it, or retain it till it be digested.
Emplastrum de Meliloto Simplex
Or, A Plaster of Melilot simple
College : Take of Rozin eight pounds, yellow Wax four pounds, Sheep's Suet two pounds: these being melted; add green Melilot cut small, five pounds: make it into a plaster according to art.
Emplastrum de Meliloto compositum
Or, A Plaster of Melilot compound
College : Take of Melilot flowers six drams, Chamomel flowers, the seeds of Fenugreek, Bay berries husked, Marsh-mallow roots, the tops of Wormwood and Marjoram, of each three drams, the seeds of Smallage, Ammi, Cardamoms, the roots of Orris, Cypress, Spikenard, Cassia Lignea, of each one dram and an half, Bdellium five drams: beat them all into fine powder, the pulp of twelve Figs, and incorporate them with a pound and an half of Melilot plaster simple, Turpentine an ounce and an half, Ammoniacum dissolved in Hemlock Vinegar, three ounces, Styrax five drams, oil of Marjoram, and Nard, of each half an ounce, or a sufficient quantity, make it into a plaster with a hot mortar and pestle, without boiling.
Culpeper : It mollifies the hardness of the stomach, liver, spleen, bowels, and other parts of the body: it wonderfully assuages pain, and eases hypochondriac melancholy, and the rickets.
Emplastrum de minio compositum
Or, A Plaster of red Lead compound
College : Take of Oil of Roses omphacine twenty ounces, oil of Mastich two ounces, Suet of a Sheep and a Calf, of each half a pound, Litharge of Gold and Silver, red Lead, of each two ounces, a taster full of Wine: boil them by a gentle fire continually stirring it till it grow black, let the fire be hottest towards the latter end, then add Turpentine half a pound, Mastich two ounces, Gum Elemi one ounce, white Wax as much as is sufficient: boil them a little, and make them into a plaster according to art.
Culpeper : It potently cures wounds, old maglignant ulcers, and is very drying.
Emplastrum de minio Simplicius
Or, A Plaster of red Lead simple
College : Take of red Lead nine ounces, Oil of red Roses one pound and an half, white Wine Vinegar six ounces, boil it into the perfect body of a plaster. It is prepared without Vinegar, thus: take of red Lead one pound, Oil of Roses one pound and an half, Wax half a pound, make it into a plaster according to art.
Culpeper : It is a fine cooling healing plaster, and very drying.
Emplastrum Metroproptoticon
College : Take of Mastich one ounce and an half, Galbanum dissolved in red Wine and strained, six drams, Cypress Turpentine two drams, Cypress Nuts, Galls, of each one dram and an half, oil of Nutmegs by expression one dram, Musk two grains and an half, Pitch scraped off from old ships two drams and an half; beat the Galbanum, Pitch, Turpentine, and Mastich gently in a hot mortar and pestle, towards the end, adding the Oil of Nutmegs, then the rest in powder, last of all the Musk mixed with a little Oil of Mastich upon a marble, and by exact mixture make them into a plaster.
Emplastrum Nervinum
College : Take of Oil of Chamomel and Roses, of each two ounces, of Mastich, Turpentine, and Linseeds, of each an ounce and an half, Turpentine boiled four ounces, Rosemary, Bettony, Horsetail, Centaury the less, of each a handful, Earth-worms washed and cleansed in Wine three ounces, tops of St. John's Wort a handful, Mastich, Gum Elemi, Madder roots, of each ten drams, Ship-pitch, Rozin of each an ounce and an half, Litharge of Gold and Silver, of each two ounces and an half, red Lead two ounces, Galbanum, Sagapen, Ammoniacum, of each three drams; boil the roots, herbs, and worms, in a pound and an half of Wine till half be consumed, then press them out, and boil the decoction again with the Oils, Suets, Litharge, and red Lead, to the consumption of the Wine: then add the Gums dissolved in Wine, afterwards the Turpentine, Rozin, Pitch, and Mastich, in powders and make them into a plaster according to art.
Culpeper : It strengthens the brain and nerves, and then being applied to the back, down along the bone, it must needs add strength to the body.
Emplastrum Oxycroceum
College : Take of Saffron, Ship-pitch, Colophonia, yellow Wax, of each four ounces, Turpentine, Galbanum, Ammoniacum, Myrrh, Olibanum, Mastich, of each one ounce and three drams. Let the Pitch and Colophonia be melted together, then add the Wax, then (it being removed from the fire) the Turpentine, afterwards the Gums dissolved in Vinegar, lastly the Saffron in powder, well mixed with Vinegar, and so make it into a plaster according to art.
Culpeper : It is of a notable softening and discussing quality, helps broken bones, and any part molested with cold, old aches, stiffness of the limbs by reason of wounds, ulcers, fractures, or dislocations, and dissipates cold swellings.
Emplastrum Stephaniaion
College : Take of Labdanum half an ounce, Styrax, Juniper Gum, of each two drams, Amber, Cypress, Turpentine, of each one dram, red Coral, Mastich, of each half a dram, the flowers of Sage, red Roses, the roots of Orris Florentine, of each one scruple, Rozin washed in Rose-water half an ounce, the Rozin, Labdanum, Juniper Gum, and Turpentine, being gently beaten in a hot mortar, with a hot pestle, sprinkling in a few drops of red Wine till they are in a body; then put in the powders, and by diligent stirring make them into an exact plaster.
Emplastrum Sticiticum
College : Take of Oil of Olives six ounces, yellow Wax an ounce and an half, Litharge in powder four ounces and an half, Ammoniacum, Bdellium, of each half an ounce, Galbanum, Opopanax Oil of Bays, Lapis Calaminaris, both sorts of Birthwort, Myrrh, Frankincense, of each two drams, pure Turpentine an ounce. Let the Oil, Wax, and Litharge be boiled together till it stick not to your fingers, then the mass being removed from the fire and cooled a little, and the Gums dissolved in white Wine Vinegar, which evaporate away by boiling, strain it strongly, then add the powders, Turpentine, and Oil of Bays, that it may be made into a plaster according to art.
Culpeper : It strengthens the nerves, draws out corruption, takes away pains and aches, and restores strength to members that have lost it: the last is most effectual.
Emplastrum Stomachicum Magistrale
Or, A Stomach Plaster
College : Take of Mints, Wormwood, Stœchas, Bay leaves, of each a dram, Marjoram, red Roses, yellow Sanders, of each two drams, Calamus Aromaticus, Wood of Aloes, Lavender flowers, Nutmegs, Cubebs, Galanga, long Pepper, Mace, of each a dram, Mastich three drams, Cloves two drams and an half, Oil of Mints an ounce and an half, Oil of Nard an ounce, Oil of Spike a dram, Rozin, Wax, of each four ounces, Labdanum three ounces, Styrax half an ounce: make it into a plaster.
Culpeper : Both this and the other of that name which you shall have by and by, strengthen the stomach exceedingly, help digestion and stay vomiting.
Emplastrum Ceroma, or, Ceroneum. Nich. Alex.
College : Take of Pitch scraped from a Ship that hath been a long time at Sea, yellow Wax, of each seven drams, Sagapenum six drams, Ammoniacum, Turpentine, Colophonia, Saffron, of each four drams, Aloes, Olibanum, Myrrh, of each three drams, Styrax Calamitis, Mastich, Opopanax, Galbanum, Alum, the seeds of Fenugreek, of each two drams, the settlings or faces of liquid Styrax, Bdellium, of each one dram, Litharge half a dram.
Culpeper : It is of a gentle emolient nature, prevails against stoppings of the stomach, coming of cold, hardness of the spleen, coldness of the liver and matrix.
Emplastrum Gratia Dei. Nich.
Or the Grace of God
College : Take of Turpentine half a pound, Rozin one pound, white Wax four ounces, Mastich an ounce, fresh Betony, Vervain, and Burnet, of each one handful. Let the herbs, being bruised, be sufficiently boiled in white Wine, the liquor pressed out, in which let the Wax and Rozin be boiled to the consumption of the liquor: being taken from the fire, let the Turpentine be mixed with it; lastly the Mastich in powder, and so make of them a plaster according to art.
Culpeper : It is excellent good in wounds and green ulcers, for it keeps back inflammations, cleanses and joins wounds, fills up ulcers with flesh.
Emplastrum de Janua, or of Betony. Nicholaus
College : Take of the juice of Betony, Plantain, and Smallage, of each one pound, Wax, Pitch, Rozin, Turpentine, of each half a pound, boil the Wax and Rozin in the juices with a gentle fire, continually stirring them till the juice be consumed; then add the Turpentine and Pitch, continually stirring it till it be brought into the consistence of a plaster according to art.
Emplastrum Isis Epigoni. Galen
College : Take of yellow Wax an hundred drams, Turpentine two hundred drams, scales of Copper, Verdigris, round Birthwort, Frankincense, Sal-ammoniac, Ammoniacum, burnt brass of each eight drams, burnt Alum six drams, Aloes, Myrrh, Galbanum, of each an ounce and a half, old Oil one pound, sharp Vinegar so much as is sufficient. Let the metals be dissolved in the sun with the Vinegar, then put in those things that may be melted, last of all the powders, and make them all into an emplaster.
Culpeper : Galen appropriates it to the head, and ulcers there. I know no reason but why it may as well serve for other parts of the body.
A Plaster of Mastich. Nich. Alex.
College : Take of Mastich, Ship Pitch, Sagapenum, Wax, of each six drams, Ammoniacum, Turpentine, Colophonia, Saffron, Aloes, Frankincense, Myrrh, of each three drams, Opopanax, Galbanum, Styrax, Calamitis, Alum, (Rondeletius appoints, and we for him) Bitumen, Fenugreek, of each two drams, the feces of Liquid Styrax, Bdellium, Litharge, of each half a dram. Let the Litharge, being beaten into powder, be boiled in a sufficient quantity of water; then add the pitch, which being melted, add the Wax and Ammoniacum, afterwards let the Sagapenum, Opopanax, and Galbanum be put in; then the Styrax and Feces being mixed with the Turpentine, last of all the Colophonia, Mastich, Frankincense, Bdellium, Alum, Myrrh, and Fenugreek in powder: let them be made into a plaster.
Culpeper : It strengthens the stomach, and helps digestion.
Emplastrum Nigrum. August.
Called in High Dutch Stichstaster
College : Take of Colophonia, Rozin, Ship Pitch, white Wax, roman Vitriol, Ceruss, Olibanum, Myrrh, of each eight ounces, Oil of roses seven ounces, Oil of Juniper Berries three ounces, Oil of Eggs two ounces, Oil of Spick one ounce, white Vitriol, red Coral, Mummy, of each two ounces, Earth of Lemnos, Mastich, Dragon's blood, of each one ounce, the fat of an Heron one ounce, the fat of Pimullus three ounces, Load stone prepared, two ounces, Earthworms prepared, Camphire, of each one ounce; make them into a plaster according to art.
Culpeper : It is very good in green wounds and shootings.

A Key to
Galen's Method of Physic
The general use of physic
I SHALL desire thee, whoever thou art, that intendest the noble (though too much abused) study of physic, to mind heedfully these following rules; which being well understood, shew thee the Key of Galen and Hippocrates their method of physic: he that useth their method, and is not heedful of these rules, may soon cure one disease, and cause another more desperate.
That thou mayest understand what I intend, it is to discover in a general way of the manifest virtues of medicines.
I say of the manifest virtues, and qualities, viz. such as are obvious to the senses, especially to the taste and smell: for it hath been the practice of most Physicians, in these latter ages as well as ours, to say, when they cannot give, nor are minded to study a reason, why an herb, plant, &c. hath such an operation, or produces such an effect in the body of man: It doth it by an hidden quality, for they not minding the whole creation, as one united body, not knowing what belongs to astral influence, not regarding that excellent harmony the only wise God hath made in a composition of contraries (in the knowledge of which consists the whole ground and foundation of physic) are totally led astray by Tradition.
It is the manifest qualities of medicines that here I am to speak to, and you may be pleased to behold it in this order.
SECTION 1. Of the Temperature of Medicines
SECTION 2. Of the appropriation of Medicines
SECTION 3. Of the Properties of Medicines
SECTION I
Of the Temperature of Medicines
HERBS, plants, and other medicines manifestly operate, either by heat, coldness, dryness, or moisture, for the world being composed of so many qualities, they and only they can be found in the world, and the mixtures of them one with another.
But that they may appear as clear as the sun when he is upon the meridian, I shall treat of them severally, and in this order:
1. Of Medicines temperate.
2. Of Medicines hot.
3. Of Medicines cold.
4. Of Medicines moist.
5. Of Medicines dry.
Of Medicines Temperate
If the world be composed of extremes, then it acts by extremes, for as the man is, so is his work: therefore it is impossible that any medicine can be temperate, but may be reduced to heat, cold, dryness, or moisture, and must operate, (I mean such as operate by manifest quality) by one of these, because there is no other to operate by, and that there should be such a temperate mixture, so exquisitely of these qualities in any medicine, that one of them should not manifestly excel the other, I doubt it is a system too rare to find.
Thus then I conclude the matter to be, those Medicines are called temperate (not because they have excess of temperature at all in them) which can neither be said, to heat nor cool so much as will amount to the first degree of excess, for daily experience witnesses that they being added to medicines, change not their qualities, they make them neither hotter nor colder.
Their use. They are used in such diseases where there is no manifest distemper of the first qualities, viz. heat and cold, for example: In obstruction of the bowels, where cold medicines might make the obstruction greater, and hot medicines cause a fever.
In fevers of flegm, where the cause is cold and moist, and the effect hot and dry; in such, use temperate medicines which may neither encrease the fever by their heat, nor condensate the flegm by their coldness.
Besides, because contraries are taken away by their contraries, and every like maintained by its like, they are of great use, to preserve the constitution of the body temperate, and the body itself in strength and vigour, and may be used without danger, or fear of danger, by considering which part of the body is weak, and using such temperate medicines as are appropriated to that part.
Of Medicines hot
The care of the ancient Physicians was such that they did not labour to hide from, but impart to posterity, not only the temperature of medicines in general, but also their degrees in temperature, that so the distempered part may be brought to its temperature, and no further; for all things which are of a contrary temperature, conduce not to cure, but the strength of the contrariety must be observed, that so the medicine may be neither weaker nor stronger, than just to take away the distemper; for if the distemper be but meanly hot, and you apply a medicine cold in the fourth degree, it is true, you may soon remove that distemper of heat, and bring another of cold twice as bad. Galen, de simp. med. facul. lib. 3. cap. 12.
Then, secondly, not only the distemper itself, but also the part of the body distempered must be heeded; for if the head be distempered by heat, and you give such medicines as cool the heart or liver, you will bring another disease, and not cure the former.
The degrees then of temperature are to be diligently heeded, which antient physicians have concluded to be four in the qualities, viz. heat and cold, of each we shall speak a word or two severally.
Of Medicines hot in the first degree
Those are said to be hot in the first degree, which induce a moderate and natural heat to the body, and to the parts thereof, either cold by nature, or cooled by accident, by which natural heat is cherished when weak, or restored when wanting.
Effect 1. The first effect then of medicines hot in the first degree, is, by their sweat and temperate heat to reduce the body to its natural heat, as the fire doth the external parts in cold weather, unless the affliction of cold be so great that such mild medicines will not serve the turn.
Effect 2. The second effect is, the mitigation of pain arising from such a distemper, and indeed this effect hath other medicines, some that are cold, and some that are hotter than the first degree, they being rationally applied to the distemper. These medicines the Greeks call Anodyna, and shall be spoken of in their proper places. In this place let it suffice that medicines hot in the first degree, make the offending humours thin, and expel them by sweat, or insensible transpiration, and these of all others are most congruous or agreeable to the body of man, for there is no such equal temperature of heat and cold in a sound man, but heat exceeds, for we live by heat and moisture, and not by cold.
Medicines then which are hot in the first degree, are such as just correspond to the natural heat of our bodies; such as are hotter or colder, are more subject to do mischief, being administered by an unskilful hand, than these are, because of their contrariety to nature; whereas these are grateful to the body by their moderate heat.
Effect 3. Thirdly, these take away weariness, and help fevers, being outwardly applied, because they open the pores of the skin, and by their gentle heat prepare the humours, and take away those fuliginous vapours that are caused by fevers.
Discommodities : Yet may discommodities arise by heedless giving even of these, which I would have young students in physic to be very careful in, lest they do more mischief than they are aware of, viz. it is possible by too much use of them, to consume not only what is inimical in the body, but also the substance itself, and the strength of the spirits, whence comes faintings, and sometimes death: besides, by applying them to the parts of the body they are not appropriated to, or by not heeding well the complexion of the patient, or the natural temper of the part of the body afflicted, for the heart is hot, but the brain temperate.
Effect 4. Lastly, medicines hot in the first degree, cherish heat in the internal parts, help concoction, breed good blood, and keep it good in temper, being bred.
Of Medicines hot in the second degree
These are something hotter than the natural temper of a man.
Use. Their use for such whose stomachs are filled with moisture, because their faculty is too hot and dry; they take away obstructions or stoppings, open the pores of the skin, but not in the same manner that such do as are hot in the first degree, for they do it without force, by a gentle heat, concocting, and expelling the humours, by strengthening and helping nature in the work; but these cut tough humours, and scatter them by their own force and power when nature cannot.
Of Medicines hot in the third degree
Those which attain the third degree of heat, have the same faculties with those before mentioned; but as they are hotter, so are they more powerful in their operations, for they are so powerful in heating and cutting, that if unadvisedly given they cause fevers.
Use. Their use is to cut tough and compacted humours, to provoke sweat abundantly; hence it comes to pass they all of them resist poison.
Of Medicines hot in the fourth degree
Those medicines obtain the highest degree of heat, which are so hot that they burn the body of a man, being outwardly applied to it, and cause inflammations, or raise blisters, as Crowfoot, Mustardseed, Onions, & c. Of these more hereafter.
Of cooling Medicines
Physicians have also observed four degrees of coldness in medicines, which I shall briefly treat of in order.
Of Medicines cold in the first degree
Those medicines which are least cold of all, obtain the first degree of coldness; and I beseech you take notice of this, that seeing our bodies are nourished by heat, and we live by heat, therefore no cold medicines are friendly to the body, but what good they do our bodies, they do it by removing an unnatural heat, or the body heated above its natural temper.
The giving then of cold medicines to a man in his natural temper, the season of the year also being but moderately hot, extinguishes natural heat in the body of man.
Yet have these a necessary use in them too, though not so frequent as hot medicines have; and that may be the reason why an all wise God hath furnished us with far more hot herbs and plants, &c. than cold.
Use 1. Their use is first, in nourishment, that so the heat of food may be qualified, and made for a weak stomach to digest.
Use 2. Secondly, to restrain and assuage the heat of the bowels, and to cool the blood in fevers.
Therefore if the distemper of heat be but gentle, medicines cold in the first degree will suffice; also children, and such people whose stomachs are weak, are easily hurt by cold medicines.
Of Medicines cold in the second and third degree
Use 1. Such whose stomachs are strong, and livers hot, may easily bear such medicines as are cold in the second degree, and in cases of extremity find much help by them: as also by such as are cold in the third degree, the extremity of the disease considered, for by both these the unbridled heat of choler is assuaged.
Use 2. Also they are outwardly applied to hot swellings, due consideration being had, that if the inflammation be not great, use
those that are less; if the inflammation be vehement, make use of medicines cold in the second or third degree, always let the remedy correspond to the just proportion of the affliction.
Use 3. Thirdly, sometimes the spirits are moved inordinately through heat, thence follows immoderate watchings, if not deprivation of the senses, this also must be remedied with cold medicines, for cold stops the pores of the skin, makes the humours thick, represses sweat, and keeps up the spirits from fainting.
Of Medicines cold in the fourth degree
Lastly, The use of medicines cold in the fourth degree, is, to mitigate desperate and vehement pains, stupifying the senses, when no other course can be taken to save life; of the use of which more hereafter.
Of moistening Medicines
There can be no such difference found amongst moistening medicines, that they should surpass the second degree. For seeing all medicines are either hot or cold, neither heat nor cold, seeing they are extremes, can consist with moisture, for the one dries it up, the other condensates it.
Use. Phylosophers therefore call moisture and dryness, passive qualities, yet have they their operation likewise; for moist medicines lenify and make slippery, ease the cough, and help the roughness of the throat. These operations are proper to medicines moist in the first degree.
Those which are moister, take away naturally strength, help the sharpness of humours, make both blood and spirits thicker, looses the belly, and fits it for purgation.
The immoderate or indiscreet use of them dulls the body, and makes it unfit for action.
Of drying Medicines

Drying medicines have contrary faculties to these, viz. to consume moisture, stop fluxes, and make such parts dry as are slippery, they make the body and members firm, when they are weakened by too much moisture, that so they may perform their proper functions.
Yet although the members be strengthened by drying medicines, they have notwithstanding their own proper moisture in them, which ought to be conserved, and not destroyed, for without it they cannot consist. If then this moisture be consumed by using, or rather over use of drying medicines, the members can neither be nourished, nor yet perform their proper actions.
Such medicines as are dry in the third degree, being unadvisedly given, hinder the parts of the body they are appropriated to, of their nourishment, and by that means brings them into consumption.
Besides, There is a certain moisture in the body of man, which is called radical moisture, which being taken away, the parts must needs die, seeing natural heat and life also consists in it, and this may be done by too frequent use of medicines dry in the fourth degree. And it may be this was the reason of Galen's writing, that things dry in the fourth degree, must of necessity burn; which is an effect of heat, and not of dryness, unless by burning, Galen means consuming the radical moisture.
The use then of drying medicines, is only to such bodies, and parts of the body, as abound with moisture, in which observe these rules.
1. If the moisture be not extreme, let not the medicine be extremely drying.
2. Let it be proper to the part of the body afflicted, for if the liver be afflicted by moisture, and you go about to dry the brain or heart, you may sooner kill than cure.
Thus have we briefly spoken of the first qualities of medicines, and in the general only, and but briefly, because we shall always touch upon them in the exposition of the other qualities, in which you must always have an eye to these.

SECTION II
Of the appropriation of Medicines to the several parts of the body
That the qualities and use of these medicines may be found out, and understood by every one, and so my country reap the benefit of my labour, they shall find them presented to their view in this order.
Medicines appropriated:
1. To the head.
2. To the breast and lungs.
3. To the heart.
4. To the stomach.
5. To the liver.
6. To the spleen.
7. To the reins and bladder.
8. To the womb.
9. To the joints
CHAPTER I
Of Medicines appropriated to the head
By [head] is usually understood all that part of the body which is between the top of the crown, and the uppermost joint of the neck, yet are those medicines properly called Cephalical, which are appropriated to the brain, not to the eyes, ears, nor teeth; neither are those medicines which are proper to the ears, proper also to the eyes, therefore (my intent being to write as plain as I can) I shall subdivide this chapter into these parts.
Medicines appropriated:
1. To the brain.
2. To the eyes.
3. To the mouth, and nostrils.
4. To the ears.
5. To the teeth.
For what medicines are appropriated to an unruly tongue, is not in my power at present to determine.
Of Medicines appropriated to the brain
Before we treat of medicines appropriated to the brain, it is requisite that we describe what the nature and affection of the brain is.
The brain, which is the seat of apprehension, judgment, and memory, the original of sense and motion, is by nature temperate, and if so, then you will grant me that it may easily be afflicted both by heat and cold, and it is indeed more subject to affliction by either of them, than any other part of the body, for if it be afflicted by heat, sense and reason, it is immoderately moved, if by cold, they languish, and are dulled, to pass by other symptoms which invade the head, if the brain be altered from its proper temper.
Also this is peculiar to the brain, that it is delighted or offended by smells, sights, and sounds, but I shall meddle no further with these here, because they are not medicines.
Cephalical Medicines may be found out from the affections of the brain itself. The brain is usually oppressed with moisture in such afflictions; therefore give such medicines as very gently warm,cleanse, cut, and dry: but withal, let them be such as are appropriated to the head, such as physicians say (by an hidden quality) strengthen the brain.
Again, if you consider the situation of the brain, you shall find it placed in the highest part of the body, therefore it is easily afflicted with hot vapours: this punishes a man with watching and headache, as the former did with sottishness and sleepiness, in such cases use such Cephalecs as gently cool the brain.
To make Cephalecs of Narcoticks, or stupifying medicines, is not my intent, for I am confident they are inimical both to brain and senses. Of these, and such medicines as also purge the brain, I shall speak by and by. To return to my purpose.
Some Cephalics purge the brain, some heat it, some cool it, some strengthen it; but how they perform this office peculiarly to the brain, most physicians confess they could neither comprehend by reason, nor describe by precepts, only thus, they do it by an hidden quality, either by strengthening the brain, thereby descending it from diseases, or by a certain antipathy between them and the diseases incident to the brain.
Lastly, for the use of Cephalics, observe, if the brain be much afflicted, you cannot well strengthen it before you have purged it, neither can you well purge the brain before you have cleansed the rest of the body, it is so subject to receive the vapours up to it; give cooling Cephalics when the brain is too hot, and hot Cephalics when it is too cold.
Beware of using cooling medicines to the brain when the crisis of a disease is near: how that time may be known, I shall (God assisting me) instruct you hereafter; let it suffice now, that according as the disease afflicting your head is, so let your remedy be.
Of Medicines appropriated to the eyes
Take such medicines as are appropriated to the eyes under the name of (Ocular Medicines). I do it partly to avoid multiplicity of words, and partly to instruct my countrymen in the terms of art belonging to physic, (I would have called them [Ophthalmics] had not the word been troublesome to the reading, much more to the understanding of a countryman) as I even now called such medicines [Cephalics] as were appropriated to the brain.
Ocular medicines are two-fold, viz. such as are referred to the visive virtues, and such as are referred to the eyes themselves.
Such as strengthen the visive virtue or the optick nerves which convey it to the eyes (say Doctors) do it by an hidden virtue, into the reason which no man can dive, unless they should fetch it from
the similitude of the substance. And yet they say a Goat's liver conduces much to make one see in the night, and they give this reason, because Goats see as well in the night as in the day. Yet is there no affinity in temperature nor substance between the liver and the eyes. However, Astrologers know well enough that all herbs, plants, &c. that are under the dominion of either sun or moon, and appropriated to the head, be they hot or cold they strengthen the visive virtue, as Eyebright, which is hot Lunaria, or Moonwort which is cold.
As for what appertains to the constitution of the eyes themselves, seeing they are exact in sense, they will not endure the least inconvenience, therefore such medicines as are outwardly applied to them (for such medicines as strengthen the visive virtues are always given inwardly) let them neither hurt by their hardness nor gnawing quality, nor be so tough that they should stick to them. Therefore let ocular medicines be neither in powders nor ointments, because oil itself is offensive to the eyes, and how pleasing powders are to them, you may perceive yourself by just going into the dust.
Medicines appropriated to the mouth and nose
Apply no stinking medicine to a disease in the nose, for such offend not only the nose, but also the brain; neither administer medicines of any ill taste to a disease in the mouth, for that subverts the stomach, because the tunicle of the mouth and of the stomach is the same: and because both mouth and nostrils are ways by which the brain is cleansed, therefore are they infected with such vices as need almost continual cleansing, and let the medicines you apply to them be either pleasant, or at least, not ingrateful.
Medicines appropriated to the ears
The ears are easily afflicted by cold, because they are always open, therefore they require hot medicines. And because they are of themselves very dry, therefore they require medicines which dry much.
Medicines appropriated to the teeth
Vehement heat, and vehement cold, are inimical to the teeth, but they are most of all offended by sharp and sour things, and the reason is, because they have neither skin nor flesh to cover them, they delight in such medicines as are cleansing and binding, because they are troubled with defluxions and rheums upon every light
occasion; and that's the reason the common use of fat and sweet things, soon rots the teeth.
CHAPTER II
Of Medicines appropriated to the breast and lungs
The medicines appropriated to the breast and lungs, you shall find called all along by the name of [pectorals] that's the term Physicians give them, when you hear them talk of pectoral Syrups, pectoral robs, or pectoral Ointments.
They are divers, some of which regard the part afflicted, others the matter afflicting.
But although sometimes in ulcers of the lungs, we are forced to use binding medicines, to join the ulcer, yet are not these called pectorals, because binding medicines are extreme hurtful to the breast and lungs, both because they hinder one's fetching his breath, and also because they hinder the avoiding that flegm by which the breast is oppressed.
Such medicines are called pectorals, which are of a lenifying nature.
Besides, those which make thin matter thicker are of two sorts, viz. some are mild and gentle, which may safely be administered, be the matter hot or cold which offendeth; others are very cold, which are used only when the matter offending is sharp.
But because such medicines as conduce to the cure of the phthisics (which is an ulceration of the lungs, and the disease usually called, the consumption of the lungs,) are also reckoned in amongst pectorals, it is not amiss to speak a word or two of them.
In the cure of this disease are three things to be regarded.
1. To cut and bring away the concreted blood.
2. To cherish and strengthen the lungs.
3. To conglutinate the ulcer.
And indeed some particular simples will perform all these, and physicians confess it; which shews the wonderful mystery the allwise God hath made in the creation, that one and the same simple should perform two contrary operations on the same part of the body; for the more a medicine cleanses, the more it conglutinates.
To conclude then, Pectoral Medicines are such as either cut and cleanse out the compacted humours from the arteries of the lungs, or make thin defluxions thick, or temper those that are sharp, help the roughness of the wind-pipe, or are generally lenitive and softening, being outwardly applied to the breast.
CHAPTER III
Of Medicines appropriated to the heart
These are they which are generally given under the notion of Cordials; take them under that name here.
The heart is the seat of the vital spirit, the fountain of life, the original of infused heat, and of the natural affections of man.
So then these two things are proper to the heart.
1. By its heat to cherish life throughout the body.
2. To add vigour to the affections.
And if these be proper to the heart, you will easily grant me, that it is the property of cordials to administer to the heart in these particulars.
Of Cordials, some cheer the mind, some strengthen the heart, and refresh the spirits thereof, being decayed.
Those which cheer the mind, are not one and the same; for as the heart is variously disturbed, either by anger, love, fear, hatred, sadness, &c., so such things as flatter lovers or appease the angry, or comfort the fearful, or please the hateful, may well be called cordials; for the heart, seeing it is placed in the middle between the brain and the liver, is wrought upon by reason, as well as by digestion, yet these, because they are not medicines, are beside my present scope.
And although it is true, that mirth, love, &c. are actions, or motions of the mind, not of the body; yet many have been induced to think such affections may be wrought in the body by medicines.
The heart is chiefly afflicted by too much heat, by poison, and by stinking vapours, and these are remedied by the second sort of cordials, and indeed chiefly belong to our present scope.
According to these three afflictions, viz.
1. Excessive heat.
2. Poison.
3. Melancholy vapours.
are three kinds of remedies which succour the afflicted heart.
Such as
1. By their cooling nature mitigate the heat of fevers.
2. Resist poison.
3. Cherish the vital spirits when they languish.
All these are called Cordials.
1. Such as cool the heart in fevers, yet is not every thing that cooleth cordial, for lead is colder than gold, yet is not lead cordial as gold is, some hold it cordial by a hidden quality, others by reason.
2. Such as resist poison; there is a two-fold resisting of poison.
1. By an antipathy between the medicine and poison.
2. By a sympathy between the medicine and the heart.
Of the first we shall speak anon, in a chapter by itself. The latter belongs to this chapter, and they are such medicines, whose nature is to strengthen the heart, and fortify it against the poison, as Rue, Angelica, &c. For as the operation of the former is upon the poison, which afflicteth the heart, so the operation of the latter is upon the heart afflicted by the poison.
To this class may be referred all such medicines as strengthen the heart either by astral influence, or by likeness of substance, if there be such a likeness in medicines, for a Bullock's heart is of like substance to man's, yet I question whether it be cordial or not.
3. And lastly, such as refresh the spirits, and make them lively and active, both because they are appropriated to the office, and also because they drive stinking and melancholy vapours from the heart, for as the animal spirit be refreshed by fragrant smells, and the natural spirits by spices, so are the vital spirits refreshed by all such medicines as keep back melancholy vapours from the heart, as Borrage, Bugloss, Rosemary, Citron Pills, the compositions of them, and many others, which this treatise will amply furnish you with.
CHAPTER IV
Of Medicines appropriated to the stomach
By stomach, I mean that ventricle which contains the food till it be concocted into chyle.
Medicines appropriated to the stomach are usually called stomachicals.
The infirmities usually incident to the stomach are three:
1. Appetite lost.
2. Digestion weakened.
3. The retentive faculty corrupted.
When the appetite is lost, the man feels no hunger when his body needs nourishment.
When digestion is weakened it is not able to concoct the meat received into the stomach, but it putrifies there.
When the retentive faculty is spoiled the stomach is not able to retain the food till it be digested, but either vomits it up again, or causes fluxes.
Such medicines then as remedy all these, are called stomachicals. And of them in order.
1. Such as provoke appetite are usually of a sharp or sourish taste, and yet withal of a grateful taste to the palate, for although loss of appetite may proceed from divers causes, as from choler in the stomach, or putrefied humours or the like, yet such things as purge this choler or humours, are properly called Orecticks, not stomachicals; the former strengthen appetite after these are expelled.
2. Such medicines help digestion as strengthen the stomach, either by convenient heat, or aromatic (viz. spicy) faculty, by hidden property, or congruity of nature.
3. The retentive faculty of the stomach is corrected by binding medicines, yet not by all binding medicines neither, for some of them are adverse to the stomach, but by such binding medicines as are appropriated to the stomach.
For the use of these.
Use 1. Use not such medicines as provoke appetite before you have cleansed the stomach of what hinders it.
Use 2. Such medicines as help digestion, give them a good time before meat that so they may pass to the bottom of the stomach, (for the digestive faculty lies there,) before the food come into it.
Use 3. Such as strengthen the retentive faculty, give them a little before meat, if to stay fluxes, a little after meat, if to stay vomiting.
CHAPTER V
Of Medicines appropriated to the liver
Be pleased to take these under the name of Hepatics, for that is the usual name physicians give them, and these also are of three sorts.
1. Some the liver is delighted in.
2. Others strengthen it.
3. Others help its vices.
The palate is the seat of taste, and its office is to judge what food is agreeable to the stomach, and what not, by that is both the quality and quantity of food for the stomach discerned: the very same office the meseraik veins perform to the liver.
Sometimes such food pleases the palate which the liver likes not (but not often) and therefore the meseraik veins refuse it, and that is the reason some few men fancy such food as makes them sick after the eating thereof.
1. The liver is delighted exceedingly with sweet things, draws them greedily, and digests them as swiftly, and that is the reason honey is so soon turned into choler.
2. Such medicines strengthen the liver, as (being appropriated to it) very gently bind, for seeing the office of the liver is to concoct, it needs some adstriction, that so both the heat and the humour to be concocted may be stayed, that so the one slip not away, nor the other be scattered.
Yet do not hepatical medicines require so great a binding faculty as stomachicals do, because the passages of the stomach are more open than those of the liver by which it either takes in chyle, or sends out blood to the rest of the body, therefore medicines that are very binding are hurtful to the liver, and either cause obstructions, or hinder the distribution of the blood, or both.
And thus much for the liver, the office of which is to concoct chyle, (which is a white substance the stomach digests the food into) into blood, and distributes it, by the veins, to every part of the body, whereby the body is nourished, and decaying flesh restored.
CHAPTER VI
Of Medicines appropriated to the spleen
In the breeding of blood, are three excrements most conspicuous, viz. urine, choler, and melancholy.
The proper seat of choler is in the gall.
The urine passeth down to the reins or kidneys, which is all one.
The spleen takes the thickest or melancholy blood to itself.
This excrement of blood is twofold: for either by excessive heat, it is addust, and this is that the Latins call Atra Bilis: or else it is thick and earthly of itself, and this properly is called melancholy humour.
Hence then is the nature of splenical medicines to be found out, and by these two is the spleen usually afflicted for Atra bilis, (I know not what distinct English name to give it) many times causes madness, and pure melancholy causeth obstructions of the bowels, and tumours, whereby the concoction of the blood is vitiated, and dropsies many times follow.
Medicines then peculiar to the spleen must needs be twofold also, some appropriated to Atra bilis, others to pure melancholy; but of purging either of them, I shall omit till I come to treat of purging in a chapter by itself.
1. Such medicines are splenical, which by cooling and moistening temper Atra bilis: let not these medicines be too cold neither, for there is no such heat in Atra bilis as there is in choler, and therefore it needs no such excessive cooling; amongst the number of these
are such as we mentioned amongst the cordials to repel melancholy vapours from the heart, such temper and assuage the malice of Atra bilis.
2. Those medicines are also splenical, by which melancholy humours are corrected and so prepared, that they may the more easily be evacuated: such medicines are cutting and opening, and they differ from hepaticals in this that they are no ways binding; for the spleen being no ways addicted to concoction, binding medicines do it harm, and not good.
3. Sometimes the spleen is not only obstructed, but also hardened by melancholy humours, and in such cases emolient medicines may be well called splenicals, not such as are taken inwardly, for they operate upon the stomach and bowels, but such as are outwardly applied to the region of the spleen.
And although sometimes medicines, are outwardly applied to hardness of the liver, yet they differ from splenicals, because they are binding, so are not splenicals.
CHAPTER VII
Of Medicines appropriated to the reins and bladder
The office of the reins is, to make a separation between the blood and the urine; to receive this urine thus separated from the blood, is the bladder ordained, which is of a sufficient bigness to contain it.
Both these parts of the body officiating about the urine, they are both usually afflicted by the vices of the urine.
1. By stones.
2. By inflammation.
3. By thick humours.
Medicines appropriated to the reins and bladder are usually called Nephriticals, and are threefold; some cool, others cut gross humours, and a third sort breaks the stone.
In the use of all these, take notice, that the constitution of the reins and bladder is such, that they abhor all binding medicines because they cause stoppage of urine.
Take notice, that the reins and bladder being subject to inflammations endure not very hot medicines.
Because the bladder is further remote from the centre of the body than the kidnies are, therefore it requires stronger medicines than the kidnies do, lest the strength of the medicine be spent before it be come to the part afflicted.
CHAPTER VIII
Of Medicines appropriated to the womb
These, physicians call Hystericals, and to avoid multiplicity of words, take them in this discourse under that notion.
Take notice that such medicines as provoke the menses, or stop them when they flow immoderately, are properly hystericals, but shall be spoken to by and by in a chapter by themselves.
As for the nature of the womb, it seems to be much like the nature of the brain and stomach, for experience teacheth that it is delighted with sweet and aromatical medicines, and flies from their contraries.
For example: a woman being troubled with the fits of the mother, which is drawing of the womb upward, apply sweet things, as Civet, or the like, to the place of conception, it draws it down again; but apply stinking things to the nose, as Assafœtida, or the like, it expels it from it, and sends it down to its proper place.
CHAPTER IX
Of Medicines appropriated to the joints
The joints are usually troubled with cephalic diseases, and then are to be cured by cephalic medicines.
Medicines appropriated to the joints, are called by the name Arthritical medicines.
The joints, seeing they are very nervous, require medicines which are of a heating and drying nature, with a gentle binding, and withal, such as by peculiar virtue are appropriated to them, and add strength to them. It is true, most cephalics do so, yet because the joints are more remote from the centre, they require stronger medicines.
For removing pains in the joints this is the method of proceeding.
Pain is either taken away or eased, for the true cure is to take away the cause of the pain, sometimes the vehemency of the pain is so great that you must be forced to use Anodines (for so physicians call such medicines as ease pain) before you can meddle with the cause, and this is usually when the part pained is inflamed, for those medicines which take away the cause of pain being very hot, if there be any inflammation in the part pained, you must abstain from them till the inflammation be taken away.

SECTION III
Of the propriety or operation of Medicines
CHAPTER I
Of Emolient Medicines
The various mixtures of heat, cold, dryness, and moisture in simples, must of necessity produce variety of faculties, and operations in them, which now we come to treat of, beginning first at emolients.
What is hard, and what is soft, most men know, but few are able to express. Phylosophers define that to be hard which yields not to touching, and soft to be the contrary. An emolient, or softening medicine is one which reduceth a hard substance to its proper temperature.
But to leave phylosophy, and keep to what the physicians describe hardness to be two-fold.
1. A distention or stretching of a part by too much fulness.
2. Thick humours which are destitute of heat, growing hard in that part of the body into which they flow.
So many properties then ought emolient medicines to have, viz. to moisten what is dry, to discuss what is stretched, to warm what is congealed by cold; yet properly, that only is said to mollify which reduceth a hard substance to its proper temperature.
Dryness and thickness of humours being the cause of hardness, emolient medicines must of necessity be hot and moist; and although you may peradventure find some of them dry in the second or third degrees, yet must this dryness be tempered and qualified with heat and moisture, for reason will tell you that dry medicines make hard parts harder.
Mollifying medicines are known, (1) by their taste, (2) by their feeling.
1. In taste, they are near unto sweat, but fat and oily; they are neither sharp, nor austere, nor sour, nor salt, neither do they manifest either binding, or vehement heat, or cold to be in them.
2. In feeling you can perceive no roughness, neither do they stick to your fingers like Birdlime, for they ought to penetrate the parts to be mollified, and therefore many times if occasion be, are cutting medicines mixed with them.
CHAPTER II
Of hardening Medicines
Galen in Lib. 5 de Simple, Med. Facult., Cap. 10 determines hardening medicines to be cold and moist, and he brings some arguments to prove it, against which other physicians contest.
I shall not here stand to quote the dispute, only take notice, that if softening medicines be hot and moist (as we shewed even now) then hardening medicines must needs be cold and dry, because they are contrary to them.
The universal course of nature will prove it, for dryness and moisture are passive qualities, neither can extremeties consist in moisture as you may know, if you do but consider that dryness is not attributed to the air, nor water, but to the fire, and earth.
2. The thing to be congealed must needs be moist, therefore the medicine congealing must of necessity be dry, for if cold be joined with dryness, it contracts the pores, that so the humours cannot be scattered.
Yet you must observe a difference between medicines drying, making thick, hardening, and congealing, of which differences, a few words will not do amiss.
1. Such medicines are said to dry, which draw out, or drink up the moisture, as a spunge drinks up water.
2. Such medicines are said to make thick, as do not consume the moisture, but add dryness to it, as you make syrups into a thick electuary by adding powders to them.
3. Such as congeal, neither draw out the moisture, nor make it thick by adding dryness to it, but contract it by vehement cold, as water is frozen into ice.
4. Hardness differs from all these, for the parts of the body swell, and are filled with flegmatic humours, or melancholy blood, which at last grows hard.
That you may clearly understand this, observe but these two things.
1.What it is which worketh.
2.What it worketh upon.
That which worketh is outwardly cold. That which is wrought upon, is a certain thickness and dryness, of humours, for if the humour were fluid as water is, it might properly be said to be congealed by cold, but not so properly hardened. Thus you see cold and dryness to be the cause of hardening. This hardening being so far from being useful, that it is obnoxious to the body of man. I pass it without more words. I suppose when Galen wrote of hardening medicines, he intended such as make thick, and therefore amongst them he reckons up Fleawort, Purslain, Houseleek, and the like, which assuage the heat of the humours in swellings, and stops subtil and sharp defluxions upon the lungs; but of these more anon.
CHAPTER III
Of Loosening Medicines
By loosening here, I do not mean purging, nor that which is opposite to astringency; but that which is opposite to stretching. I knew not suddenly what fitter English name to give it, than loosening or laxation, which latter is scarce English.
The members are distended or stretched divers ways, and ought to be loosened by as many, for they are stretched sometimes by dryness, sometimes by cold, sometimes by repletion or fullness, sometimes by swellings, and sometimes by some of these joined together. I avoid terms of art as much as I can, because it would profit my country but little, to give them the rules of physic in such English as they understand not.
I confess the opinion of ancient physicians hath been various about these loosening medicines. Galen's opinion was, that they might be referred either to moistening, or heating, or mollifying, or evacuating medicines, and therefore ought not to be referred to a chapter by themselves.
It is likely they may, and so may all other medicines be referred to heat, or coldness, or dryness, or moisture: but we speak not here of the particular properties of medicines, but of their joined properties, as they heat and moisten.
Others, they question how they can be distinguished from such as mollify, seeing such as are loosening, and such as are emolient, are both of them hot and moist.
To that, thus: stretching and loosening are ascribed to the moveable parts of the body, as to the muscles and their tendons, to the ligaments and Membranæ; but softness and hardness to such parts of the body as may be felt with the hand: I shall make clear by a similitude, Wax is softened, being hard, but Fiddle-strings are loosened being stretched. And if you say that the difference lying only in the parts of the body is no true difference, then take notice,
that such medicines which loosen, are less hot, and more moistening, than such as soften, for they operate most by heat, these by moisture.
The truth is, I am of opinion the difference is not much, nay, scarce sensible, between emolient and loosening medicines; only I quoted this in a chapter by itself, not so much because some authors do, as because it conduceth to the increase of knowledge in physic, for want of which, this poor nation is almost spoiled.
The chief use of loosening medicines is in convulsions and cramps, and such like infirmities which cause distention or stretching.
They are known by the very same marks and tokens that emolient medicines are.
CHAPTER IV
Of drawing Medicines
The opinion of physicians is, concerning these, as it is concerning other medicines, viz. some draw by a manifest quality, some by a hidden, and so (quoth they) they draw to themselves both humours and thorns, or splinters that are gotten into the flesh; however this is certain, they are all of them hot, and of thin parts; hot because the nature of heat is to draw off thin parts that so they may penetrate to the humours that are to be drawn out.
Their use is various, viz.:
Use 1. That the bowels may be disburdened of corrupt humours.
2. Outwardly used, by them the offending humour (I should have said the peccant humour, had I written only to scholars,) is called from the internal parts of the body to the superfices.
3. By them the crisis of a disease is much helped forward.
4. They are exceedingly profitable to draw forth poison out of the body.
5. Parts of the body over cooled are cured by these medicines, viz. by applying them outwardly to the place, not only because they heat, but also because they draw the spirits by which life and heat are cherished, to the part of the body which is destitute of them: you cannot but know that many times parts of the body fall away in flesh, and their strength decays, as in some persons arms or legs, or the like, the usual reason is, because the vital spirit decays in those parts, to which use such plaisters or ointments as are attractive (which is the physical term for drawing medicines) for they do not only cherish the parts by their own proper heat, but draw the vital
and natural spirits thither, whereby they are both quickened and nourished.
They are known almost by the same tokens that attenuating medicines are, seeing heat; and thinness of parts is in them both, they differ only in respect of quantity, thinness of parts being most proper to attenuating medicines, but attractive medicines are hotter.
CHAPTER V
Of discussive Medicines
The nature of discussing (or sweating) medicines is almost the same with attractive, for there are no discussive medicines but are attractive, nor scarce any attractive medicine but is in some measure or other discussing. The difference then is only this; that discussive medicines are hotter than attractive, and therefore nothing else need be written of their nature.
Use. Their use may be known even from their very name; for diseases that come by repletion or fulness, are cured by evacuation or emptying; yet neither blood nor gross humours are to be expelled by sweating, or insensible transpiration (as they call it) but the one requires blood-letting, the other purgation, but scrosus or thin humours and filthy vapours, and such like superfluities, are to be expelled by sweat, and be wary in this too, for many of them work violently, and violent medicines are not rashly to be given.
Caution 2. Besides, swellings are sometimes made so hard by sweating medicines, that afterwards they can never be cured; for what is thin being by such medicines taken away, nothing but what is perfectly hard remains: If you fear such a thing, mix emolients with them.
Caution 3. Again, sometimes by using discussives, the humours offending (which physicians usually call the peccant humours) is driven to some more noble part of the body, or else it draws more than it discusseth; in such cases, concoct and attenuate the matter offending before you go about to discuss it.
From hence may easily be gathered at what time of the disease discussive medicines are to be used, viz. about the declining of the disease, although in diseases arising from heat of blood, we sometimes use them in the encrease and state of them.
They are known by the same marks and tokens attenuating medicines are, viz. by their burning and biting quality, they being very hot, and of thin parts, void of any biting quality, therefore they contract not the tongue in tasting of them.
CHAPTER VI
Of repelling Medicines
Repelling medicines are of contrary operation to these three last mentioned, viz. attenuating, drawing, and discussive medicines. It is true, there is but little difference between these three, some hold none at all; and if you will be so nice, you may oppose them thus. And so medicines making thick, correspond to attenuating medicines, or such as make thin, repelling medicines are opposed to such as draw, and such as retain the humours and make them tough, are opposite to such as discuss, some hold this niceness needless.
2. The sentence of authors about repulsive medicines is various.
For seeing an influxion may be caused many ways, a repulsive hath got as many definitions.
For such things as cool, bind, stop, and make thick, stay influxions, and therefore repulsives are by authors opposed, not only to attractives, but also to attenuating, and discussing medicines.
But properly such things are called repulsives, which do not only stay influxions, (for so do such medicines which stop and make thick) but such as drive the humours flowing to, or inherit in the place, to some other place.
The truth is, binding is inherent to repulsives, so is not coldness nor making thick: Yet such as are binding, cold and thin in operation, are most effectual.
Your taste will find repulsives to be, tart, or sharp, or austere, with a certain binding which contracts the tongue.
Use 1. Their use is manifold, as in hot tumours, head-aches, or the like.
Use 2. By these in fevers are the vapours driven from the head, Vinegar of Roses is notable.
Time of giving. They are most commodious in the beginning and encrease of a disease, for then influxions most prevail.
But seeing that in the cure of tumours there are two scopes, 1. That that which flows to it may be repelled. 2. That that which is already in it may be discussed; repulsives are most commodiously used in the beginning, discussives in the latter end.
In the middle you may mix them, with this proviso, that repulsives exceed in the beginning, discussives in the latter end.
Caution 1. If the matter offending be of a venomous quality, either abstain from repulsives altogether, or use purging first, lest
the matter fly to the bowels and prove dangerous, especially if the bowels be weak.
2. Also forbear repulsives, if the pain be great.
3. Lastly, have a care lest by repulsives you contract the pores so much, that the matter cannot be removed by discussives.
CHAPTER VII
Of cleansing Medicines
Cleansing medicines can neither be defined by heat, nor coldness, because some of both sorts cleanse.
A cleansing medicine, then, is of a terrene quality, which takes away the filth with it, and carries it out.
Definition : Here, to avoid confusion, a difference must be made between washing and cleansing.
A thing which washeth, carries away by fluxion, as a man washeth the dirt off from a thing.
A cleansing medicine by a certain roughness or nitrous quality, carries away the compacted filth with it.
This also is the difference between cleansing and discussing medicines, the one makes thick humours thin, and so scatters them, but a cleansing medicine takes the most tenacious humour along with it, without any alteration.
Besides, of cleansing medicines, some are of a gentler nature, some are more vehement.
These are not known one and the same way; for some are sweet, some salt, and some bitter.
The use of cleansing is external, as the use of purges are internal.
They are used to cleanse the sanies and other filth of ulcers, yea, and to consume and eat away the flesh itself, as burnt Alum, precipitate, &c.
When these must be used, not only the effects of the ulcers, but also the temperature of the body will tell you.
For if you see either a disease of fulness, which our physicians call [Plethora : or corrupted humours which they call [Cacochyma : you must empty the body of these, viz. fulness by bleeding, and corrupt humours, or evil state of the body, by purging before you use cleansing medicines to the ulcer, else your cure will never proceed prosperously.
CHAPTER VIII
Of Emplasters
By Emplasters, here, I do mean things glutinative, and they are quite contrary to things cleansing.
They are of a far more glutinous and tenacious substance.
They differ from things stopping because they do not stop the pores so much, as stick to them like Birdlime.
They have a certain glutinous heat, tempered both with coldness and moisture.
From these plasters take their names.
Their taste is either none at all, or not discernable whether hot or cold, but fat, insipid, or without taste, or sweet, and viscous in feeling.
Their use is to stop flowing of blood, and other fluxes, to cause suppuration, to continue the heat, that so tumours may be ripened.
Also they are mixed with other medicines, that they may the better be brought into the form of an emplaster, and may stick the better to the members.
CHAPTER IX
Of suppuring Medicines
These have a great affinity with emolients, like to them in temperature, only emolients are somewhat hotter.
Yet is there a difference as apparent as the sun when he is upon the meridian, and the use is manifest. For,
Emolients are to make hard things soft, but what suppures, rather makes a generation than an alteration of the humour.
Natural heat is the efficient cause of suppuration, neither can it be done by any external means.
Therefore such things are said to suppure, which by a gentle heat cherish the inbred heat of man.
This is done by such medicines which are not only temperate in heat, but also by a gentle viscosity, fill up or stop the pores, that so the heat of the part affected be not scattered.
For although such things as bind hinder the dissipation of the spirits, and internal heat, yet they retain not the moisture as suppuring medicines properly and especially do.
The heat then of suppuring medicines is like the internal heat of our bodies.
As things then very hot, are ingrateful either by biting, as Pepper, or bitterness: in suppuring medicines, no biting, no binding, no nitrous quality is perceived by the taste, (I shall give you better satisfaction both in this and others, by and by.)
For reason will tell a man, that such things hinder rather than help the work of nature in maturation.
Yet it follows not from hence, that all suppuring medicines are grateful to the taste, for many things grateful to the taste provokes vomiting, therefore why may not the contrary be?
The most frequent use of suppuration is, to ripen Phlegmonæ a general term physicians give to all swellings proceeding of blood, because nature is very apt to help such cures, and physic is an art to help, not to hinder nature.
The time of use is usually in the height of the disease, when the flux is stayed, as also to ripen matter that it may be the easier purged away.
CHAPTER X
Of Medicines provoking urine
The causes by which urine is suppressed are many.
1. By too much drying, or sweating, it may be consumed.
2. By heat or inflammation of the reins or passages whereby it passes from the reins, it may be stopped by compression.
Urine is the thinnest part of blood, separated from the thickest part in the reins.
If then the blood be more thick and viscous than ordinary, it cannot easily be separated without cutting and cleansing medicines.
This is for certain, that blood can neither be separated nor distributed without heat.
Yet amongst diureticks are some cold things, as the four greater cold seeds, Winter-cherries, and the like. Although this seem a wonder, yet it may be, and doth stand with truth. For cool diureticks, though they further not the separation of the blood one jot, yet they cleanse and purge the passages of the urine. Diureticks then are of two sorts: 1. Such as conduce to the separation of the blood. 2. Such as open the urinal passages. The former are biting (and are known by their taste) very hot and cutting, whence they penetrate to the reins, and cut the gross humours there. Bitter things, although they be very hot, and cut gross humours, yet are they of a more dry and terrene substance than is convenient to provoke urine. Hence then we may safely gather, that bitter things are not so moist nor penetrating, as such as bite like Pepper.
CHAPTER XI
Of Medicines breeding flesh
There are many things diligently to be observed in the cures of wounds and ulcers, which incur and hinder that the cure cannot be speedily done, nor the separated parts reduced to their natural state.
Viz. fluxes of blood, inflammation, hardness, pain, and other things besides our present scope.
Our present scope is, to shew how the cavity of ulcers may be filled with flesh.
Such medicines are called Sarcoticks.
This, though it be the work of nature, yet it is helped forward with medicines, that the blood may be prepared, that it may the easier be turned into flesh.
These are not medicines which breed good blood, nor which correct the intemperature of the place afflicted, but which defend the blood, and the ulcer itself from corruption in breeding flesh.
For nature in breeding flesh produceth two sorts of excrements, viz. scrosus humours, and purulent dross.
Those medicines then which cleanse and consume, these by drying are said to breed flesh, because by their helps nature performs that office.
Also take notice that these medicines are not so drying that they should consume the blood also as well as the sanies, nor so cleansing that they should consume the flesh with the dross.
Let them not then exceed the first degree unless the ulcer be very moist.
Their difference are various, according to the part wounded, which ought to be restored with the same flesh.
The softer then, and tenderer the place is, the gentler let the medicines be.
CHAPTER XII
Of glutinative Medicines
That is the true cure of an ulcer which joins the mouth of it together.
That is a glutinative medicine, which couples together by drying and binding, the sides of an ulcer before brought together.
These require a greater drying faculty than the former, not only to consume what flows out, but what remains liquid in the flesh, for liquid flesh is more subject to flow abroad than stick to together.
The time of using them, any body may know without teaching, viz. when the ulcer is cleansed and filled with flesh, and such symptoms as hinder are taken away.
For many times ulcers must be kept open that the sanies, or fords that lie in them may be purged out, whereas of themselves they would heal before.
Only beware, lest by too much binding you cause pain in tender parts.
CHAPTER XIII
Of Medicines resisting poison
Such medicines are called Alexiteria, and Alexipharmaca, which resist poison.
Some of these resist poison by astral influence, and some physicians (though but few) can give a reason for it.
These they have sorted into three ranks:
1. Such as strengthen nature, that so it may tame the poison the easier.
2. Such as oppose the poison by a contrary quality.
3. Such as violently thrust it out of doors.
Such as strengthen nature against poison, either do it to the body universally, or else strengthen some particular part thereof.
For many times one particular part of the body is most afflicted by the poison, suppose the stomach, liver, brain, or any other part: such as cherish and strengthen those parts, being weakened, may be said to resist poison.
Such as strengthen the spirits, strengthen all the body.
Sometimes poisons kill by their quality, and then are they to be corrected by their contraries.
They which kill by cooling are to be remedied by heating, and the contrary; they which kill by corroding, are to be cured by lenitives, such as temper their acrimony.
Those which kill by induration, or coagulation, require cutting medicines.
Also because all poisons are in motion, neither stay they in one till they have seized and oppressed the fountain of life, therefore they have invented another faculty to stay their motion, viz. terrene and emplastic.
For they judge, if the poison light upon these medicines, they embrace them round with a viscous quality.
Also they say the ways and passages are stopped by such means, to hinder their proceeding; take Terra Lemnia for one.
Truly if these reasons be good, which I leave to future time to determine, it may be done for little cost.
Some are of opinion that the safest way is to expel the poison out of the body, so soon as may be, and that is done by vomit, or purge, or sweat.
You need not question the time, but do it as soon as may be; for there is no parlying with poison.
Let vomiting be the first, purging the next, and sweating the last. This is general. But, if thou dost but observe the nature and motion of the venom, that will be thy best instructor.
In the stomach it requires vomiting, in the blood and spirits, sweating, if the body be plethoric, bleeding, if full of evil humours, purging.
Lastly, The cure being ended, strengthen the parts afflicted.
CHAPTER XIV
Of purging Medicines
Much jarring hath been amongst physicians about purging medicines, namely, whether they draw the humours to them by a hidden quality, which in plain English is, they know not how; or whether they perform their office by manifest quality, viz. by heat, dryness, coldness, or moisture. It is not my present scope to enter the lists of a dispute about the business, neither seem it such an hidden thing to me that every like should draw its like, only to make the
matter as plain as I can, I subdivide this chapter into these following parts.
1. Cautions concerning purging.
2. Of the choice of purging medicines.
3. Of the time of taking them.
4. Of the correcting of them.
5. Of the manner of purging.
Cautions concerning purging
In this, first consider diligently, and be exceeding cautious in it too, what the matter offending is, what part of the body is afflicted by it, and which is the best way to bring it out.
Only here, by the way, first, have a care of giving vomits, for they usually work more violently, and afflict the body more than purges do, therefore are not fit for weak bodies; be sure the matter offending lie in the tunicle of the stomach, else is a vomit given in vain.
Vomits are more dangerous for women than men, especially such as are either with child, or subject to the fits of the mother.
What medicine is appropriated to the purging of such a humour, for seeing the offending matter is not alike in all, the purging medicine ought not to be the same to all. I shall speak more of this anon. As also of the divers ways whereby medicines draw out or cast out humours, viz. by lenifying, cleansing, provoking nature to expulsion, and (which is stranger than the doctor's hidden quality) some purge by binding, but indeed, and in truth, such as are properly called purging medicines, which, besides these faculties, have gotten another, by which they draw or call out the humours from the most remote parts of the body, whether these do it by heat or by an hidden quality, physicians are scarce able to determine, it being very well known to modern physicians, though the ancients denied it, that many cold medicines purge.
There is this faculty in all the purges of Galen's model, (because he gives the whole simple which must needs consist of divers qualities, because the creation is made up of and consists by an harmony of contraries) there is (I say) this faculty in all purges of that nature, that they contain in them a substance which is inimical both to the stomach and bowels, and some are of opinion this doth good, namely, provokes nature the more to expulsion; the reason might be good if the foundation of it were so, for by this reason nature herself should purge, not the medicine, and a physician should help nature in her business and not hinder her. But to forbear being critical, this substance which I told you was inimical to the stomach, must be corrected in every purge.

Culpeper's Last Legacies
SELECT MEDICINAL APHORISMS AND RECEIPTS
FOR MANY DISEASES OUR FRAIL NATURES ARE
INCIDENT TO
1.A general Caution
Let such as love their heads or brains, either forbear such things as are obnoxious to the brain, as Garlick, Leeks, Onions, beware of surfeiting and drunkenness.
2.To purge the Head
The head is purged by Gargarisms, of which Mustard, in my opinion, is excellent, and therefore a spoonful of Mustard put into the mouth, is excellent for one that is troubled with the lethargy: also the head is purged by sneezing; but be sure if you would keep your brain clear, keep your stomach clean.
3. For a rheum in the Head, and the Palsy
Take a red Onion, and bruise it well, and boil it in a little Verjuice and put thereto a little clarified honey, and a great spoonful of good Mustard, when it is well boiled, raise the sick upright, and let him receive the smell up his nose twice a day, whilst it is very hot.
4. For a rheum in the Head
Boil Pimpernel well in Wine, and drink a draught of the Wine in the evening, hot, but in the morning cold.
5. Another
Stew Onions in a close pot, and bathe the head and mouth, and nose therewith.
6. For the falling off of the Hair
Beat Linseeds very well, and mix them with Sallad-oil; and when you have well mixed them, anoint the head therewith, and in three or four times using it will help you.
7. To purge the Head
Chew the root of Pellitory of Spain, and chew it on both sides of thy mouth, and as the rheum falls down into thy mouth, spit it out, but retain the root there still, till you think the head is purged enough for that time.
FOR THE EYES, AND THEIR IMPEDIMENTS
8. For Eyes that are blasted
Only wear a piece of black Sarcenet before thy eyes, and meddle with no medicine; only forbear wine and strong drink.
9. An excellent water to clear the Sight
Take of Fennel, Eyebright, Roses, white, Celandine, Vervain and Rue, of each a handful, the liver of a Goat chopt small, infuse them well in Eyebright-water, then distil them in an alembic, and you shall have a water will clear the sight beyond comparison.
10. For a hurt in the Eye with a stroke
Take Agrimony, and bruise it very well, and temper it with white Wine, and the white of an egg: spread it pretty thick upon a cloth, like a plaster, and apply it to the outside of the eye-lid, and, although it be almost out, it will cure it.
11. To draw rheum back from the Eyes
Take an egg and roast it hard, then pull off the shell, and slit it in two, and apply it hot to the nape of the neck, and thou shalt find ease presently.
12. For the web in the Eye
Take the gall of a hare, and clarified honey, of each equal proportions: mix them together, and lay it to the web.
FOR THE EARS, AND THEIR IMPEDIMENTS
13.For Pain in the Ears
Drop a little oil of sweet Almonds into the ear, and it easeth the pain instantly; (and yet oil of bitter Almonds is our doctor's common remedy.)
14.For an Imposthume in the Ear
Boil some milk, and put it into a stone pot with a narrow mouth, and hold the sore ear over the pot whilst the milk is very hot, that the vapour of the milk may ascend into the ear: this is an often approved remedy to take away the pain, and break the imposthume.
FOR THE NOSE, AND ITS INFIRMITIES
15. For Polypus; or a fleshy substance growing in the Nose
Take the juice of Ivy, and make a tent with a little cotton, the which dip in the juice and put it up in the nostril.
16. To cleanse the Nose
Snuff up the juice of red Beet-root; it will cleanse not only the nose, but also the head; this is a singular remedy for such as are troubled with hard congealed stuff in their nostrils.
17. For bleeding at the Nose
Bind the arms and legs as hard as you can with a piece of taperibboning; that, perhaps, may call back the blood.
18.For a Canker in the Nose
Boil strong ale till it be thick, if the Canker be in the outside of the nose, spread it as a plaster, and apply it; if in the inside, make a tent of a linen rag, and put it up the nostril.
19. Another for the Polypus
The water of Adder's-tongue snuffed up the nose, is very good: but it were better, in my opinion, to keep a rag continually moistened with it in the nose.
20. For bleeding at the Nose
Take Amber and bruise into gross powder, put it upon a chafingdish of coals, and receive the smoke up into the nose with a funnel.
21. Another
When no other means will stop the bleeding at the nose, it has been known that it hath been stopped by opening a vein in the ear.
OF THE MOUTH, AND ITS DISEASES
22.A Caution
Whosoever would keep their mouth, or tongue, or nose, or eyes, or ears, or teeth, from pain or infirmities, let them often use sneezing, and such gargarisms as they were instructed in a preceding chapter; for, indeed, most of the infirmities, if not all, which infest those parts, proceed from rheum.
23.For extreme heat of the Mouth
Take Rib-wort, and boil it in red Wine, and hold the decoction as warm in your mouth as you can endure it.
24. For a Canker in the Mouth
Wash the mouth often with Verjuice.
OF THE TEETH, AND THEIR MEDICINES
25.A Caution
If you will keep your teeth from rotting, or aching, wash your mouth continually every morning with juice of Lemons, and afterwards rub your teeth either with a Sage-leaf, or else with a little Nutmeg in powder; also wash your mouth with a little fair water after meats; for the only way to keep teeth sound, and free from pain, is to keep them clean.
26. To keep Teeth white
Dip a little piece of white cloth in Vinegar of Quinces, and rub your gums with it, for it is of a gallant binding quality, and not only makes the teeth white, but also strengthens the gums, fastens the teeth, and also causeth a sweet breath.
27.To fasten the Teeth
Seethe the roots of Vervain in old Wine, and wash your teeth often with them, and it will fasten them.
28. For the Tooth-ache
Take the inner rind of an Elder-tree, and bruise it, and put thereto a little Pepper, and make it into balls, and hold them between the teeth that ache.
OF THE GUMS, AND THEIR INFIRMITIES
29. For a Scurvy in the gums
Take Cloves, and boil them in Rose-water, then dry them, and beat them to powder, and rub the gums with the powder, and drink the decoction in the morning fasting an hour after it. Use red Rose-water, for that is the best.
30.For rotting and consuming of the gums
Take Sage-water, and wash your mouth with it every morning, and afterwards rub your mouth with a Sage-leaf.
OF THE FACE, AND ITS INFIRMITIES
31. The Cause
It is palpable, that the cause of redness and breaking out of the face, is a venomous matter, or filthy vapours ascending from the stomach towards the head; where meeting with a rheum or flegm thence descending, mix with it, and break out in the face. Therefore let the first intention of cure be to cleanse the stomach.
32. Caution negative
Let such as are troubled with red faces, abstain from salt meats, salt fish and herrings, drinking of strong beer, strong waters or Wine, Garlick, Onions, and Mustard.
33. For a face full of red pimples
Dissolve Camphire in Vinegar, and mix it, and the Vinegar with Celandine-water, and wash the face with it: this cured a maid in twenty days, that had been troubled with the infirmity half so many years.
34. To take away the marks of the small pox
Take the juice of Fennel, heat it luke-warm, and when the small Pox are well scabbed, anoint the face with it divers times in a day, three or four days together.
OF THE THROAT, AND ITS INFIRMITIES
35. A caution
Diseases in the throat, most commonly proceed of rheum descending from the head upon the trachea arteria, or wind-pipe; in such cases there is many times no other cure than first to purge the body of flegm, and then the head of rheum, as you were taught in the first chapter.
36.For hoarseness
Take of sugar so much as will fill a common taster, then put so much rectified spirit of Wine to it as will just wet it, eat this up at night going to bed; use this three or four times together.
37.Another
If the body be feverish, use the former medicine as before, only use Oil of sweet Almonds, or for want of it, the best Sallad-oil instead of spirit of Wine.
38.Another
Take Penny-royal, and seethe it in running water, and drink a good draught of the decoction at night going to bed, with a little sugar in it.
39. For the Quinsey
Take notice that bleeding is good in all inflammations, therefore in this. It were very convenient that a syrup, and an ointment of Orpine were always ready in the house for such occasions; for I know no better remedy for the Quinsey, than to drink the one, and anoint the throat with the other.
OF WOMEN'S BREASTS, THEIR INFIRMITIES AND CURES
40.For sore breasts
Take a handful of Figs, and stamp them well till the kernels are broken, then temper them with a little fresh grease, and apply them to the breast as hot as the patient can endure; it will presently take away the anguish, and if the breast will break, it will break it, else it will cure it without breaking.
41.An inward medicine for a sore Breast
Let her drink either the juice or decoction of Vervain: it were fit that syrup were made of it to keep all the year.
OF THE STOMACH, AND ITS INFIRMITIES
42.A caution
Infirmities of the stomach usually proceed from surfeiting.
43. Another
Let such as have weak stomachs, avoid all sweet things, as honey, sugar, and the like; milk, cheese and all fat meats: let him not eat till he is hungry, nor drink before he is dry; let him avoid anger, sadness, much travel, and all fryed meats: let him not vomit by any means, nor eat when he is hot.
44. For moisture of the Stomach
Take a drachm of Galanga, in powder, every morning in a draught of that Wine you like best.
45. For heat of the Stomach
Swallow four or five grains of Mastich every night going to bed.
OF THE LIVER, AND ITS INFIRMITIES
46. A caution
If the liver be too hot, it usually proceeds from too much blood, and is known by redness of urine, the pulse is swift, the veins great and full, the spittle, mouth, and tongue, seem sweeter than they used to be: the cure is letting blood in the right arm.
47.To cause the Liver well to digest
Take Oil of Wormwood, and so much Mastich in powder as will make it into a poultice, lay it warm to your right side.
48.A caution
If the liver be stopped, the face will swell, and you shall be as sure to have a pain in your right side, as though you had it there already.
49.For stoppage of the Liver
Use Garden-thyme in all your drinks and broaths, it will prevent stoppages before they come, and cure them after they are come.
50. For the liver
The liver of a Hare dryed, and beaten into powder, cures all the diseases of the liver of man.

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